William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland

William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, KG, PC, FRS (14 April 1738 – 30 October 1809) was a British Whig and Tory politician during the late Georgian era. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1792–1809) and twice as British prime minister, of Great Britain (1783) and then of the United Kingdom (1807–09). The twenty-four years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any British prime minister.

Portland was known before 1762 by the courtesy title Marquess of Titchfield. He held a title of every degree of British nobility: Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron. He is also a great-great-great-grandfather of Elizabeth II through her maternal grandmother.


The Duke of Portland

01-Bentinck William Henry Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Portland c 1774
Portrait by Matthew Pratt
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office
31 March 1807 – 4 October 1809
MonarchGeorge III
Preceded byThe Lord Grenville
Succeeded bySpencer Perceval
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
2 April 1783 – 18 December 1783
MonarchGeorge III
Preceded byThe Earl of Shelburne
Succeeded byWilliam Pitt the Younger
Lord President of the Council
In office
30 July 1801 – 14 January 1805
MonarchGeorge III
Prime MinisterHenry Addington
William Pitt the Younger
Preceded byThe Earl of Chatham
Succeeded byViscount Sidmouth
Home Secretary
In office
11 July 1794 – 30 July 1801
MonarchGeorge III
Prime MinisterWilliam Pitt the Younger
Preceded byHenry Dundas
Succeeded byLord Pelham
Personal details
Born14 April 1738
Nottinghamshire, England
Died30 October 1809 (aged 71)
Bulstrode Park, Buckinghamshire, England
Resting placeSt Marylebone Parish Church
Spouse(s)
Lady Dorothy Cavendish
(m. 1766; died 1794)
Children6, including William, 4th Duke; Lord William and Lord Charles
Parents
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford
Signature
William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland's signature

Biography

Early life and education

Lord Titchfield was the eldest son of William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and Margaret Cavendish-Harley and inherited many lands from his mother and his maternal grandmother.[1][2][3] He was educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford.

Marriage and children

Dorothy Cavendish, wife of William Cavendish Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738-1809) by George Romney
Lady Dorothy Cavendish, wife of William Cavendish Bentinck. (George Romney)

On 8 November 1766, Portland married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, a daughter of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire and Charlotte Boyle. They were parents of six children:

Through his son Charles, Portland is a great-great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II (see ancestry of Elizabeth II).

Political and public offices

Portland was elected to sit in the Parliament for Weobley in 1761 before entering the Lords when he succeeded his father as Duke of Portland the next year. He was associated with the aristocratic Whig party of Lord Rockingham and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household in Rockingham's first Government (1765–1766)

Lord Lieutenant of Ireland

Portland served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in Rockingham's second ministry (April–August 1782). He faced strong demands for conciliatory measures following years of coercion and taxation brought about by the British government's engagement in the American War of Independence.[6] Portland resolved to make concessions and, overcoming the resistance of Lord Shelburne, the Home Secretary to whom he reported, convinced Parliament to repeal the Declaratory Act and modify Poynings' Law.[7] Following Rockingham's death, Portland resigned from Lord Shelburne's ministry along with other supporters of Charles James Fox.[8]

First premiership

In April 1783, Portland was brought forward as titular head of a coalition government as Prime Minister, whose real leaders were Charles James Fox and Lord North. He served as First Lord of the Treasury in this ministry until its fall in December of the same year. During his tenure the Treaty of Paris was signed formally ending the American Revolutionary War. The government was brought down after losing a vote in the House of Lords on its proposed reform of the East India Company after George III had let it be known that any peer voting for this measure would be considered his personal enemy.[9]

In 1789, Portland became one of several vice presidents of London's Foundling Hospital. This charity had become one of the most fashionable of the time, with several notables serving on its board. At its creation, fifty years earlier, Portland's father, William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland, had been one of the founding governors, listed on the charity's royal charter granted by George II. The hospital's mission was to care for the abandoned children in London; and it achieved rapid fame through its poignant mission, its art collection donated from supporting artists, and popular benefit concerts put on by George Frideric Handel. In 1793, Portland took over the presidency of the charity from Lord North.

Home secretary

Along with many conservative Whigs such as Edmund Burke, Portland was deeply uncomfortable with the French Revolution and broke with Fox over this issue, joining Pitt's government as Home Secretary in 1794. In this role he oversaw the administration of patronage and financial inducements, often secret, to secure the passage of the 1800 Act of Union.[10] He continued to serve in the cabinet until Pitt's death in 1806—from 1801 to 1805 as Lord President of the Council and then as a Minister without Portfolio.

Second premiership

In March 1807, after the collapse of the Ministry of all the Talents, Pitt's supporters returned to power; and Portland was, once again, an acceptable figurehead for a fractious group of ministers that included George Canning, Lord Castlereagh, Lord Hawkesbury, and Spencer Perceval.

Portland's second government saw the United Kingdom's complete isolation on the continent but also the beginning of recovery, with the start of the Peninsular War. In late 1809, with Portland's health poor and the ministry rocked by the scandalous duel between Canning and Castlereagh, Portland resigned, dying shortly thereafter.

He was Recorder of Nottingham until his death in 1809.

Death and burial

3DukePortlandPlaque.jpeg
Memorial to the 3rd Duke of Portland at the family vault in St Marylebone Parish Church

The 3rd Duke of Portland died at Bulstrode Park, Buckinghamshire, after an operation to remove a kidney stone on 30 October 1809 and was buried in St Marylebone Parish Church, Marylebone, London.[11]

He had lived expensively: with an income of £17,000 a year (worth £577,000 in 2005),[12] he had debts at his death computed at £52,000 (£1.76 million in 2005),[12] which were paid off by his succeeding son selling off some property including Bulstrode.[13]

Along with Sir Robert Peel, Benjamin Disraeli, Marquess of Salisbury, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Bonar Law, and Neville Chamberlain, he is one of seven British prime ministers to die while his direct successor was in office, and the first to do so.

Legacy

The Portland Vase of Roman glass was given its name due to its having been owned by Portland at his family residence at Bulstrode Park.

Portland parish in Jamaica was named after the 3rd Duke of Portland. The Titchfield School, founded in 1786, also in the parish is also named in his honour. The school's crest is derived from the Earl of Portland's personal crest.

North Bentinck Arm and South Bentinck Arm were named for the Bentinck family by George Vancouver in 1793, along with other names on the British Columbia Coast such as Portland Canal and Portland Channel.

The department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham holds a number of papers relating to the 3rd Duke: the 3rd Duke's personal and political papers (Pw F) are part of the Portland (Welbeck) Collection; and the Portland (London) Collection (Pl) contains correspondence and official papers of the 3rd Duke, especially in series Pl C.

The Portland Estate Papers held at Nottinghamshire Archives also contain items relating to the 3rd Duke's properties.

The Portland Collection of fine and decorative art includes pieces owned and commissioned by the 3rd Duke, including paintings by George Stubbs.

Titles and arms

Titles from birth

  • Marquess of Titchfield (1738–61)
  • Marquess of Titchfield MP (1761–62)
  • His Grace The Duke of Portland (1762–65)
  • His Grace The Duke of Portland, PC (1765–66)
  • His Grace The Duke of Portland, PC, FRS (1766–94)
  • His Grace The Duke of Portland, KG, PC, FRS (1794–1809)

Arms

Cabinets as Prime Minister

First Ministry, April – December 1783

Second Ministry, March 1807 – October 1809

Changes

References

  1. ^ "Line of descent of the Earls and Dukes of Portland" (PDF). University of Nottingham. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  2. ^ Settlements, mortgages, litigation, Acts of Parliament etc. relating to the 'maternal' estates of the Dukes of Portland; 1583–1790 Archived 6 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The University of Nottingham, UK.
  3. ^ Series of manorial papers in the Newcastle (Clumber) Collection (1st Deposit); 1357–1867 Archived 6 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The University of Nottingham, UK.
  4. ^ "Harriet Catherine Greville".
  5. ^ Caledonian Mercury 28 October 1786 Page 2
  6. ^ Wilkinson, David (2003). The Duke of Portland – Politics and Party in the Age of George III. Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 35–8. ISBN 978-0333963852.
  7. ^ Wilkinson pp 38–41
  8. ^ Stephens, Henry Morse (1885). "Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish" . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 4. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  9. ^ Wilkinson p 56
  10. ^ Wilkinson p150-7
  11. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 5. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-19-861355-8.
  12. ^ a b [1] National Archives currency converter.
  13. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 5. pp. 268–269.

External links

Succession boxes

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
John Craster
George Venables-Vernon
Member of Parliament for Weobley
1761–1762
With: Hon. Henry Thynne
Succeeded by
William Lynch
Hon. Henry Thynne
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl Gower
Lord Chamberlain
1765–1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Hertford
Preceded by
The Earl of Carlisle
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1782
Succeeded by
The Earl Temple
Preceded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Prime Minister of Great Britain
2 April 1783 – 18 December 1783
Succeeded by
William Pitt the Younger
Preceded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Leader of the House of Lords
1783
Succeeded by
The Earl Temple
Preceded by
Henry Dundas
Home Secretary
1794–1801
Succeeded by
Lord Pelham
Preceded by
The Earl of Chatham
Lord President of the Council
1801–1805
Succeeded by
The Viscount Sidmouth
New office Minister without Portfolio
1805–1806
Succeeded by
The Earl FitzWilliam
Preceded by
The Lord Grenville
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
31 March 1807 – 4 October 1809
Succeeded by
Spencer Perceval
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Guilford
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1792–1809
Succeeded by
The Lord Grenville
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Lord North
President of the Foundling Hospital
1793–1809
Succeeded by
The Prince of Wales
later became King George IV
Preceded by
The 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire
1795–1809
Succeeded by
The 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
William Bentinck
Duke of Portland
1762–1809
Succeeded by
William Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck
1783 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1783 in Great Britain. This year is notable for the conclusion of the American Revolution.

1809 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1809 in the United Kingdom.

Baron Bolsover

Baron Bolsover, of Bolsover Castle in the County of Derby, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 23 April 1880 (as Baroness Bolsover) for Augusta Cavendish-Bentinck, with remainder to the heirs male of the body of her late husband Lieutenant-General Arthur Cavendish-Bentinck (1819–1877), younger son of Lord Charles Bentinck, third son of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. Lady Bolsover was the daughter of the Very Reverend Henry Montague Browne, Dean of Lismore, second son of James Caulfeild Browne, 2nd Baron Kilmaine. She was succeeded according to the special remainder by her stepson William Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland, who became the second Baron Bolsover. He was the only child from Arthur Cavendish-Bentinck's first marriage, to Elizabeth Sophia Hawkins-Whitshed.

The barony remained united with the dukedom until the death of the sixth Duke's son, the seventh Duke, in 1977. The dukedom was passed on to a cousin while the barony became extinct.

Cavendish (surname)

Cavendish is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Ada Cavendish (1839–1895), British actress

Anthony Cavendish (1927–2013), British intelligence officer

Camilla Cavendish (born 1968), British journalist

Lord Charles Cavendish (1704–1783), British nobleman, Whig politician and scientist

Charles Cavendish (1793–1863), British Liberal politician

George Cavendish (writer) (c. 1494 – 1562) English writer and biographer of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

Henry Cavendish (1731–1810), British physicist, discoverer of hydrogen

Lucy Cavendish (1841–1925), British pioneer of women's education

Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1623–1673), English aristocrat, writer, and philosopher

Mark Cavendish (born 1985), Manx cyclist

Michael Cavendish (born c. 1565), English composer

Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire (born 1944), British Peer and owner of Pratt's Club

Lord Richard Cavendish (1752–1781), British MP

Lord Richard Cavendish (1871–1946), British MP, aristocrat, author, magistrate

Richard Cavendish (occult writer) (1930–2016), British writer on topics dealing with the occult

Robin Cavendish (1930–1994), a British advocate for disabled people

Sid Cavendish (1876–1954), English footballer with Southampton and Clapton Orient

Thomas Cavendish (1560–1592), English admiral

William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738–1809), Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Charles Cavendish-Bentinck (priest)

Charles William Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (8 November 1817 – 17 August 1865) was a clergyman of the Church of England, holding livings in Bedfordshire, and a great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.

He used his names in the order William Charles Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck, and his usual signature was "W. C. C. Bentinck".

County of Bentinck

The County of Bentinck is a county located on the southern boundary of the state of Queensland, Australia. Like all counties in Queensland, it is a non-functional administrative unit, that is used mainly for the purpose of registering land titles. The county was named in 1838 after William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain twice, in 1783 and again between 1807 and 1809. Population centres within the County of Bentinck include the towns of Stanthorpe, Wallangarra, Glen Aplin, Applethorpe and Inglewood.

Crown Suits Act 1769

The Crown Suits Act 1769 (9 Geo. III., c. 16) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1769.

In 1765 William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, brought against James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale and the corporation of Carlisle bills in chancery for the perpetuation of testimony, believing that he was the owner of a fishery on the River Eden in right of the socage manor of Carlisle. However, because of the type of fishing carried on by the defendants it had become useless. Lonsdale's team discovered in the original grant from William III to the first Duke of Portland that the socage manor of Carlisle and the forest of Inglewood had been expressly omitted in the grant. An Act from the reign of James I, however, had laid down that the title for lands in undisturbed possession of over sixty years could no longer be challenged except by the Crown. In 1767, therefore, Lonsdale successfully petitioned the Treasury for a grant of Crown interest in the two properties "for three lives, on such terms as to their lordships should seem meet". Portland's allies claimed no land was safe if the legal maxim Nullum tempus occurrit regi ("No time runs against the king") was to be implemented. In February 1767, therefore, Sir George Savile introduced a Bill to abrogate the legal maximum and to abolish Lonsdale's rights. This was defeated by 134 votes to 114.In 1768 another Bill was introduced, this time including a clause that excluded all Crown grants made before 1 January 1769 from the operation of the Bill unless the grantees prosecuted their claims within one year. With the passing of this Act Lonsdale at once filed a bill against Portland and evicted three hundred tenants. However, the Court of Exchequer ruled against Lonsdale on the grounds that the grant was unlawful under the provisions of the Crown Lands Act 1702 because of the insufficiency of the rent reserved by the Crown. Portland's title to the socage manor of Carlisle and Inglewood forest was never tried and he eventually sold the properties to the Duke of Devonshire in 1787.

Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland

This is a list of people who have served as Custos Rotulorum of Northumberland.

Robert Horsley bef. 1547–?

Sir Robert Brandling bef. 1558–1568

Sir John Forster bef. 1573 – aft. 1594

Ralph Eure, 3rd Baron Eure 1596–1598

Sir Robert Carey 1598 – bef. 1605

Edward Talbot, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury bef. 1605–1618

Sir Ralph Delaval 1618–1628

William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Newcastle 1628–1632

Sir William Widdrington 1632–1646

Interregnum

William Widdrington, 2nd Baron Widdrington 1660–1675

Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle 1675–1688

Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarbrough 1689–1721

Richard Lumley, 2nd Earl of Scarbrough 1722–1740

Charles Bennet, 2nd Earl of Tankerville 1740–1753

Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland 1753–1786

Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 1786–1800

William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 1800–1802

Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland 1802–1817For later custodes rotulorum, see Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland.

Dorothy Bentinck, Duchess of Portland

Dorothy Bentinck, Duchess of Portland (née Lady Dorothy Cavendish; 27 August 1750 – 3 June 1794) was Duchess of Portland as wife of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, the Prime Minister of Great Britain. She is also a great-great-great-grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II through the queen's maternal grandmother.

Dorothy Cavendish

Dorothy Cavendish may refer to:

Dorothy Bentinck, Duchess of Portland (née Cavendish, 1750–1794), wife of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland

Lady Dorothy Macmillan (née Cavendish, 1900–1966), daughter of Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire and wife of Harold Macmillan

Fox–North coalition

The Fox–North coalition was a government in Great Britain that held office during 1783. As the name suggests, the ministry was a coalition of the groups supporting Charles James Fox and Lord North. The official head was William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, who took office on 2 April 1783.

Fox was a Whig by background and North came from the nominal Tory Party, however both had fallen out with the government of Lord Shelburne. They combined their forces in the House of Commons to throw out the Shelburne ministry and then formed a government of their own.

King George III despised the government and Fox in particular but found that no other ministry could be formed at this stage despite several offers to William Pitt the Younger. As a result, the King declined to provide the government with the normal tools of patronage and they were forced to look elsewhere.

The Treaty of Paris was signed during his government on 3 September 1783, formally ending the American Revolutionary War. The government also came under strain when from the opposition Pitt introduced a proposal for electoral reform to tackle bribery and rotten boroughs. The proposal did not pass but caused tensions within the coalition which contained both proponents and opponents of political reform.

The British East India Company was in trouble and Fox proposed nationalising it, thus providing the government with a new source of appointments so they could reward and maintain support. The East India Bill was introduced and passed in the Commons but the King remained deeply opposed. He informed the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was defeated on 17 December 1783 and the King immediately dismissed the coalition. It was succeeded by a government formed by William Pitt the Younger.

After being dismissed, Fox and North tried to force Pitt from power through defeat in the House of Commons, but he refused to resign. The response of opinion in the country, evidenced by petitions, resolutions of borough corporations and the actions of the London mobs, showed strong opposition to the coalition and support for Pitt. In March 1784 a general election was called in which Pitt's government made massive gains, especially in constituencies decided by popular votes.

Henry William Greville

Henry William Greville (28 October 1801 – 12 December 1872) was an English aristocrat and diarist.

He was the youngest son of Charles Greville, grandson of the fifth Lord Warwick, by Lady Charlotte Cavendish Bentinck, eldest daughter of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. He was born on 28 Oct. 1801, and was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. on 4 June 1823. Much of his boyhood was spent on the continent, chiefly at Brussels, where his family resided. He thus learned to speak French and Italian with fluency. He was taken by the Duke of Wellington to the celebrated ball given by the Duchess of Richmond at Brussels on the night before the battle of Waterloo. He became private secretary to Lord Francis Egerton, afterwards earl of Ellesmere, when Chief Secretary for Ireland. From 1834 to 1844 he was attaché to the British embassy in Paris. He afterwards held the post of gentleman usher at court.

Greville was fond of society, of music, and the drama. Fanny Kemble knew him well, and described his fine voice and handsome appearance in her Records of a Girlhood, iii. 173. He was known to have been homosexual, and enjoyed a close relationship with the younger artist Frederic Leighton whom in met in Florence in 1856. Greville's letters are full of nicknames for Leighton - calling him 'Fay' and 'Bimbo' and addressing him as "dear boy". However, the affection seems not to have been reciprocated.He died on 12 Dec. 1872 at his house in Mayfair. Like his brother, Charles Cavendish Fulke Greville, he kept during many years of his life a diary of such events, public and private, as specially interested him, a portion of which has been edited by his niece, Viscountess Enfield, under the title, Leaves from the Diary of Henry Greville, 1883-4, 2 vols. 8vo. The Diary derives its chief importance as an historical authority from the author's position at Paris between 1834 and 1844.

Lord Charles Bentinck

Lieutenant-Colonel Lord William Charles Augustus Cavendish-Bentinck (3 October 1780 – 28 April 1826), known as Lord Charles Bentinck, was a British soldier and politician and a great-great-grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II.

Lord Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck

Lord Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck (2 November 1781 – 10 February 1828) known as Lord Frederick Bentinck was a British soldier and politician.

The youngest child and fourth son of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland and Lady Dorothy Cavendish, Cavendish-Bentinck attended Westminster school before joining the army.

Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire

This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. Since 1694, all Lords Lieutenant have also been Custos Rotulorum of Nottinghamshire.

Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland 1552–1563?

Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland 1574–1587?

John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland 3 December 1587 – 24 February 1588

George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury 31 December 1588 – 8 November 1590

vacant

William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Newcastle 6 July 1626 – 1642

Interregnum

William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 30 July 1660 – 25 December 1676

Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 28 March 1677 – 28 March 1689

William Pierrepont, 4th Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull 28 March 1689 – 17 September 1690

vacant

William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire 6 May 1692 – 4 June 1694

John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 4 June 1694 – 15 July 1711

vacant

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 28 October 1714 – 15 January 1763

Evelyn Pierrepont, 2nd Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull 15 January 1763 – 12 September 1765

Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 12 September 1765 – 17 November 1768

Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne 28 December 1768 – 22 February 1794

Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne 2 May 1794 – 17 May 1795

William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland 19 June 1795 – 30 October 1809

Henry Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne 8 December 1809 – 10 May 1839

John Lumley-Savile, 8th Earl of Scarbrough 10 May 1839 – 29 October 1856

Henry Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne 4 December 1857 – 18 October 1864

Edward Strutt, 1st Baron Belper 6 December 1864 – 30 June 1880

William Beauclerk, 10th Duke of St Albans 25 August 1880 – 10 May 1898

William Cavendish-Bentinck, 6th Duke of Portland 2 June 1898 – 10 October 1939

William Cavendish-Bentinck, 7th Duke of Portland 10 October 1939 – 17 May 1962

Sir Robert Laycock 17 May 1962 – 10 March 1968

Robert St Vincent Sherbrooke 7 June 1968 – 13 June 1972

Philip Francklin 6 October 1972 – 9 February 1983

Sir Gordon Hobday 9 February 1983 – 11 February 1991

Sir Andrew Buchanan, Bt 11 February 1991 – July 2012

Sir John Peace, July 2012 - present

Portland, Ontario

Portland is a police village and unincorporated place located in the municipal township of Rideau Lakes, United Counties of Leeds and Grenville in eastern Ontario, Canada. The community is on Ontario Highway 15 about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of Ontario Highway 401 at Kingston by road, and is situated in geographic Bastard Township on the southeast side of Big Rideau Lake.Portland was first settled in the early 19th century as one of the first settlements along the Rideau Waterway. The original seven houses in Portland, informally known as "The Landing", were a transfer point for passengers travelling from Brockville and continuing by barge to Perth.

With the completion of the Rideau Canal Waterway in 1832, steamboats and barges carrying raw materials such as cordwood, maple syrup, potash, cheese, tanned hides and salt beef were a common sight. Portland became a thriving village of trade with Kingston, Montreal and Ottawa.

The village of Portland took its name in 1843 from William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. By the 1860s, the settlement had expanded considerably to require five hotels and, by the early 20th century, cottages were springing up around the lake and the tourist trade had begun. Advances in rail and road travel and increasing tourism offset a decline in the role of agriculture in the economy of Portland. Tourism then began to lead the economy of Portland, and still does to this day.An international speed skating tournament called Skate the Lake is held each winter by Portland Outdoors on the Big Rideau Lake.

Portland Canal

The Portland Canal is an arm of Portland Inlet, one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast. It is approximately 114 kilometres (71 mi) long. The Portland Canal forms part of the border between southeastern Alaska and British Columbia. The name of the entire inlet in the Nisga'a language is K'alii Xk'alaan, with /xk/alaan/ meaning "at the back of (someplace)". The upper end of the inlet was home to the Tsetsaut ("Jits'aawit" in Nisga'a), who after being decimated by war and disease were taken under the protection of the Laxsgiik (Eagle) chief of the Nisga'a, who holds the inlet's title in native law.Despite its naming as a canal, the inlet is a fjord, a completely natural and not man-made geographic feature and extends 114.6 kilometres (71.2 mi) northward from the Portland Inlet at Pearse Island, British Columbia, to Stewart, British Columbia and Hyder, Alaska. Observatory Inlet joins the Portland Canal at Ramsden Point, where both merge with Portland Inlet. Pearse Canal joins Portland Canal at the north end of Pearse Island.Portland Canal was given its name by George Vancouver in 1793, in honour of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. The use of the word canal to name inlets on the British Columbia Coast and the Alaska Panhandle is a legacy of the Spanish exploration of the area in the 18th century. For example, Haro Strait between Victoria and the San Juan Islands was originally Canal de Haro. The English cognate to the Spanish canal is "channel", which is found throughout the coast, cf. Dean Channel. George Vancouver used both terms in his naming of inlets, Hood Canal for example.

The placement of the international boundary in the Portland Canal was a major issue during the negotiations over the Alaska Boundary Dispute, which heated up as a result of the Klondike Gold Rush and ended by arbitration in 1903. Together with Pearse Canal and Tongass Passage, the Portland Canal is defined by the Alaska Boundary Settlement (the Hay-Herbert Treaty) as part of Portland Channel, a term used as forming the marine boundary in the Anglo-Russian Treaty of 1825 but which was undefined at the time.

River Maun

The River Maun is a river in Nottinghamshire, England. Its source lies in Kirkby-in-Ashfield, and from there it flows north east through Mansfield (which takes its name from the river), Edwinstowe and Ollerton, these being the heart of the Sherwood Forest area. It becomes known as Whitewater near the village of Walesby and connects to the River Meden temporarily where the Robin Hood Way crosses them. They diverge, and near Markham Moor it merges again with the River Meden this time becoming the River Idle. Its main tributaries are Rainworth Water, Vicar Water and Cauldwell Water.

The river has been an important source of power, from at least 1086, when there was a watermill in Mansfield. A big increase in the number of mills began in the 1780s, when the frame knitting industry was decimated by the advent of Richard Arkwright's water-powered spinning frame. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, encouraged the building of textile mills to relieve unemployment and poverty. Most were converted to do "cotton doubling", and several later became hosiery mills. The conversion of watermills which had formerly ground corn to textile mills led to the building of windmills to carry on milling corn. Although water power has largely ceased, there is still an operational water-mill at Ollerton.

William Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, Marquess of Titchfield

William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, Marquess of Titchfield (21 August 1796 – 5 March 1824)—styled Viscount Woodstock until 1809—was a British Member of Parliament (MP) and peer. Born into the noble Bentinck family, his grandfather William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, served as both Prime Minister of Great Britain and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Expected to succeed his father as the fifth Duke of Portland, Titchfield died at only 27 years old.

Coat of arms of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Portland
Notes
The title Duke of Portland was created by George I in 1716.
Coronet
A Coronet of a Duke
Crest
Out of a ducal coronet proper two arms counter-embowed vested Gules, on the hands gloves Or, each holding an ostrich feather Argent (Bentinck); A snake nowed proper (Cavendish)
Escutcheon
Quarterly: 1st and 4th, Azure a cross moline Argent (Bentinck); 2nd and 3rd, Sable three stags' heads cabossed Argent attired Or, a crescent for difference (Cavendish)
Supporters
Two lions double queued, the dexter Or and the sinister sable
Motto
Craignez Honte (Fear Dishonour)
Ancestors of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
16. Bernard Bentinck, Baron Bentinck, Heer van Diepenheim en Schoonheten
8. William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland
17. Anna van Bloemendaal
4. Henry Bentinck, 1st Duke of Portland
18. Sir Edward Villiers
9. Anne Villiers
19. Lady Frances Howard
2. William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland
20. Edward Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough
10. Wriothesley Noel, 2nd Earl of Gainsborough
21. Lady Elizabeth Wriothesley
5. Lady Elizabeth Noel
22. Fulke Greville, 5th Baron Brooke
11. The Hon. Catherine Greville
23. Sarah Dashwood
1. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland
24. Sir Edward Harley
12. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer
25. Abigail Stephens
6. Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer
26. Thomas Foley
13. Elizabeth Foley
27. Elizabeth Ashe
3. Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley
28. Gilbert Holles, 3rd Earl of Clare
14. John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle
29. Grace Pierrepont
7. Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles
30. Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle
15. Lady Margaret Cavendish
31. Frances Pierrepont
William Cavendish-Bentinck navigational boxes

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