William Henry Hudson

William Henry Hudson (4 August 1841 – 18 August 1922) was an author, naturalist, and ornithologist.

William Henry Hudson
William Henry Hudson
William Henry Hudson
Born4 August 1841
Died18 August 1922 (aged 81)
ResidenceLondon and Penzance
NationalityEnglish Argentine
Known forGreen Mansions (novel)
Scientific career
FieldsNatural history

Life and work

Hudson was born in Quilmes, near Buenos Aires, Argentina.[a] He was the son of Daniel Hudson and his wife Catherine née Kemble, United States settlers of English and Irish origin. He spent his youth studying the local flora and fauna and observing both natural and human dramas on what was then a lawless frontier, publishing his ornithological work in Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society, initially in an English mingled with Spanish idioms. He had a special love of Patagonia.

Hudson settled in England during 1874, taking up residence at St Luke's Road in Bayswater.[1] He produced a series of ornithological studies, including Argentine Ornithology (1888–1899) and British Birds (1895), and later achieved fame with his books on the English countryside, including Hampshire Days (1903), Afoot in England (1909) and A Shepherd's Life (1910), which helped foster the back-to-nature movement of the 1920s and 1930s. The last-mentioned was set in Wiltshire and inspired James Rebanks' 2015 book The Shepherd's Life about a Lake District farmer.{{p.115:"But even more than Orwell or Hemingway, W.H. Hudson turned me into a book obsessive ..." p.114: "One day, I pulled "A Shepherd's Life by W.H. Hudson from the bookcase ...and the sudden life-changing realization it gave me that we could be in books - great books."}}

Hudson was an advocate of Lamarckian evolution. He was a critic of Darwinism and defended vitalism. He was influenced by the non-Darwinian evolutionary writings of Samuel Butler.[2][3] He was a founding member of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Hudson's best-known novel is Green Mansions (1904), and his best-known non-fiction is Far Away and Long Ago (1918), which was made into a film. Ernest Hemingway referred to Hudson's The Purple Land (1885) in his novel The Sun Also Rises, and to Far Away and Long Ago in his posthumous novel The Garden of Eden (1986).

In Argentina, Hudson is considered to belong to the national literature as Guillermo Enrique Hudson, the Spanish version of his name. A town in Berazategui Partido and several other public places and institutions are named after him.

In 1876 he married Emily Wingrave in London. Hudson was a friend of the late nineteenth century English author George Gissing, whom he met in 1889. They corresponded up until the latter's death in 1903, occasionally exchanging their publications, discussing literary and scientific matters and commenting on their respective access to books and newspapers, a matter of supreme importance to Gissing.[4] Towards the end of his life, Hudson moved to Worthing in Sussex, England. His grave is in Broadwater and Worthing Cemetery in Worthing.

The town of Hudson in Buenos Aires Province is named for him.


  • The Purple Land that England Lost: Travels and Adventures in the Banda Oriental, South America (1885)
  • A Crystal Age (1887)
  • Argentine Ornithology (1888)
  • Fan–The Story of a Young Girl's Life (1892), as Henry Harford
  • The Naturalist in la Plata (1892)
  • Idle Days in Patagonia (1893)
  • Birds in a Village (1893)[5]
  • Lost British Birds (1894), pamphlet
  • British Birds (1895), with a chapter by Frank Evers Beddard
  • Osprey; or, Egrets and Aigrettes (1896)
  • Birds in London (1898)
  • Nature in Downland (1900)
  • Birds and Man (1901)
  • El Ombú (1902),[6] stories; later South American Sketches
  • Hampshire Days (1903)
  • Green Mansions: A Romance of the Tropical Forest (1904)
  • A Little Boy Lost (1905)
  • Land's End. A Naturalist's Impressions in West Cornwall (1908)
  • Afoot in England (1909)
  • A Shepherd's Life: Impressions of the South Wiltshire Downs (1910)
  • Adventures Among Birds (1913)[7]
  • Tales of the Pampas (1916)
  • Far Away and Long Ago - A History of My Early Life (1918; new edition by Eland, 2005)
  • The Book of a Naturalist (1919)
  • Birds in Town and Village (1919)
  • Birds of La Plata (1920) two volumes
  • Dead Man's Plack and An Old Thorn (1920) - see Dead Man's Plack
  • A Traveller in Little Things (1921)
  • Tired Traveller (1921), essay
  • Seagulls In London. Why They Took To Coming To Town (1922), essay
  • Hind in Richmond Park (1922)
  • The Collected Works (1922–23), 24 volumes
  • 153 Letters from W.H. Hudson (1923), edited by Edward Garnett
  • Rare Vanishing & Lost British Birds (1923)
  • Ralph Herne (1923)
  • Men, Books and Birds (1925)
  • The Disappointed Squirrel (1925) from The Book of a Naturalist
  • Mary's Little Lamb (1929)
  • South American Romances (1930) The Purple Land; Green Mansions; El Ombú
  • W.H. Hudson's Letters to R. B. Cunninghame Graham (Golden Cockerel Press 1941; about R. B. Cunninghame Graham)
  • Tales of the Gauchos (1946)
  • Letters on the Ornithology of Buenos Ayres (1951), edited by David W. Dewar
  • Diary Concerning his Voyage from Buenos Aires to Southampton on the Ebro (1958)
  • Gauchos of the Pampas and Their Horses (1963), stories, with R.B. Cunninghame Graham
  • English Birds and Green Places: Selected Writings (1964) ISBN 0-575-07207-5
  • Birds of A Feather: Unpublished Letters of W.H. Hudson (1981), edited by D. Shrubsall
  • Landscapes and Literati: Unpublished letters of W.H. Hudson and George Gissing (1985), edited by Dennis Shrubsall and Pierre Coustillas


  • G. F. Wilson (1922, 1968) Bibliography of the Writings of W.H. Hudson
  • John R. Payne (1977) W.H. Hudson. a Bibliography


  • Morley Roberts (1924) W.H. Hudson
  • Ford Madox Ford (1937) Portraits from Life
  • Robert Hamilton (1946) W.H. Hudson:The Vision of Earth
  • Richard E. Haymaker (1954). From Pampas to Hedgerows and Downs: A Study of W. H. Hudson
  • John T. Frederick (1972) William Henry Hudson
  • D. Shrubsall (1978) W.H. Hudson, Writer and Naturalist
  • Ruth Tomalin (1982) W.H. Hudson – a biography
  • Amy D. Ronner (1986) W.H. Hudson: The Man, The Novelist, The Naturalist
  • David Miller (1990) W.H. Hudson and the Elusive Paradise
  • Felipe Arocena (2003) William Henry Hudson: Life, Literature and Science
  • Jason Wilson: Living in the sound of the wind, [A Personal Quest For W. H. Hudson, Naturalist And Writer From The River Plate], London : Constable, 2016 ISBN 978-1-4721-2205-6


  1. ^ His birthplace was in a rural area now known as Ingeniero Juan Allan in the borough of Quilmes, now part of the borough of Florencio Varela in greater Buenos Aires.


  1. ^ The Post Victorians:W H Hudson by H J Massingham, p261
  2. ^ Haymaker, Richard E. (1954). From Pampas to Hedgerows and Downs: A Study of W. H. Hudson. Bookman Associates. p. 197
  3. ^ Miller, David. (1990). W. H. Hudson and the Elusive Paradise. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 78-82. ISBN 978-0-312-03698-0
  4. ^ Shrubsall, Dennis and Pierre Coustillas eds. Landscape and literati: unpublished letters of W.H.Hidson and George Gissing. Salisbury: Michael Russell, 1985. Also various references in Coustillas, Pierre ed.London and the Life of Literature in Late Victorian England: the Diary of George Gissing. Brighton: Harvester Press, 1978.
  5. ^ Watkins, M. G. (26 August 1893). "Review of Birds in a Village by W. H. Hudson". The Academy. 44 (1112): 174–175.
  6. ^ "Review of El Ombú by W. H. Hudson". Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art. 93 (2432): 376. 7 June 1902.
  7. ^ "Review of Adventures among Birds by W. H. Hudson". The Athenaeum (No. 4467): 626. 7 June 1913.

External links

Adair County Courthouse (Columbia, Kentucky)

The Adair County Courthouse in Columbia, Kentucky, a courthouse at 500 Public Sq., was built in 1885. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.It was designed by McDonald Brothers. It was built by William Henry Hudson, "who was so proud of

his work that he had his portrait carved in a capital on the porch."It has a four-sided clock tower. It was deemed " one of the best preserved of major late 19th-century Kentucky courthouses."

Americans in Argentina

There is a community of Americans living in Argentina consisting of immigrants and expatriates from the United States as well as their local born descendants. There are roughly about 60,000 Americans living in the country, and 26,000 of them live in the capital city, Buenos Aires.

Bohunt School

Bohunt School is a secondary school with academy status located in the rural village of Liphook, Hampshire. It is co-educational and takes children from age 11-16 and currently has over 1800 pupils enrolled. The school was opened in 1978.

Boyhood's End

Boyhood's End is a cantata for tenor and piano composed by Michael Tippett in 1943, based on text by William Henry Hudson. Tippett wrote the piece for Peter Pears and Benjamin Britten, whose talent had impressed him during a rehearsal for My Beloved Spake. Pears and Britten performed Boyhood's End in June 1943 at Morley College; it was given its premiere, perhaps by someone else, on May 24 of that year.

Far Away and Long Ago

Far Away and Long Ago (Spanish: Allá lejos y hace tiempo) is a 1978 Argentine film based on the memoir of the same title by William Henry Hudson.

Green Mansions

Green Mansions: A Romance of the Tropical Forest (1904) is an exotic romance by William Henry Hudson about a traveller to the Guyana jungle of southeastern Venezuela and his encounter with a forest dwelling girl named Rima.

Green Mansions (film)

Green Mansions is a 1959 American romantic adventure film directed by Mel Ferrer. It is based upon the 1904 novel Green Mansions by William Henry Hudson, the film starred Audrey Hepburn (who at the time was married to Ferrer) as Rima, a jungle girl who falls in love with a Venezuelan traveller played by Anthony Perkins. Also appearing in the film were Lee J. Cobb, Sessue Hayakawa and Henry Silva. The score was by Heitor Villa-Lobos and Bronislau Kaper.

The film was intended to be the first of several projects directed by Ferrer and starring his wife, but ultimately this was the only one released. It was one of the few critical and box office failures of Hepburn's career. Vincente Minnelli had originally been slated to direct the film, but delays in the project led Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to choose Ferrer to direct. This film was produced in CinemaScope.

Hudson's black tyrant

Hudson's black tyrant (Knipolegus hudsoni) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is named after Argentine-British ornithologist William Henry Hudson.

It breeds in central Argentina and winters northwards, reaching Bolivia and Paraguay.

Hudson's canastero

Hudson's canastero (Asthenes hudsoni) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family.

It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

Its natural habitat is temperate grassland. It is named after Argentine-British ornithologist William Henry Hudson.

Hudson, Buenos Aires

Guillermo Enrique Hudson is a semi-rural town in Berazategui Partido (department) of Buenos Aires province, Argentina.The town is named after writer William Henry Hudson using the Spanish translation of his name.

It has road and rail links to both Buenos Aires and La Plata. The Hudson segment of the toll road linking both cities gained notoriety in 2000 when a car accident next to a toll booth killed singer Rodrigo.

Sheena, Queen of the Jungle

Sheena, Queen of the Jungle is a fictional American comic book jungle girl heroine, originally published primarily by Fiction House. She was the first female comic book character with her own title, with her 1937 (in Great Britain; 1938 in the United States) premiere preceding Wonder Woman #1 (cover-dated Dec. 1941). Sheena inspired a wealth of similar comic book jungle queens. She was predated in literature by Rima, the Jungle Girl, introduced in the 1904 William Henry Hudson novel Green Mansions.

An orphan who grew up in the jungle, learning how to survive and thrive there, she possesses the ability to communicate with wild animals and is proficient in fighting with knives, spears, bows, and makeshift weapons. Her adventures mostly involve encounters with slave traders, white hunters, native Africans, and wild animals.

The Purple Land

The Purple Land is a novel set in 19th century Uruguay by William Henry Hudson, first published in 1885 under the title The Purple Land that England Lost. Initially a commercial and critical failure, it was reissued in 1904 with the full title The Purple Land, Being One Richard Lamb's Adventures in the Banda Orientál, in South America, as told by Himself. Towards the end of the novel, the narrator explains the title, "I will call my book The Purple Land. For what more suitable name can one find for a country so stained with the blood of her children?"

USS Eagle (1898)

The fifth USS Eagle served in the United States Navy from 1898–1919, and saw action in the Spanish–American War and service during World War I.

Eagle, a yacht, was built in 1890 as Almy by Harlan and Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Delaware; purchased by the Navy on 2 April 1898 and renamed Eagle; and commissioned three days later, Lieutenant William Henry Hudson Southerland in command.

USS Southerland (DD-743)

USS Southerland (DD-743), a Gearing-class destroyer, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for William Henry Hudson Southerland, an admiral.

Southerland was laid down on 27 May 1944 by the Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine and launched on 5 October 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Edmund Richardson, daughter of Rear Admiral Southerland. The destroyer was commissioned on 22 December 1944, Commander Russell C. Williams in command.

United States occupation of Nicaragua

The United States occupation of Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933 was part of the Banana Wars, when the US military intervened in various Latin American countries from 1898 to 1934. The formal occupation began in 1912, even though there were various other assaults by the U.S. in Nicaragua throughout this period. American military interventions in Nicaragua were designed to stop any other nation except the United States of America from building a Nicaraguan Canal.

Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Bryan–Chamorro Treaty. President Herbert Hoover (1929–1933) opposed the relationship. Finally in 1933 President Franklin D Roosevelt, invoking his new Good Neighbor policy ended American intervention.

William Henry Hudson Southerland

William Henry Hudson Southerland (July 10, 1852 – January 30, 1933) was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. He commanded several ships in Cuban waters during the Spanish–American War, and later served as Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet.

William Hudson

William Hudson may refer to:

William Hudson (botanist) (1730–1793), British botanist

William Hudson (engineer) (1896–1978), New Zealand-born head of Snowy Mountains Scheme in Australia

William Hudson (barrister) (died 1635), Treatise of the Court of Star Chamber printed, 1792

William L. Hudson (1794–1862), United States Navy officer

William Henry Hudson (1841–1922), Anglo-Argentine writer and naturalist

William Hudson (actor) (1925–1974), American actor

William Hudson (locomotive builder), 19th century American locomotive builder

William Wilson Hudson, President of the University of Missouri

Bill Hudson (rugby league), rugby league footballer of the 1940s and 1950s for Great Britain, Yorkshire, England, Batley, Wigan, and Wakefield Trinity

William Hudson (Philadelphia), Mayor of Philadelphia

Private Hudson, a character in the 1986 film Aliens, played by Bill Paxton

Youth and the Bright Medusa

Youth and the Bright Medusa is a collection of short stories by Willa Cather, published in 1920. Several were published in an earlier collection, The Troll Garden.

Æthelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia

Æthelwald (died 962) was ealdorman of East Anglia. He is mentioned in Byrhtferth's life of Oswald of Worcester along with other members of his family.

He was probably the oldest son of Æthelstan Half-King and succeeded to some of his father's offices in 956 when Æthelstan became a monk at Glastonbury Abbey. He was a benefactor of Ramsey Abbey and a supporter of the Benedictine reform movement which began in the reign of King Edgar.

He was the first husband of Ælfthryth who married King Edgar after Æthelwald's death. William of Malmesbury's Gesta regum anglorum has a late account of Æthelwald's marriage and death. According to William, the beauty of Ordgar's daughter Ælfthryth was reported to King Edgar. Edgar, looking for a Queen, sent Æthelwald to see Ælfthryth, ordering him "to offer her marriage [to Edgar] if her beauty were really equal to report." When she turned out to be just as beautiful as was said, Æthelwald married her himself and reported back to Edgar that she was quite unsuitable. Edgar was eventually told of this deception, and decided to repay Æthelwald's betrayal in like manner. He said that he would visit the poor woman, which alarmed Æthelwald. He asked Ælfthryth to make herself as unattractive as possible for the king's visit, but she did the opposite. Edgar, quite besotted with her, killed Æthelwald during a hunt.

Edward Augustus Freeman debunks the Æthelwald murder story as a "tissue of romance" in his Historic essays, but his arguments were in turn refuted by the naturalist William Henry Hudson in his 1920 book Dead Man's Plack and an Old Thorn.Æthelwald was seemingly dead by 962 as he ceases to witness charters at that time. He was buried at Ramsey Abbey. His younger brother Æthelwine succeeded to his offices.

A memorial to Æthelwald, known as the Dead Man's Plack, was erected in Longparish, Hampshire in 1825.

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