William Faulkner

William Cuthbert Faulkner (/ˈfɔːknər/;[1][2] September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, screenplays, poetry, essays, and a play. He is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life.[3]

Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally and Southern literature specifically. Though his work was published as early as 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was not widely known until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature, for which he became the only Mississippi-born Nobel winner. Two of his works, A Fable (1954) and his last novel The Reivers (1962), won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.[4] In 1998, the Modern Library ranked his 1929 novel The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932). Absalom, Absalom! (1936) appears on similar lists.

William Faulkner
Faulkner in 1954 photographed by Carl Van Vechten
Faulkner in 1954
photographed by Carl Van Vechten
BornWilliam Cuthbert Falkner
September 25, 1897
New Albany, Mississippi, U.S.
DiedJuly 6, 1962 (aged 64)
Byhalia, Mississippi, U.S.
LanguageEnglish
NationalityAmerican
Period1919–1962
Notable worksThe Sound and the Fury
As I Lay Dying
Light in August
Absalom, Absalom!
"A Rose for Emily"
Notable awards
Spouse
Estelle Oldham (m. 1929)

Signature
Faulkner signature

Life and career

Born William Cuthbert Falkner in New Albany, Mississippi, William Faulkner was the first of four sons of Murry Cuthbert Falkner (August 17, 1870 – August 7, 1932) and Maud Butler (November 27, 1871 – October 16, 1960).[5] He had three younger brothers: Murry Charles "Jack" Falkner (June 26, 1899 – December 24, 1975), author John Faulkner (September 24, 1901 – March 28, 1963), and Dean Swift Falkner (August 15, 1907 – November 10, 1935).

Soon after his first birthday, his family moved to Ripley, Mississippi, where his father Murry worked as the treasurer for the family-owned Gulf & Chicago Railroad Company. Murry hoped to inherit the railroad from his father, John Wesley Thompson Falkner, but John had little confidence in Murry's ability to run a business and sold it for $75,000. Following the sale of the railroad business, Murry proposed a plan to get a new start for his family by moving to Texas and becoming a rancher. Maud disagreed with this proposition, however, and they moved instead to Oxford, Mississippi, where Murry's father owned several businesses, making it easy for Murry to find work.[6] Thus, four days prior to William's fifth birthday, the Falkner family settled in Oxford, where he lived on and off for the rest of his life.[5][7]

His family, particularly his mother Maud, his maternal grandmother Lelia Butler, and Caroline "Callie" Barr (the African American nanny who raised him from infancy) crucially influenced the development of Faulkner's artistic imagination. Both his mother and grandmother were avid readers as well as painters and photographers, educating him in visual language. While Murry enjoyed the outdoors and encouraged his sons to hunt, track, and fish, Maud valued education and took pleasure in reading and going to church. She taught her sons to read before sending them to public school and exposed them to classics such as Charles Dickens and Grimms' Fairy Tales.[6]

Faulkner's lifelong education by Callie Barr is central to his novels' preoccupations with the politics of sexuality and race.[8]

As a schoolchild, Faulkner had success early on. He excelled in the first grade, skipped the second, and did well through the third and fourth grades. However, beginning somewhere in the fourth and fifth grades of his schooling, Faulkner became a much quieter and more withdrawn child. He began to play hooky occasionally and became somewhat indifferent to his schoolwork, instead taking interest in studying the history of Mississippi on his own time beginning in the seventh grade. The decline of his performance in school continued, and Faulkner wound up repeating the eleventh and twelfth grade, never graduating from high school.[6]

Faulkner spent his boyhood listening to stories told to him by his elders including those of the Civil War, slavery, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Falkner family. Faulkner's grandfather would also tell him of the exploits of William's great-grandfather and namesake, William Clark Falkner, who was a successful businessman, writer, and Civil War hero. Telling stories about "Old Colonel", as his family called him, had already become something of a family pastime when Faulkner was a boy.[6] According to one of Faulkner's biographers, by the time William was born, his great-grandfather had "been enshrined long since as a household deity."[9]

When he was 17, Faulkner met Philip Stone, who became an important early influence on his writing. Stone was four years his senior and came from one of Oxford's older families; he was passionate about literature and had already earned bachelor's degrees from Yale and the University of Mississippi. Faulkner also attended the latter, joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, and pursued his dream to become a writer. Stone read and was impressed by some of Faulkner's early poetry, becoming one of the first to recognize and encourage Faulkner's talent. Stone mentored the young Faulkner, introducing him to the works of writers such as James Joyce, who influenced Faulkner's own writing. In his early 20s, Faulkner gave poems and short stories he had written to Stone in hopes of their being published. Stone would in turn send these to publishers, but they were uniformly rejected.[10]

William Faulkner in Toronto, Canada (1918)
Cadet Faulkner in Toronto, 1918

The younger Faulkner was greatly influenced by the history of his family and the region in which he lived. Mississippi marked his sense of humor, his sense of the tragic position of "black and white" Americans, his characterization of Southern characters, and his timeless themes, including fiercely intelligent people dwelling behind the façades of good ol' boys and simpletons. Unable to join the United States Army due to his height (he was 5' 5½"), Faulkner enlisted in a reservist unit of the British Army in Toronto.[11] Despite his claims, records indicate that Faulkner was never actually a member of the British Royal Flying Corps and never saw service during the First World War.[12]

In 1918, Faulkner's surname went from "Falkner" to Faulkner. According to one story, a careless typesetter simply made an error. When the misprint appeared on the title page of his first book, Faulkner was asked whether he wanted the change. He supposedly replied, "Either way suits me."[13]

In adolescence, Faulkner began writing poetry almost exclusively. He did not write his first novel until 1925. His literary influences are deep and wide. He once stated that he modeled his early writing on the Romantic era in late 18th- and early 19th-century England.[5] He attended the University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss") in Oxford, enrolling in 1919, going three semesters before dropping out in November 1920.[14]

William was able to attend classes at the university because his father had a job there as a business manager. He skipped classes often and received a "D" grade in English. However, some of his poems were published in campus publications.[10][15]

Although Faulkner is identified with Mississippi, he was residing in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1925 when he wrote his first novel, Soldiers' Pay.[5] After being directly influenced by Sherwood Anderson, he made his first attempt at fiction writing. Anderson assisted in the publication of Soldiers' Pay and Mosquitoes, Faulkner's second novel, set in New Orleans, by recommending them to his publisher.[16]

New Orleans, Louisiana views 01
Plaque in Pirate's Alley

The miniature house at 624 Pirate's Alley, just around the corner from St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, is now the site of Faulkner House Books, where it also serves as the headquarters of the Pirate's Alley Faulkner Society.[17]

During the summer of 1927, Faulkner wrote his first novel set in his fictional Yoknapatawpha County, titled Flags in the Dust. This novel drew heavily on the traditions and history of the South, in which Faulkner had been engrossed in his youth. He was extremely proud of the novel upon its completion and he believed it to be a significant step up from his previous two novels. However, when submitted for publication, it was rejected by the publishers Boni & Liveright. Faulkner was devastated by this rejection, but he eventually allowed his literary agent, Ben Wasson, to significantly edit the text, and the novel was published in 1929 as Sartoris.[15][16] (The original version was issued as Flags in the Dust in 1973.)

In the autumn of 1928, just after his 31st birthday, he began working on The Sound and the Fury. He started by writing three short stories about a group of children with the last name Compson, but soon began to feel that the characters he had created might be better suited for a full-length novel. Perhaps as a result of disappointment in the initial rejection of Flags in the Dust, Faulkner had now become indifferent to his publishers and wrote this novel in a much more experimental style. In describing the writing process for this work, Faulkner would later say, "One day I seemed to shut the door between me and all publisher's addresses and book lists. I said to myself, 'Now I can write.'"[18] After its completion, Faulkner insisted that Ben Wasson not do any editing or add any punctuation for clarity.[15]

In 1929, Faulkner married Estelle Oldham, Andrew Kuhn serving as best man at the wedding. Estelle brought with her two children from her previous marriage to Cornell Franklin and Faulkner hoped to support his new family as a writer. He began writing As I Lay Dying in 1929 while working night shifts at the University of Mississippi Power House. The novel would be published in 1930.[19] Beginning in 1930, Faulkner sent out some of his short stories to various national magazines. Several of his stories were published, which brought him enough income to buy a house in Oxford for his family to inhabit, which he named Rowan Oak.[20] He made money on his 1931 novel, Sanctuary, which was widely reviewed and read (but widely disliked for its perceived criticism of the South).

By 1932, Faulkner was in need of money. He asked Wasson to sell the serialization rights for his newly completed novel, Light in August, to a magazine for $5,000, but none accepted the offer. Then MGM Studios offered Faulkner work as a screenwriter in Hollywood. Although not an avid moviegoer, he needed the money, and so accepted the job offer and arrived in Culver City, California, in May 1932. There he worked with director Howard Hawks, with whom he quickly developed a friendship, as they both enjoyed drinking and hunting. Howard Hawks' brother, William Hawks, became Faulkner's Hollywood agent. Faulkner would continue to find reliable work as a screenwriter from the 1930s to the 1950s.[16][20]

Faulkner served as Writer-in-Residence at the University of Virginia at Charlottesville from February to June 1957 and again in 1958.[21]

TheFaulknerPortable
William Faulkner's Underwood Universal Portable typewriter in his office at Rowan Oak, which is now maintained by the University of Mississippi in Oxford as a museum

Personal life

As a teenager in Oxford, Faulkner dated Estelle Oldham (1897–1972), the popular daughter of Major Lemuel and Lida Oldham, and believed he would some day marry her.[22] However, Estelle dated other boys during their romance, and in 1918 one of them, Cornell Franklin, proposed marriage to her before Faulkner did. Estelle's parents insisted she marry Cornell, as he was an Ole Miss law graduate, had recently been commissioned as a major in the Hawaiian Territorial Forces, and came from a respectable family with whom they were old friends.[23] Estelle's marriage to Franklin fell apart ten years later, and they divorced in April 1929.[24]

Two months later, Faulkner and Estelle wed in June 1929 at College Hill Presbyterian Church just outside Oxford, Mississippi.[25] They honeymooned on the Mississippi Gulf Coast at Pascagoula, then returned to Oxford, first living with relatives while they searched for a home of their own to purchase. In 1930, Faulkner purchased the antebellum home Rowan Oak, known at that time as The Shegog Place from Irish planter Robert Shegog.[26] After his death, Estelle and their daughter, Jill, lived at Rowan Oak until Estelle's death in 1972. The property was sold to the University of Mississippi that same year. The house and furnishings are maintained much as they were in Faulkner's day. Faulkner's scribblings are preserved on the wall, including the day-by-day outline covering a week he wrote on the walls of his small study to help him keep track of the plot twists in his novel, A Fable.[27]

The quality and quantity of Faulkner's literary output were achieved despite a lifelong drinking problem. He rarely drank while writing, preferring instead to binge after a project's completion.[28]

Faulkner had several extramarital affairs. One was with Howard Hawks's secretary and script girl, Meta Carpenter,[29] later known as Meta Wilde.[30] The affair was chronicled in her book A Loving Gentleman.[30] Another, from 1949–53, was with a young writer, Joan Williams, who made her relationship with Faulkner the subject of her 1971 novel, The Wintering.[31]

When Faulkner visited Stockholm in December 1950 to receive the Nobel Prize, he met Else Jonsson (1912–1996), widow of journalist Thorsten Jonsson (1910–1950), reporter for Dagens Nyheter in New York from 1943–46, who had interviewed Faulkner in 1946 and introduced his works to Swedish readers. Faulkner and Else had an affair that lasted until the end of 1953. At the banquet where they met in 1950, publisher Tor Bonnier introduced Else as the widow of the man responsible for Faulkner's winning the prize.[32]

Death

On June 17, 1962, Faulkner suffered a serious injury in a fall from his horse, which led to thrombosis. He suffered a fatal heart attack on July 6, 1962, at the age of 64, at Wright's Sanatorium in Byhalia, Mississippi.[5][7] Faulkner is buried with his family in St. Peter's Cemetery in Oxford, alongside the grave of an unidentified family friend, whose stone is marked only with the initials "E.T."[33]

Writing

From the early 1920s to the outbreak of World War II, Faulkner published 13 novels and many short stories. Such a body of work formed the basis of his reputation and earned him the Nobel Prize at age 52. Faulkner's prodigious output includes his most celebrated novels such as The Sound and the Fury (1929), As I Lay Dying (1930), Light in August (1932), and Absalom, Absalom! (1936). Faulkner was also a prolific writer of short stories.

His first short story collection, These 13 (1931), includes many of his most acclaimed (and most frequently anthologized) stories, including "A Rose for Emily", "Red Leaves", "That Evening Sun", and "Dry September". Faulkner set many of his short stories and novels in Yoknapatawpha County[34] — based on, and nearly geographically identical to, Lafayette County, of which his hometown of Oxford, Mississippi, is the county seat. Yoknapatawpha was Faulkner's "postage stamp", and the bulk of work that it represents is widely considered by critics to amount to one of the most monumental fictional creations in the history of literature. Three of his novels, The Hamlet, The Town and The Mansion, known collectively as the Snopes Trilogy, document the town of Jefferson and its environs, as an extended family headed by Flem Snopes insinuates itself into the lives and psyches of the general populace.[35]

His short story "A Rose for Emily" was his first story published in a major magazine, the Forum, but received little attention from the public. After revisions and reissues, it gained popularity and is now considered one of his best.

Faulkner was known for his experimental style with meticulous attention to diction and cadence. In contrast to the minimalist understatement of his contemporary Ernest Hemingway, Faulkner made frequent use of "stream of consciousness" in his writing, and wrote often highly emotional, subtle, cerebral, complex, and sometimes Gothic or grotesque stories of a wide variety of characters including former slaves or descendants of slaves, poor white, agrarian, or working-class Southerners, and Southern aristocrats.

In an interview with The Paris Review in 1956, Faulkner remarked:

Let the writer take up surgery or bricklaying if he is interested in technique. There is no mechanical way to get the writing done, no shortcut. The young writer would be a fool to follow a theory. Teach yourself by your own mistakes; people learn only by error. The good artist believes that nobody is good enough to give him advice. He has supreme vanity. No matter how much he admires the old writer, he wants to beat him.

Another esteemed Southern writer, Flannery O'Connor, stated that "the presence alone of Faulkner in our midst makes a great difference in what the writer can and cannot permit himself to do. Nobody wants his mule and wagon stalled on the same track the Dixie Limited is roaring down".[36]

Faulkner wrote two volumes of poetry which were published in small printings, The Marble Faun (1924),[37] and A Green Bough (1933), and a collection of mystery stories, Knight's Gambit (1949).

Legacy

Faulkner's work has been examined by many critics from a wide variety of critical perspectives.

The New Critics became very interested in Faulkner's work, with Cleanth Brooks writing The Yoknapatawpha Country and Michael Millgate writing The Achievement of William Faulkner. Since then, critics have looked at Faulkner's work using other approaches, such as feminist and psychoanalytic methods.[16][38] Faulkner's works have been placed within the literary traditions of modernism and the Southern Renaissance.[39]

According to critic and translator Valerie Miles, Faulkner's influence on Latin American fiction is considerable, with fictional worlds created by Gabriel García Márquez (Macondo) and Juan Carlos Onetti (Santa Maria) being "very much in the vein of" Yoknapatawpha: "[ Carlos Fuentes'] The Death of Artemio Cruz wouldn't exist if not for As I Lay Dying".[40]

The works of William Faulkner are a clear influence on the French novelist Claude Simon.

Awards

Faulkner was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize for Literature for "his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel".[41] It was awarded at the following year's banquet along with the 1950 Prize to Bertrand Russell.[42] Faulkner detested the fame and glory that resulted from his recognition. His aversion was so great that his 17-year-old daughter learned of the Nobel Prize only when she was called to the principal's office during the school day.[43]

He donated part of his Nobel money "to establish a fund to support and encourage new fiction writers", eventually resulting in the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction, and donated another part to a local Oxford bank, establishing a scholarship fund to help educate African-American teachers at Rust College in nearby Holly Springs, Mississippi. The government of France made Faulkner a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1951.

Faulkner was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for what are considered "minor" novels: his 1954 novel A Fable, which took the Pulitzer in 1955, and the 1962 novel, The Reivers, which was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer in 1963.[4] (The award for A Fable was a controversial political choice. The jury had selected Milton Lott's The Last Hunt for the prize, but Pulitzer Prize Administrator Professor John Hohenberg convinced the Pulitzer board that Faulkner was long overdue for the award, despite A Fable being a lesser work of his, and the board overrode the jury's selection, much to the disgust of its members.)[44] He also won the U.S. National Book Award twice, for Collected Stories in 1951[45] and A Fable in 1955.[46] In 1946 he was one of three finalists for the first Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine Award and placed second to Rhea Galati.[47]

The United States Postal Service issued a 22-cent postage stamp in his honor on August 3, 1987.[48] Faulkner had once served as Postmaster at the University of Mississippi, and in his letter of resignation in 1923 wrote:

As long as I live under the capitalistic system, I expect to have my life influenced by the demands of moneyed people. But I will be damned if I propose to be at the beck and call of every itinerant scoundrel who has two cents to invest in a postage stamp.

This, sir, is my resignation.[49]

Collections

The manuscripts of most of Faulkner's works, correspondence, personal papers, and over 300 books from his working library reside at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia, where he spent much of his time in his final years. The library also houses some of the writer's personal effects and the papers of major Faulkner associates and scholars, such as his biographer Joseph Blotner, bibliographer Linton Massey, and Random House editor Albert Erskine.

Southeast Missouri State University, where the Center for Faulkner Studies is located, also owns a generous collection of Faulkner materials, including first editions, manuscripts, letters, photographs, artwork, and many materials pertaining to Faulkner's time in Hollywood. The university possesses many personal files and letters kept by Joseph Blotner, along with books and letters that once belonged to Malcolm Cowley, another famous editor for William Faulkner. The university achieved the collection due to a generous donation by Louis Daniel Brodsky, a collector of Faulkner materials, in 1989.

Further significant Faulkner materials reside at the University of Mississippi, the Harry Ransom Center, and the New York Public Library.

The Random House records at Columbia University also include letters by and to Faulkner.[50][51]

Audio recordings

  • Yoknapatawpha Pronunciation by Faulkner[52]
  • 'Ole Miss 1949 Nobel Prize acceptance speech and excerpts from As I Lay Dying, The Old Man and A Fable, plus readings by Debra Winger ("A Rose for Emily", "Barn Burning"), Keith Carradine ("Spotted Horses") and Arliss Howard ("That Evening Sun", "Wash"). Winner of AudioFile Earphones Award.
  • William Faulkner Reads: The Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech, Selections from As I Lay Dying, A Fable, The Old Man. Caedmon/Harper Audio, 1992. Cassette. ISBN 1-55994-572-9
  • William Faulkner Reads from His Work. Arcady Series, MGM E3617 ARC, 1957. Faulkner reads from The Sound and The Fury (side one) and Light in August (side two). Produced by Jean Stein, who also did the liner notes with Edward Cole. Cover photograph by Robert Capa (Magnum).
  • From 1957 to 1958, William Faulkner was the University of Virginia's Writer in Residence (the first). There are audio recordings of his time at the University of Virginia, and they have now been made available online.[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Faulkner, William". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ "Faulkner". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  3. ^ Obituary Variety, July 11, 1962.
  4. ^ a b "Fiction". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
  5. ^ a b c d e MWP: William Faulkner (1897–1962), OleMiss.edu; accessed September 26, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Minter, David L. William Faulkner, His Life and Work. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980; ISBN 0-8018-2347-1
  7. ^ a b "William Faulkner biodate". nobelprize.org. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  8. ^ Sensibar, Judith L. Faulkner and Love: The Women Who Shaped His Art, A Biography, Yale University Press, 2010; ISBN 0-300-16568-4
  9. ^ Coughlan, pg. 38
  10. ^ a b Coughlan, Robert. The Private World of William Faulkner, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953.
  11. ^ Scrivener, Leslie (June 9, 2013). "U of T Back Campus Debate Invokes William Faulkner, Morley Callaghan". Toronto Star.
  12. ^ Watson, James G. (2002). William Faulkner: Self-Presentation and Performance. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-79151-0.
  13. ^ Nelson, Randy F. The Almanac of American Letters Los Altos, California: William Kaufmann, Inc., 1981: pp. 63–64. ISBN 0-86576-008-X
  14. ^ "University of Mississippi: William Faulkner". Olemiss.edu. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  15. ^ a b c Porter, Carolyn. William Faulkner, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007; ISBN 0-19-531049-7
  16. ^ a b c d Hannon, Charles. "Faulkner, William". The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. Jay Parini (2004), Oxford University Press, Inc. The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ "Pirate's Alley Faulkner Society Featuring Words & Music". Wordsandmusic.org. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
  18. ^ Porter, Carolyn. William Faulkner, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007; ISBN 0-19-531049-7, pg. 37
  19. ^ Parini, Jay (2004). One matchless time: a life of William Faulkner (1 ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 142. ISBN 0-06-093555-3.
  20. ^ a b Williamson, Joel. William Faulkner and Southern History, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993; ISBN 0-19-510129-4.
  21. ^ Blotner, J. and Frederick L. Gwynn, (eds.) (1959) Faulkner in the University: Conferences at the University of Virginia, 1957–1958.
  22. ^ Parini (2004) pp. 22–29
  23. ^ Parini (2004) pp. 36–37.
  24. ^ Padgett, John (November 11, 2008). "Mississippi Writers' Page: William Faulkner". The University of Mississippi. Retrieved May 9, 2009.
  25. ^ Parini (2004) p. 139.
  26. ^ Peek, Charles A. (1999). A William Faulkner encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 335. ISBN 0-313-29851-3.
  27. ^ Block, Melissa (13 February 2017). "William Faulkner's Home Illustrates His Impact On The South". NPR.org. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  28. ^ "Was Faulkner an alcoholic?". William Faulkner: Frequently Asked Questions. Ole Miss. Archived from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
  29. ^ Parini (2004) pp. 198–99
  30. ^ a b "Obituary: Meta Wilde, 86, Faulkner's Lover". New York Times. October 21, 1994. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  31. ^ Parini (2004) pp. 309–10
  32. ^ "En kärlekshistoria i Nobelprisklass", Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish), Sweden, January 9, 2010.
  33. ^ Jennifer Ciotta. "Touring William Faulkner's Oxford, Mississippi". Literarytraveler.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  34. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949: Biography Nobelprize.org.
  35. ^ Charlotte Renner, Talking and Writing in Faulkner's Snopes Trilogy, ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTICLE, The Southern Literary Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, Fall 1982.
  36. ^ Levinger, Larry. "The Prophet Faulkner." Atlantic Monthly 285 (2000): 76.
  37. ^ This book shares a title with The Marble Faun (1860), one of the novels of Nathaniel Hawthorne.
  38. ^ Wagner-Martin, Linda. William Faulkner: Six Decades of Criticism. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-87013-612-7.
  39. ^ Abadie, Ann J. and Doreen Fowler. Faulkner and the Southern Renaissance. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1982 ISBN 1-60473-201-6.
  40. ^ Kan, Elianna (April 9, 2015). "The Forest of Letters: An Interview with Valerie Miles". The Paris Review. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  41. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  42. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949: Documentary". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  43. ^ Gordon, Debra. "Faulkner, William". In Bloom, Harold (ed.) William Faulkner, Bloom's BioCritiques. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishing, 2002 ISBN 0-7910-6378-X
  44. ^ Hohenberg, John. John Hohenberg: The Pursuit of Excellence, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 1995, pp. 162-163
  45. ^ "National Book Awards – 1951". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-31. (With essays by Neil Baldwin and Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 50- and 60-year anniversary publications.)
  46. ^ "National Book Awards – 1955". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-31. (With acceptance speech by Faulkner and essays by Neil Baldwin and Harold Augenbraum from the Awards 50- and 60-year anniversary publications.)
  47. ^ Jeremiah Rickert. "Genre Fiction". Oregon Literary Review. 2 (2). Archived from the original on February 21, 2008.
  48. ^ Scott catalogue #2350.
  49. ^ "William Faulkner Quits His Post Office Job in Splendid Fashion with a 1924 Resignation Letter". Openculture. September 30, 2012.
  50. ^ "Random House records, 1925-1999".
  51. ^ Jaillant (2014)
  52. ^ makeveryonehappy (February 23, 2011). "Faulkner Pronouncing Yoknapatawpha" – via YouTube.
  53. ^ "Faulkner at Virginia".
Bibliography
  • Parini, Jay (2004). One Matchless Time: A Life of William Faulkner. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 22–29. ISBN 0-06-621072-0.
Citations
  • William Faulkner: Novels 1930–1935 (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, ed.) (Library of America, 1985) ISBN 978-0-940450-26-4
  • William Faulkner: Novels 1936–1940 (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 1990) ISBN 978-0-940450-55-4
  • William Faulkner: Novels 1942–1954 (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 1994) ISBN 978-0-940450-85-1
  • William Faulkner: Novels 1957–1962 (Noel Polk, ed., with notes by Joseph Blotner) (Library of America, 1999) ISBN 978-1-883011-69-7
  • William Faulkner: Novels 1926–1929 (Joseph Blotner and Noel Polk, eds.) (Library of America, 2006) ISBN 978-1-931082-89-1
  • The Portable Faulkner, ed. Malcolm Cowley ( Viking Press, 1946). ISBN 978-0-14-243728-5
  • Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1974. 2 vols.
  • Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1984.
  • Fowler, Doreen, Abadie, Ann. Faulkner and Popular Culture: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1990 ISBN 0-87805-434-0, ISBN 978-0-87805-434-3
  • Jaillant, Lise. "'I'm Afraid I've Got Involved With a Nut': New Faulkner Letters." Southern Literary Journal 47.1 (2014): 98–114.
  • Kerr, Elizabeth Margaret, and Kerr, Michael M. William Faulkner's Yoknapatawpha: A Kind of Keystone in the Universe. Fordham Univ Press, 1985 ISBN 0-8232-1135-5, ISBN 978-0-8232-1135-7
  • Liénard-Yeterian, Marie. 'Faulkner et le cinéma', Paris: Michel Houdiard Editeur, 2010.ISBN 978-2-35692-037-9
  • Sensibar, Judith L. The Origins of Faulkner's Art. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. ISBN 0-292-79020-1
  • Sensibar, Judith L. Faulkner and Love: The Women Who Shaped His Art, A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-300-16568-5
  • Sensibar, Judith L. Vision in Spring. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. ISBN 0-292-78712-X.

External links

A Fable

A Fable is a 1954 novel written by the American author William Faulkner. He spent more than a decade and tremendous effort on it, and aspired for it to be "the best work of my life and maybe of my time".

It won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, but critical reviews were mixed and it is considered one of Faulkner's lesser works. Historically, it can be seen as a precursor to Joseph Heller's Catch-22.

Absalom, Absalom!

Absalom, Absalom! is a novel by the American author William Faulkner, first published in 1936. Taking place before, during, and after the Civil War, it is a story about three families of the American South, with a focus on the life of Thomas Sutpen.

As I Lay Dying

As I Lay Dying is a 1930 novel, in the genre of Southern Gothic, by American author William Faulkner. Faulkner said that he wrote the novel from midnight to 4:00 AM over the course of six weeks and that he did not change a word of it. Faulkner wrote it while working at a power plant, published it in 1930, and described it as a "tour de force". Faulkner's fifth novel, it is consistently ranked among the best novels of 20th-century literature. The title derives from Book XI of Homer's Odyssey (William Marris's 1925 translation), wherein Agamemnon tells Odysseus: "As I lay dying, the woman with the dog's eyes would not close my eyes as I descended into Hades."

The novel utilizes stream of consciousness writing technique, multiple narrators, and varying chapter lengths.

Barn Burning

"Barn Burning" is a short story by the American author William Faulkner which first appeared in Harper's in June 1939 (pp. 86-96) and has since been widely anthologized. The story deals with class conflicts, the influence of fathers, and vengeance as viewed through the third-person perspective of a young, impressionable child. It is a prequel to The Hamlet, The Town, and The Mansion, the three novels that make up the Snopes trilogy.

Collected Stories of William Faulkner

Collected Stories of William Faulkner is a short story collection by William Faulkner published by Random House in 1950. It won the National Book Award for Fiction in 1951. The publication of this collection of 42 stories was authorized and supervised by Faulkner himself, who came up with the themed section headings.

Intruder in the Dust

Intruder in the Dust is a novel by the Nobel Prize–winning American author William Faulkner published

in 1948.

PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction

The PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction is awarded annually by the PEN/Faulkner Foundation to the authors of the year's best works of fiction by living American citizens. The winner receives US $15,000 and each of four runners-up receives US $5000. Finalists read from their works at the presentation ceremony in the Great Hall of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C.. The organization claims it to be "the largest peer-juried award in the country." The award was first given in 1981.The PEN/Faulkner Foundation is an outgrowth of William Faulkner's generosity in using his 1949 Nobel Prize winnings to create the William Faulkner Foundation; among the charitable goals of the foundation was "to establish a fund to support and encourage new fiction writers." The foundation's first award for a "notable first novel," called the William Faulkner Foundation Award, was granted to John Knowles's A Separate Peace in 1961. The foundation was dissolved after 1970.

Mary Lee Settle was one of the founders of the PEN/Faulkner award after controversy at the 1979 National Book Award, when PEN voted a boycott on the ground that they were too commercial. It is affiliated with the writers' organization International PEN.

The award is one of many PEN awards sponsored by PEN International affiliates in over 145 PEN centres around the world.

Rowan Oak

Rowan Oak, also known as William Faulkner House, is William Faulkner's former home in Oxford, Mississippi. It is a primitive Greek Revival house built in the 1840s by Robert Sheegog. Faulkner purchased the house when it was in disrepair in the 1930s and did many of the renovations himself. Other renovations were done in the 1950s. The house sits on 4 landscaped and twenty nine acres of largely wooded property known as Bailey's Woods. One of its more famous features is the outline of Faulkner's Pulitzer Prize–winning novel A Fable, penciled in graphite and red on the plaster wall of his study. Though the "rowan oak" is a mythical tree, the grounds and surrounding woods of Rowan Oak contain hundreds of species of native Mississippi plants, most of which date back to antebellum times. The alley of cedars that lines the driveway was common in the 19th century. The studs of the house are 4"x4" square cypress, which were hand-hewn. Faulkner drew much inspiration for his treatment of multi-layered Time from Rowan Oak, where past and future seemed to inhabit the present.

In 1972, his daughter, Jill Faulkner Summers, sold the house to the University of Mississippi. The University maintains the home in order to promote Faulkner's literary heritage. Tours are available. The home has been visited by such writers as John Updike, Czesław Miłosz, Charles Simic, Richard Ford, James Lee Burke, Bei Dao, Charles Wright, Charles Frazier, Alice Walker, the Coen brothers, Bobbie Ann Mason, Salman Rushdie, and others. Writer Mark Richard once repaired a faulty doorknob on the French door to Faulkner's study.

Rowan Oak was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1968.

After its most recent renovations, some of which were funded by part-time Oxford resident and Ole Miss law school alumnus, John Grisham, Rowan Oak was rededicated on May 1, 2005.

The current curator of Rowan Oak is William Griffith. Past curators include the novelists Howard Bahr and Cynthia Shearer. The original curator was Bev Smith, an Ole Miss alum, who was responsible for finding a great deal of Faulkner's original manuscripts hidden within the home.

Sanctuary (1961 film)

For the 1933 film version of the Faulkner novel, see The Story of Temple Drake.Sanctuary is a 1961 drama film directed by Tony Richardson. The film, based on the William Faulkner novels Sanctuary and Requiem for a Nun, is about the black maid of a white woman who kills the latter's newborn in order to give her employer a way out of a predicament, and then faces the death penalty.

Snopes trilogy

The Snopes trilogy is a series of three novels written by William Faulkner regarding the Snopes family in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. It consists of The Hamlet, The Town, and The Mansion. It was begun in 1940 and completed in 1959.

Soldiers' Pay

Soldiers' Pay is the first novel published by the American author William Faulkner. It was originally published by Boni & Liveright on February 25, 1926. It is unclear if Soldiers' Pay is the first novel written by Faulkner. It is however the first novel published by the author. Faulkner was working on two manuscripts while finishing Soldiers' Pay.

The Reivers

The Reivers: A Reminiscence, published in 1962, is the last novel by the American author William Faulkner. The bestselling novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1963. Faulkner previously won this award for his book A Fable, making him one of only three authors to be awarded it more than once. Unlike many of his earlier works, it is a straightforward narration and eschews the complicated literary techniques of his more well known works. It is a picaresque novel, and as such may seem uncharacteristically lighthearted given its subject matter. For these reasons, The Reivers is often ignored by Faulkner scholars or dismissed as a lesser work. He previously had referred to writing a "Golden Book of Yoknapatawpha County" with which he would finish his literary career. It is likely that The Reivers was meant to be this "Golden Book". The Reivers was adapted into a 1969 film directed by Mark Rydell and starring Steve McQueen as Boon Hogganbeck.

The Sound and the Fury

The Sound and the Fury is a novel written by the American author William Faulkner. It employs a number of narrative styles, including stream of consciousness. Published in 1929, The Sound and the Fury was Faulkner's fourth novel, and was not immediately successful. In 1931, however, when Faulkner's sixth novel, Sanctuary, was published—a sensationalist story, which Faulkner later claimed was written only for money—The Sound and the Fury also became commercially successful, and Faulkner began to receive critical attention.In 1998, the Modern Library ranked The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.

The Tarnished Angels

The Tarnished Angels is a 1957 black-and-white American CinemaScope drama film directed by Douglas Sirk and starring Rock Hudson, Robert Stack, Dorothy Malone, Jack Carson and Robert Middleton. The screenplay by George Zuckerman is based on the 1935 novel Pylon by William Faulkner.

The Wishing Tree (Faulkner book)

The Wishing Tree is a 1927 children's book by William Faulkner.

The plot is written as a morality tale.

Faulkner wrote this book for Victoria Franklin, daughter of his sweetheart Estelle Oldham (whom he later married).

Two Soldiers (2003 film)

Two Soldiers is a 2003 American short drama film directed by Aaron Schneider with a score by Alan Silvestri. In 2004, it won an Oscar for Best Short Subject at the 76th Academy Awards. It is based on a 1942 short story by William Faulkner.

William Faulkner Foundation

The William Faulkner Foundation (1960-1970) was a charitable organization founded by the novelist William Faulkner in 1960 to support various charitable causes, all educational or literary in nature.

William Faulkner bibliography

The bibliography of William Faulkner, an American writer, includes 19 novels, 125 short stories (not including stories that appear exclusively in novels), 20 screenplays (including uncredited rewrites), one play, six collections of poetry as well as assorted letters and essays.

Faulkner made his debut as a published writer at the age of 21 with the poem "L'Après-midi d'un Faune", which appeared in The New Republic on August 6, 1919. Two more poems, "Cathay" and "Sapphics" and a short story, "Landing in Luck", were published in Mississippian in November 1919.Faulkner's first novel, Soldiers' Pay, was published in 1926 and his 19th and final, The Reivers, in 1962, the year he died. Numerous works have been published posthumously.

Yoknapatawpha County

Yoknapatawpha County, pronounced [jɒknəpəˈtɔfə] is a fictional Mississippi county created by the American author William Faulkner, based upon and inspired by Lafayette County, Mississippi, and its county seat of Oxford, Mississippi (which Faulkner renamed Jefferson). Faulkner often referred to Yoknapatawpha County as "my apocryphal county".

From Sartoris onwards, Faulkner would set all but four of his novels in the county (Soldiers' Pay, Pylon, The Wild Palms and A Fable were set elsewhere), as well as over 50 of his stories. Absalom, Absalom! includes a map of Yoknapatawpha County drawn by Faulkner.The word Yoknapatawpha is derived from two Chickasaw words—Yocona and petopha, meaning "split land". Faulkner said to a University of Virginia audience that the compound means "water flows slow through flat land". Yoknapatawpha was the original name for the actual Yocona River, a tributary of the Tallahatchie which runs through the southern part of Lafayette County.

The area was originally Chickasaw land. White settlement started around the year 1800. Prior to the American Civil War, the county consisted of several large plantations. By family surname, they were: Grenier in the southeast, McCaslin in the northeast, Sutpen in the northwest, and Compson and Sartoris in the immediate vicinity of Jefferson. Later, the county became mostly small farms. By 1936, the population was 25,611, of which 6,298 were white and 19,313 were black.

Richard Reed has presented a detailed chronological analysis of Yoknapatawpha County. Charles S. Aiken has examined Faulkner's incorporation of real-life historical and geographical details into the overall presentation of the county. Aiken has further discussed the parallels of Yoknapatawpha County with the real-life Lafayette County, and also the representation of the "Upland South" and the "Lowland South" in Yoknapatawpha.Faulkner's imaginary county has inspired at least one other Mississippi author to follow his lead. Jesmyn Ward, who is the only woman to win the National Book Award twice for fiction, drew upon Faulkner for Bois Savage, where she placed her three novels.

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