William D. Leahy

Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer who served as the senior-most United States military officer on active duty during World War II. He held multiple titles and was at the center of all major military decisions the United States made in World War II.

As Chief of Naval Operations from 1937 to 1939, he was the senior officer in the navy, overseeing the preparations for war. After retiring from the navy, he was appointed in 1939 by his close friend President Franklin D. Roosevelt as Governor of Puerto Rico. In his most controversial role, he served as the United States Ambassador to France 1940–42, but had limited success in keeping the Vichy government free of German control.

Leahy was recalled to active duty as the personal Chief of Staff to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942 and served in that position throughout World War II. He chaired the Chiefs of Staff and was a major decision-maker during the war. He continued under President Harry S. Truman until finally retiring in 1949. From 1942 until his retirement in 1949, he was the highest-ranking active duty member of the U.S. military, reporting only to the President. He was the United States' first de facto Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (not his official title) and he also presided over the American delegation to the Combined Chiefs of Staff, when the American and British staffs worked together.

As fleet admiral, Leahy was the first U.S. naval officer ever to hold a five-star rank in the U.S. Armed Forces. USS Leahy (DLG-16) was named in his honor.

William D. Leahy
Fleet Admiral Leahy
Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief
In office
July 20, 1942 – March 21, 1949
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOmar Bradley as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
United States Ambassador to France
In office
1941–1942
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded byWilliam Christian Bullitt Jr.
Succeeded byJefferson Caffery
Governor of Puerto Rico
In office
September 11, 1939 – November 28, 1940
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded byBlanton Winship
Succeeded byGuy J. Swope
Chief of Naval Operations
In office
January 2, 1937 – August 1, 1939
PresidentFranklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded byWilliam Harrison Standley
Succeeded byHarold Rainsford Stark
Personal details
Born
William Daniel Leahy

May 6, 1875
Hampton, Iowa
DiedJuly 20, 1959 (aged 84)
Bethesda, Maryland
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceUnited States Navy
Years of service1897–1939
1942–1959[1]
RankUS-O11 insignia.svg Fleet Admiral
CommandsChief of Staff to the Commander in Chief
Chief of Naval Operations
Battleships Battle Force
USS New Mexico
USS St. Louis
USS Princess Matoika
USS Dolphin
USS Mariveles
Battles/warsSpanish–American War Boxer Rebellion
World War I
Greco-Turkish War
World War II
AwardsNavy Cross
Navy Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Complete list

Early life and education

From an Irish-American family, Leahy was born in Hampton, Iowa, and moved with his parents to Ashland, Wisconsin, as a child. His father Michael Arthur Leahy (1838–1921) was a successful lawyer and Civil War veteran, and William had wanted to attend West Point and follow in his father's footsteps. However, after graduating high school in 1893 he attended the United States Naval Academy, graduating 15th in his class of 47 in 1897.[2]

Naval service

Midshipman Leahy was assigned to USS Oregon, then in the Pacific. He was on that battleship when she made her famous dash through the Strait of Magellan, and around South America in the spring of 1898 to participate in the Battle of Santiago on July 3 during the Spanish–American War. This was the only battle Leahy ever saw in person.

Having completed the two years of sea duty then required by law, Leahy was commissioned Ensign on July 1, 1899. At that time, he was on the Asiatic Station, where, during the Philippine–American War and the Boxer Rebellion in China, he served on Castine and Glacier and commanded the gunboat Mariveles. He returned to the United States in 1902 and became a member of the Military Order of the Dragon. For the next five years, he did duty on board the training ship USS Pensacola, Tacoma and Boston, which were stationed in Panama during the early period of construction of the canal.

His first shore duty was at the Naval Academy. Beginning in 1907, he served as instructor in the Department of Physics and Chemistry for two years. He went to sea in 1909 and served as navigator of the armored cruiser California in the Pacific Fleet. On October 18, 1911, Lt. Cmdr. Leahy served as naval aide to President William Howard Taft, at the laying of the keel of USS Jupiter (AC-3), at Mare Island. During the American Occupation of Nicaragua in 1912, he was Chief of Staff to the Commander, Naval Forces there.

Late in 1912, he came ashore in Washington as Assistant Director of Gunnery Exercises and Engineering Competitions. In 1913, he was assigned to the Bureau of Navigation as a detail officer, where he served until 1915. At that time, he took command of the dispatch gunboat Dolphin, and established a close friendship with the then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who cruised with him on the ship. He was in that assignment in early 1917 in West Indian waters and had additional duty as Senior Aide on the Staff of Commander Squadron Three of the Patrol Force Atlantic Fleet.

Leahy served for almost a year as the Executive Officer of Nevada and in April 1918 went to command Princess Matoika, formerly Princess Alice, transporting troops to France. It was during this tour that he was awarded the Navy Cross.

After a short cruise in that command, he came ashore in 1918 and served for three years as director of Gunnery Exercises and Engineering Competition in the Navy Department. He was also a senior member of the Fire Control Board.

In 1921, he went to sea in command of St. Louis, flagship of the naval detachment in Turkish waters during the war between Turkey and Greece. At the end of that war, he was given command of Mine Squadron One, and in 1922 further additional duty as commander, Control Force.

He returned to the United States, and from 1923 to 1926, he served as director of Officer Personnel in the Bureau of Navigation. For one year, he commanded the battleship New Mexico.

In 1927, he reached flag rank and became chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. After almost four years, he went to sea in 1931 as Commander Destroyers Scouting Force.

In 1933, Leahy came ashore in Washington as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation for two years. He went to sea as a vice admiral, and Commander Battleships Battle Force.[3] In 1936, he hoisted his four-star flag on California as Commander in Chief Battle Force.[3]

He was appointed Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), took the oath of office in January 1937 to serve until August 1939 when he was placed on the retired list. On that occasion, President Roosevelt said "Bill, if we have a war, you're going to be right back here helping me run it."[4]

Before retiring as CNO, Leahy joined his wife Louise Harrington Leahy when she sponsored Cimarron, which was commissioned on March 20, 1939.

Government service and recall

Governor of Puerto Rico

Admiral Leahy confers with Puerto Rican Officials
Admiral Leahy confers with Puerto Rican officials. Left to right: Rafael Martínez Nadal, Santiago Iglesias, Admiral Leahy, standing; Fernando Geigel, Alfonso Valdez, Bolivar Pagan, and Luis Obergh

From September 1939 to November 1940, Leahy served as Governor of Puerto Rico after Roosevelt removed Blanton Winship over his role in the Ponce massacre. Leahy oversaw the development of military bases and stations across the island while serving as governor. He took an open stance of not intervening directly in local politics, attempted to understand and respect local customs, and initiated various major public works projects in the island.

While given the unflattering sobriquet Almirante Lija ("Admiral Sandpaper") by locals, based on his family name, he was regarded as one of the most lenient American governors of the several who served Puerto Rico in the first half of the 20th century.

Ambassador to France

Leahy was appointed Ambassador to France (later referred to as Vichy France for the city in which the capital was located) in 1941 following that country's capitulation to Germany. Leahy relates in his memoir I Was There that (his) "major task was to keep the French on our side in so far as possible".[5] He was recalled in May 1942.

The United States supplied food and medical aid to the Vichy regime and to French North Africa, hoping in return to moderate Vichy collaboration with Germany and to avoid an open Vichy–German alliance in the Mediterranean. American aid proved too little to buy French support over North Africa.

Franklin D. Roosevelt with King Ibn Saud aboard USS Quincy (CA-71), 14 February 1945 (USA-C-545)
President Roosevelt and Admiral Leahy meeting with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, on board USS Quincy.

Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief

Birthday-Ball-Lucille-Ball-Leahy-Life-1944
With Lucille Ball during a tour of Washington D.C. hotels presenting fundraisers for the President's Birthday Ball to fight infantile paralysis (1944)

After the United States entered World War II, President Roosevelt decided he needed a senior military officer as personal adviser and point of contact with his three service chiefs, Admiral Ernest King of the Navy, General George Marshall of the Army and General Henry Arnold of the Army Air Forces. The service chiefs resisted this move until Marshall suggested that only Leahy would be accepted in this post. On July 6, 1942, Leahy was appointed Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Army and Navy, the President of the United States. Leahy was also appointed to be the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which would serve as the governing body of the U.S. Armed Forces, with the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, the Chief of Naval Operations of the U.S. Navy, which also had jurisdiction over the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces also serving as members during World War II.

Leahy spent D-Day, June 6, 1944, in his home town of Hampton, Iowa. This well-publicized "sentimental journey" was part of the deception efforts surrounding the Allied invasion of Europe. The idea was to lull any German agents in Washington, D.C., or elsewhere in the United States into believing that the operation would not take place while such an important officer was out of the capital.

In July 1944, Leahy accompanied President Roosevelt to the Pacific Strategy Conference in Hawaii at which Roosevelt met Admiral Chester Nimitz (commander of the Pacific Ocean Areas) and General Douglas MacArthur (commander of the Southwest Pacific Area) to decide the course of the war in the Pacific theater.

Leahy was promoted to the rank of Fleet Admiral on December 15, 1944, the most senior of the seven men who received five star rank in 1944.

Leahy accompanied President Roosevelt as his personal aide to the Yalta Conference in February 1945. At Yalta Roosevelt met the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to decide how Europe was to be reorganized after the impending surrender of Germany. Five months later, he went with President Truman to the Potsdam Conference where Truman met with Stalin and the new British Prime Minister Clement Attlee to make decisions about the governance of occupied Germany.

Atomic bomb

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R86965, Potsdamer Konferenz, Gruppenbild
Sitting (from left): Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin; behind: William D. Leahy, Ernest Bevin, James F. Byrnes and Vyacheslav Molotov.

According to Truman's Memoirs: Years of Decisions (1955), Leahy had stated in 1945 to President Truman: "That is the biggest fool thing we have ever done. The atomic bomb will never go off, and I speak as an expert in explosives." Once the bomb was tested, Leahy became strongly opposed to its use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In his own memoirs, Leahy wrote:

Once it had been tested, President Truman faced the decision as to whether to use it. He did not like the idea, but he was persuaded that it would shorten the war against Japan and save American lives. It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons ... My own feeling was that in being the first to use it, we had adopted an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages. I was not taught to make wars in that fashion, and that wars cannot be won by destroying women and children.[6]

After mediating between the United States Navy and the Puerto Rican government over the involuntary transfer of part of the islands of Vieques and Culebra to naval authorities, Leahy again retired from the Navy in March 1949, though as an officer with five-star rank, he technically remained on active service. The following year, he published his war memoirs, I Was There.

There is a bilingual book called Las memorias de Leahy: los relatos del almirante William D. Leahy sobre su gobernación de Puerto Rico (1939–1940) that lists his diary entries from Puerto Rico in both Spanish and English, which was published by the Luis Muñoz Marín Foundation in 2001.

Personal life

While serving on the USS Pensacola, which was based in San Francisco, Leahy met Louise Tennent Harrington, whom he married on 3 February 1904.[7] During Leahy's tenure as Ambassador to France, his wife underwent a hysterectomy which could not be delayed until their pending return to the United States. While recovering in the hospital from the operation, Louise Leahy suffered an embolism and died with Leahy at her side on 21 April 1942. After a service at the St Thomas Episcopal Church, she was buried on 3 June 1942 in Arlington National Cemetery.[8]

William and Louise had children, including a son, William Harrington Leahy, who graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1927. He engaged in pre-World War II naval intelligence.[9] William H. Leahy retired from the U.S. Navy as a 2-star rear admiral in 1961.

Death

Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (18555451643)
Grave at Arlington National Cemetery

Leahy died at the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, July 20, 1959, at the age of eighty-four. He was given an Armed Forces military funeral on July 23, 1959. His body was viewed at the Bethlehem Chapel at the Washington National Cathedral from July 22 noon until noon the following day. The funeral service was held in the cathedral at 1400 on July 23 and the burial was in Arlington National Cemetery. The gravesite is in Section 2, Lot 932, Grid R-31.5, about midway between Memorial Gate and the Arlington Memorial Amphitheater.[2]

Honorary pallbearers were Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, Admiral Charles P. Snyder, Admiral Louis E. Denfeld, Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Vice Admiral Edward L. Cochrane, and Rear Admiral Henry Williams, all retired from service. Active military servicemen who were honorary pallbearers were Admiral Jerauld Wright, Admiral Robert L. Dennison, Rear Admiral Joseph H. Wellings, and close friend, William D. Hassett.[2]

Dates of rank

Navyacademylogo.jpg United States Naval Academy Midshipman – Class of 1897, 15th of class of 47

Ensign Lieutenant Junior Grade Lieutenant Lieutenant Commander Commander Captain
O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6
US Navy O1 insignia US Navy O2 insignia US Navy O3 insignia U.S. Navy O-4 insignia US Navy O5 insignia US Navy O6 insignia
July 1, 1899 July 1, 1902 December 31, 1903 September 15, 1909 August 29, 1916 July 1, 1918
Commodore Rear Admiral Vice Admiral Admiral Fleet Admiral
O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 Special Grade
US Navy O7 insignia US Navy O8 insignia US Navy O9 insignia US Navy O10 insignia US Navy O11 insignia
Not Held October 14, 1927 July 13, 1935 January 2, 1937 December 15, 1944

Decorations and awards

Navy Cross ribbon Navy Distinguished Service Medal ribbon1 golden star.svg1 golden star.svg Sampson Medal ribbon
Spanish Campaign Medal ribbon Philippine Campaign Medal ribbon Nicaraguan Campaign ribbon 1912
Mexican Service Medal ribbon Dominican Campaign Medal ribbon
Bronze star
World War I Victory Medal ribbon
American Campaign Medal ribbon Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal ribbon European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon
World War II Victory Medal ribbon Army of Occupation ribbon National Defense Service Medal ribbon
PRT Military Order of Aviz - Officer BAR Order of Abdón Calderón 1st Class (Ecuador) - ribbon bar U.S. Navy Rifle Marksmanship Ribbon
Navy Cross Navy Distinguished Service Medal
with two gold stars
Sampson Medal
Spanish Campaign Medal Philippine Campaign Medal Nicaraguan Campaign Medal
(1912)
Mexican Service Medal Dominican Campaign Medal World War I Victory Medal
with "TRANSPORT" clasp
American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal European-African-Middle Eastern
Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Medal National Defense Service Medal
Order of Aviz, Officer Order of Abdon Calderón, 1st class Navy Rifle Marksmanship Ribbon

Note: Leahy was ineligible for the American Defense Service Medal as he retired from the Navy in August 1939 and was recalled to active duty in May 1942. The medal was for active service from 8 September 1939 to 7 December 1941.

References

  1. ^ U.S. officers holding five-star rank never retire; they draw full active duty pay for life.Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1685. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.
  2. ^ a b c "Arlington National Cemetery Website". William Daniel Leahy. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
  3. ^ a b Naval History & Heritage Command
  4. ^ Alexander, David (2007). The Building: A Biography of the Pentagon (1st ed.). St. Paul, Minn.: MBI. p. 52. ISBN 9780760320877.
  5. ^ Leahy, William I Was There Whittlesey House 1950 p. 8
  6. ^ Leahy, p. 441
  7. ^ Borneman. Page 66.
  8. ^ Borneman. Page 268.
  9. ^ Naval history section

Bibliography

  • Adams, Henry H. Witness to Power: The Life of Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy (Naval Institute Press, 1985) 348 pp.
  • Borneman, Walter "The Admirals: The Five-Star Admirals Who Won the War at Sea" (Little, Brown, 2012)
  • Hall, George M. (1994). The Fifth Star: High Command in an Era of Global War. Westport: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94802-1.
  • Hayes, Grace P. The history of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II (1982) 964 pages
  • Langer, William L. Our Vichy gamble (1947).
  • Leahy, Fleet Adm William D. I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman: Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time (1950)
  • Mobley, Scott. "By the Force of Our Arms: William D. Leahy and the US Intervention in Nicaragua, 1912." Fed. Hist. 11 (2019): 39+ online
  • O'Brien, Phillips Payson. The Second Most Powerful Man in the World: The Life of Admiral William D. Leahy, Roosevelt's Chief of Staff (2019). excerpt

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
William H. Standley
Chief of Naval Operations
1937–1939
Succeeded by
Harold R. Stark
New office Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief
1942–1949
Succeeded by
Omar Bradley
as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Political offices
Preceded by
José E. Colón
Governor of Puerto Rico
September 11, 1939 – November 28, 1940
Succeeded by
José Miguel Gallardo
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
William C. Bullitt
United States Ambassador to France
1941–1942
Vacant
Title next held by
Jefferson Caffery in 1944
Battle Fleet

The United States Battle Fleet or Battle Force was part of the organization of the United States Navy from 1922 to 1941.

The General Order of 6 December 1922 organized the United States Fleet, with the Battle Fleet as the Pacific presence. This fleet comprised the main body of ships in the Navy, with the smaller Scouting Fleet as the Atlantic presence. The battleships, including most of the modern ones, and new aircraft carriers were assigned to this fleet.

Blanton Winship

Blanton C. Winship (November 23, 1869 – October 9, 1947) was an American military lawyer and veteran of both the Spanish–American War and World War I. During his career, he served both as Judge Advocate General of the United States Army and as the governor of Puerto Rico, where he personally ordered the Ponce massacre.

Bureau of Ordnance

The Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) was the U.S. Navy's organization responsible for the procurement, storage, and deployment of all naval weapons, between the years 1862 and 1959.

Cape Leahy

Cape Leahy (73°43′S 119°0′W) is an ice-covered cape which marks the northern extremity of Duncan Peninsula, Carney Island, along the coast of Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. It was discovered and photographed from the air on January 24, 1947, by United States Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–1947, and named by Rear admiral Richard E. Byrd for Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, U.S. Navy, who, as naval advisor to President Harry S. Truman at the time of Operation Highjump, assisted materially at the high-level planning and authorization stages.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. While the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other commissioned officers, the Chairman is prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the armed forces; however, the Chairman does assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in exercising their command functions.The Chairman convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), an advisory body within the Department of Defense comprising the Chairman, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The post of a statutory and permanent Joint Chiefs of Staff chair was created by the 1949 amendments to the National Security Act of 1947. The 1986 Goldwater–Nichols Act elevated the Chairman from the first among equals to becoming the "principal military advisor" to the President and the Secretary of Defense.

The Joint Staff, managed by the Director of the Joint Staff and consisting of military personnel from all the services, assists the Chairman in fulfilling his duties to the President and Secretary of Defense, and functions as a conduit and collector of information between the Chairman and the combatant commanders. The National Military Command Center (NMCC) is part of the Joint Staff operations directorate (J-3).

Although the office of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is considered very important and highly prestigious, neither the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, nor the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a body has any command authority over combatant forces. The Goldwater–Nichols Act places the chain of command from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands. However the services chiefs do have authority over personnel assignments and oversight over resources and personnel allocated to the combatant commands within their respective services (derived from the service secretaries).

The Chairman may also transmit communications to the combatant commanders from the President and Secretary of Defense as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. The Chairman also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 or allocates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in the joint staff under his or her name.

Combined Chiefs of Staff

The Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) was the supreme military staff for the United States and Great Britain during World War II. It set all the major policy decisions for the two nations, subject to the approvals of Prime Minister Winston Churchill and President Franklin D Roosevelt.

Ernest King

Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH-CNO, he directed the United States Navy's operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the United States Navy's second most senior officer in World War II after Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, who served as Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief.

Born in Lorain, Ohio, King served in the Spanish–American War while still attending the United States Naval Academy. He received his first command in 1914, leading the destroyer USS Terry in the occupation of Veracruz. During World War I, he served on the staff of Vice Admiral Henry T. Mayo, the commander of the United States Atlantic Fleet. After the war, King served as head of the Naval Postgraduate School, commanded a submarine squadron, and served as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. After a period on the Navy's General Board, King became commander of the Atlantic Fleet in February 1941.

Shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II, King was appointed as Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet. In March 1942, King succeeded Harold Stark as Chief of Naval Operations. In December 1944, King became the second admiral to be promoted to fleet admiral. King left active duty in December 1945 and died in 1956.

Fleet admiral (United States)

Fleet admiral (abbreviated FADM) is a five-star flag officer rank in the United States Navy. Fleet admiral ranks immediately above admiral and is equivalent to General of the Army and General of the Air Force. Although it is a current and authorized rank, no U.S. Navy officer presently holds it, with the last U.S. Navy fleet admiral being William F. Halsey Jr., who was promoted to the rank in December 1945.

Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense which advises the president of the United States, the secretary of defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS), the military service chiefs from the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau, all appointed by the president following Senate confirmation. Each of the individual military service chiefs, outside their Joint Chiefs of Staff obligations, works directly for the secretary of the military department concerned, i.e., secretary of the Army, secretary of the Navy, and the secretary of the Air Force.Following the Goldwater–Nichols Act in 1986, the Joint Chiefs of Staff do not have operational command authority, either individually or collectively, as the chain of command goes from the president to the secretary of defense, and from the secretary of defense to the commanders of the combatant commands. Goldwater–Nichols also created the office of vice chairman, and the chairman is now designated as the principal military adviser to the secretary of defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the president.The Joint Staff (JS) is a headquarters staff in the Pentagon, composed of personnel from each of the five armed services, that assists the chairman and the vice chairman in discharging their responsibilities and is managed by the director of the Joint Staff (DJS), who is a lieutenant general or Navy vice admiral.

José E. Colom

José E. Colom (5 February 1889 - c. 1960) was acting Governor of Puerto Rico between 25 June 1939 and 11 September 1939 after the previous governor, Blanton C. Winship, was removed from office by President Franklin D. Roosevelt for abuse of his authority in depriving the people of Puerto Rico of their civil rights. (See the Ponce Massacre).

José Miguel Gallardo

José Miguel Gallardo (September 29, 1897 – July 18, 1976) was a professor at the University of Puerto Rico and two-time (acting) Governor of Puerto Rico. He and his wife, fellow professor Ida Gallardo, lived most of their adult lives in Río Piedras, Puerto Rico.

He is most remembered today as a strong proponent of bilingual education, and he was appointed as Commissioner of Education in 1937 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His first task on taking the office was to increase the teaching of English in schools, in preference over Spanish. The intention was that while students would be taught in elementary school in Spanish, they would gradually be taught increasingly in English through high school. His revised education policies were reversed in 1942.

In 1941, he put the island on "war alert" after the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Leahy (surname)

Leahy is an Irish surname, originating in Munster, and now found in Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and Tipperary.

It is usually an anglicised form of the Irish language surname Ó Laochdha ("descendant of Laochdha"), which ultimately derives from Old Irish láechda, láech ("warrior-like, pertaining to a warrior") and appears as a personal sobriquet at least as early as the Book of Lismore (circa 1408–11). However, Leahy may also represent an anglicisation of less common names, including Mac Fhlaithimh and Ó Flaithimh, Mac an Leagha, Ó Leathaigh, Ó Liathaigh, Ó Líthe, Ó Laidhe, Ó Laidhigh, Ó Laithimh, Ó'Lathaigh, Ó Laithmhe, Ó Laochdha, Ó Laoi, Ó Laoidhigh, or Ó Laoithe.Other anglicised forms of the name include Leahey, Lahey, Lahy, Leehy, Leehey, Lahaie, Lahaye, Lehait, Claffey, Laffey, and Lee.

Motorcade

A motorcade, or autocade, is a procession of vehicles.

USS Cimarron (AO-22)

USS Cimarron (AO-22) was a Cimarron-class oiler serving with the United States Navy and the second ship to be named for the Cimarron River in the Southwestern United States. She was launched 7 January 1939 by Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Chester, Pennsylvania; sponsored by Mrs. William D. Leahy; and commissioned 20 March 1939 with Lieutenant Commander William W. Behrens, Sr. in command.

USS Lang (DD-399)

The first USS Lang (DD-399) was a Benham-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for John Lang.

USS Leahy (DLG-16)

USS Leahy (DLG/CG-16) was the lead ship of a new class of destroyer leaders in the United States Navy. Named for Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, she was commissioned on 4 August 1962 as DLG-16, a guided missile frigate, and reclassified as CG-16, a guided missile cruiser, on 30 June 1975.

From 1962 to 1976, Leahy operated as a unit of the Atlantic Fleet and from 1976 to 1993 as a unit of the Pacific Fleet. She made six Mediterranean deployments (Sixth Fleet), two UNITAS Latin America cruises and eight Western Pacific deployments (Seventh Fleet), completed three Panama Canal transits, and crossed the equator over a dozen times. She traveled the seas from the easternmost end of the Mediterranean to the westernmost edge of the Indian Ocean. She steamed far north to Leningrad, Russia, and the Aleutian Islands; and far south for two passages through the Straits of Magellan. Over the course of her sixteen major deployments, Leahy made port calls on six continents—North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Leahy served longer than any other ship of her class. After more than 31 years of active service all over the globe, the "Sweet 16" was decommissioned on 1 October 1993. After another 11 years in the reserve fleet, she was scrapped in Brownsville, Texas, in 2005.

USS Turner (DD-834)

USS Turner (DD/DDR-834) was a Gearing-class destroyer of the United States Navy, the third Navy ship named for Captain Daniel Turner (1794?–1850).

Turner was laid down on 13 November 1944 at Bath, Maine, by the Bath Iron Works Corp.; launched on 8 April 1945; sponsored by Miss Louise Leahy, granddaughter of Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy; and commissioned on 12 June 1945 at the Boston Navy Yard, Comdr. Ellis B. Rittenhouse in command.

William Harrington Leahy

William Harrington Leahy (October 27, 1904 – May 12, 1986) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, and the son of William D. Leahy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's military chief of staff during World War II.

William Leahy

William Leahy may refer to:

William D. Leahy (1875–1959), American naval officer, diplomat, and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II

William Leahy (Australian Army soldier) (1893–1918), Australian World War I Distinguished Conduct Medal recipient

William Harrington Leahy (1904–1986), American naval officer

William P. Leahy (born 1948), President of Boston College

William Leahy (priest), Anglican priest in Ireland

Envoys
to France
(1776–1779)
Ministers Plenipotentiary
to France
(1778–1815)
Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary
to France
(1816–1893)
Ambassador Extraordinary
and Plenipotentiary
to France
(1893–present)
Colony of Puerto Rico
(1898–1949)
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
(1949–present)

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