William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (28 June 1582 – 14 April 1662) was an English nobleman and politician, known also for his involvement in several companies for setting up overseas colonies.
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele
Engraving of Lord Saye by Wenceslas Hollar, mid-seventeenth century.
|Born||28 June 1582|
|Died||14 April 1662|
|Burial place||Broughton, Oxfordshire|
|Parent(s)||Richard Fiennes, 7th Baron Saye and Sele, Constance Kingsmill|
He was born at the family home of Broughton Castle near Banbury, in Oxfordshire, the only son of Richard Fiennes, 7th Baron Saye and Sele, and his wife Constance, daughter of Sir William Kingsmill. He was educated at New College, Oxford. He was a descendant and heir of the sister of William of Wykeham, the college's founder. Fiennes succeeded to his father's barony in 1613.
During the latter part of James I's reign Saye was one of the most prominent opponents of the court. In 1621 he was active against Francis Bacon, and urged that he should be degraded from the peerage. In 1622 he opposed the benevolence levied by the king, saying that he knew no law besides parliament to persuade men to give away their own goods; he spent six months in the Fleet Prison, and then had a period of house arrest. When George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham returned from Spain and proposed to break the Spanish match, the duke and baron became temporary allies; and Saye became Viscount Saye and Sele in 1624. He pressed home the attack on Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex.
In the parliament of 1626 Saye was back in opposition; he defended the privileges of the peerage against the new king Charles I in the cases of John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol and Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, and intervened on behalf of Dudley Digges when Buckingham accused him of speaking treason. In the autumn of the same year he was among those who refused to pay the forced loan. In the parliament of 1628, he employed with success the right of peers to protest. In the debates on the Petition of Right he opposed the reservations and amendments of the court party.
In 1630 he established, in conjunction with Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke, John Pym, and others from the group of Puritan entrepreneurs, a company for the settlement of the Providence Island colony on what is now Isla de Providencia in the Caribbean Sea, part of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, a department of Colombia.
Saye obtained a patent for a large tract of land on the Connecticut River on 19 March 1632 from Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick and the New England Company, in association again with Lord Brooke and ten others. They appointed John Winthrop the younger to act as governor and established a fort at the mouth of the river, to which they gave the name of "Sayebrook;" they then sent over a shipload of colonists. In 1633, Saye and Brooke also purchased a plantation at Cocheco or Dover, in what is now New Hampshire, from some Bristol merchants. They both contemplated settling in New England, but they demanded the establishment of an emigrant hereditary aristocracy as a preliminary, from which the governors were to be chosen. After a hostile reception to Saye's constitutional ideas, the partners in the colony compromised to obtain colonists.
Saye concentrated his energies on the settlement of Providence Island, while spreading disparaging reports about New England, including its climate and land. He soon abandoned his enterprises there and surrendered his rights. The New Hampshire settlements were made over to Massachusetts in 1641, and Sayebrook was sold to Connecticut three years later.
Saye was one of the commissioners for the government from Westminster of the plantations appointed on 2 November 1643.
Old Saybrook, Connecticut is named after Viscount Saye and Lord Brooke.
Leading puritans, including John Pym, who were members of the Providence Island Company met Saye at Broughton Castle to coordinate their opposition to the King. On several occasions Saye outwitted the advisers of Charles I by his strict compliance with legal forms earning him the nickname "old subtlety".
Although Saye resisted the levy of ship money, he accompanied Charles on his march against the Scots in 1639; but, with only one other peer, he refused to take the oath binding him to fight for the king "to the utmost of my power and hazard of my life". Then Charles I sought to win his favour by making him a Privy Councillor and Master of the Court of Wards.
When the Civil War broke out, however, Saye was on the committee of safety, was made Lord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Cheshire, and raised a regiment that occupied Oxford. He was a member of the committee of both kingdoms; was mainly responsible for passing the self-denying ordinance through the House of Lords; and in 1647 stood up for the army in its struggle with the parliament.
In 1648, both at the treaty of Newport and elsewhere, Saye was anxious that Charles should come to terms, and he retired into private life after the execution of the king, becoming a privy counsellor again upon the restoration of Charles II. He died at Broughton Castle on 14 April 1662.
Fiennes married Elizabeth, daughter of John Temple of Stowe, in 1600. Their eldest son James (c. 1603–1674) succeeded him as 2nd viscount; other sons were the Parliamentarians Nathaniel Fiennes and John Fiennes. His daughter Bridget married her remote cousin Theophilus Clinton Fiennes, 4th Earl of Lincoln, son of the 3rd Earl of Lincoln.
|Peerage of England|
|New creation|| Viscount Saye and Sele
| Baron Saye and Sele
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Edmund Brydges, 2nd Baron Chandos 1559–?
Giles Brydges, 3rd Baron Chandos 17 November 1586 – 1 February 1594
William Brydges, 4th Baron Chandos 9 September 1595 – 18 November 1602
Henry Berkeley, 7th Baron Berkeley 13 August 1603 – 20 November 1613
Grey Brydges, 5th Baron Chandos 23 December 1613 – 10 August 1621
William Compton, 1st Earl of Northampton 16 March 1622 – 24 June 1630
Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton 17 July 1630 – 1642 jointly with
George Brydges, 6th Baron Chandos 3 August 1641 – 1642
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele 1642 (Parliamentary)
The Duke of Beaufort 30 July 1660 – 1689
The Earl of Macclesfield 22 March 1689 – 7 January 1694
The Earl of Berkeley 25 May 1694 – 24 September 1710
The Earl of Berkeley 30 November 1710 – 1712
The Duke of Beaufort 6 March 1712 – 24 May 1714
The Earl of Berkeley 21 October 1714 – 17 August 1736
The Earl of Berkeley 21 April 1737 – 9 January 1755
The Lord Ducie 19 February 1755 – 1758
The Lord Chedworth 13 November 1758 – 9 May 1762
The Lord Botetourt 4 June 1762 – 1766
The Earl of Berkeley 5 July 1766 – 8 August 1810
The Duke of Beaufort 15 September 1810 – 2 December 1835
The Lord Segrave 18 December 1835 – 10 October 1857 (created Earl FitzHardinge in 1841)
The Earl of Ducie 13 November 1857 – 1911†
The Earl Beauchamp 17 July 1911 – 1931†
The Duke of Beaufort 6 November 1931 – 5 February 1984†
Martin Gibbs 1984–1992
Sir Henry Elwes 17 February 1992 – 24 October 2010
Dame Janet Trotter 25 October 2010 - 29 October 2018
Edward Gillespie 29 October 2018 -
† Lord Lieutenant of the County of Gloucester, and of the City and County of the City of Gloucester, and of the City and County of the City of Bristol.Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire
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Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk 1545
Sir Francis Knollys in 1565
Henry Norris, 1st Baron Norreys 17 September 1586 – 27 June 1601 jointly with
Sir Francis Knollys 12 September 1586 – 19 July 1596 and
William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury 4 November 1596 – 25 May 1632 jointly with
Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire 26 March 1628 – 1642
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Henry Cary, 4th Viscount Falkland 17 July 1660 – 2 April 1663
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon 19 June 1663 – 11 March 1668
James Fiennes, 2nd Viscount Saye and Sele 11 March 1668 – 15 March 1674
James Bertie, 1st Earl of Abingdon 1 April 1674 – 21 November 1687
Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield 5 December 1687 – 3 May 1689
James Bertie, 1st Earl of Abingdon 3 May 1689 – 15 May 1697
Thomas Wharton, 1st Marquess of Wharton 15 May 1697 – 11 June 1702
Montagu Venables-Bertie, 2nd Earl of Abingdon 11 June 1702 – 8 February 1706
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 8 February 1706 – 17 May 1712
Montagu Venables-Bertie, 2nd Earl of Abingdon 17 May 1712 – 14 October 1715
Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin 14 October 1715 – 26 January 1739
Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough 26 January 1739 – 20 October 1758
George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough 21 March 1760 – 29 January 1817
George Parker, 4th Earl of Macclesfield 10 May 1817 – 20 March 1842
George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough 22 April 1842 – 1 July 1857
John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough 25 August 1857 – 4 July 1883
Sir Henry Dashwood, 5th Baronet 17 August 1883 – 23 June 1887
Victor Child Villiers, 7th Earl of Jersey 23 June 1887 – 31 May 1915
Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough 3 August 1915 – 30 June 1934
Vivian Smith, 1st Baron Bicester 15 August 1934 – 26 November 1954
George Parker, 7th Earl of Macclesfield 26 November 1954 – 28 May 1963
Sir John Thomson 28 May 1963 – 2 January 1980
Sir Ashley Charles Gibbs Ponsonby, 2nd Baronet 2 January 1980 – 20 March 1996
Sir Hugo Laurence Joseph Brunner 20 March 1996 – 31 August 2008
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Parliament appointed fifteen Commissioners: Denzil Holles led a faction that represented a more conservative, Presbyterian interest, and were more inclined for a settlement that favoured the Crown; Henry Vane the Younger lead a faction that represented a more moderate, Independent interest, and though they were by no means radical, they acted to secure a settlement which would guarantee the rights gained by Parliament in the Puritan Revolution. It was the influence of the Presbyterians that led to the Parliamentary decision to rescind the Vote of No Addresses from earlier in 1648 in order to allow the talks to occur.Other commissioners included: John Glynne; Nathaniel Fiennes; William Pierrepont; John Crewe; John Potts; Samuel Browne; John Bulkeley; Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke; William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury; James Cranfield, 2nd Earl of Middlesex; Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland; William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele; and Thomas Wenman, 2nd Viscount Wenman.
Presbyterian and Middle Group MPs were prepared to continue negotiating with Charles in order to reach a permanent settlement. However, Army radicals had lost patience with him and grew angry when Parliament appeared willing to allow him to come to London to complete the settlement and Vane and Henry Ireton decided to return Charles to Hurst Castle on the mainland.
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Viscount Saye and Sele was a title in the Peerage of England. It was created on 7 July 1624 for William Fiennes, 8th Baron Saye and Sele and became extinct on the death of Richard Fiennes 6th Viscount on 29 July 1781.William Fiennes
William Fiennes may refer to:
William Fiennes (author) (born 1970)
William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (1582–1662)
William Fiennes, 3rd Viscount Saye and Sele (c. 1641 – 1698)
|Ancestors of William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele|