William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford

General William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, GCB, GCH, PC (/ˈkɑːr ˈbɛrɪsfərd/; 2 October 1768 – 8 January 1854) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. A general in the British Army and a Marshal in the Portuguese Army, he fought alongside The Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and held the office of Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828 in Wellington's first ministry.

The Viscount Beresford
William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford by Sir William Beechey (2)
Lord Beresford by Sir William Beechey
Born2 October 1768
Bedgebury, Kent, England
Died8 January 1854 (aged 85)
Kilndown, Kent, England
Buried
Christ Church, Kilndown
(51°05′27″N 0°25′37″E / 51.090735°N 0.426909°ECoordinates: 51°05′27″N 0°25′37″E / 51.090735°N 0.426909°E)
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
 British Empire
 Kingdom of Portugal
Service/branchArmy
Years of service1785–1830
RankGeneral (UK)
Field marshal (Portugal)
Commands heldMaster-General of the Ordnance
Battles/warsWar of the First Coalition
The Egyptian Campaign
Anglo-Spanish War
Peninsular War
Other workGovernor of Jersey
Governor of Royal Military Academy

Background

Beresford was the illegitimate son of the 1st Marquess of Waterford. He was the brother of Admiral Sir John Beresford, 1st Baronet (who was also illegitimate), and the half-brother of the 2nd Marquess of Waterford, Archbishop Lord John Beresford and General Lord George Beresford.[1]

Early campaign experience

La Reconquista de Buenos Aires
William Carr Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.

Beresford entered the British Army in 1785 as an ensign in the 6th Regiment of Foot and the next year he was blinded in one eye due to an incident with a musket. He remained in the service being promoted to captain by 1791 with the 69th Regiment of Foot. He distinguished himself at Toulon (1793), in Egypt (1799–1803) and in South Africa (1805). From there crossed the South Atlantic to South America to invade the River Plate region (now Argentina), with a small British force of 1,500 men, departing on 14 April 1806. Following his move to Cape Town in Cape Colony, Beresford, spurred on by Home Popham, R.N. (later Rear Admiral Sir Home Popham), decided to attack Buenos Aires in Spanish South America. No attempt was made to gain authorization from the Crown for this undertaking. In the invasion of the River Plate, Buenos Aires was occupied for 46 days. However, the British force could not maintain itself against the army gathered by Santiago de Liniers. After a relentless two-day fight with the Buenos Aires and Montevideo militias between 10 and 12 August 1806, the British were defeated and forced to capitulate. Beresford had to surrender, remaining prisoner for six months; in the end, he managed to escape and arrived in England in 1807.[2]

Peninsular War

Marechal Beresford-Coudelaria de Alter (Pt.)
Field-marshal Beresford – Coudelaria de Alter, Portugal

Commander in Chief of the Portuguese Army

In that same year Beresford was sent to Madeira, which he occupied in name of the King of Portugal, remaining there for six months as Governor and Commander in Chief. The exiled Portuguese Government in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whereto the Portuguese Royal Family had transferred the Court, realised the necessity of appointing a commander-in-chief capable of training, equipping and disciplining the demoralised Portuguese Army. The Portuguese government asked Britain to appoint Arthur Wellesley to this role, Wellesley indicated he could not do the role justice due to his prior engagements and recommended Beresford. He was appointed Marshal and Commander in Chief of the Army by Decree of 7 March 1809 and took the command on 15th of the same month. At that time, French general Marshal Soult had already crossed into Portugal where he occupied Porto. Beresford quickly overhauled the Portuguese forces, bringing them in line with British discipline and organization, and from the General Headquarters (then at the Largo do Calhariz), he dispatched many "daily orders" altering points of the infantry ordnance, creating a general command of artillery, establishing the separation of the battalions, firing incompetent or corrupt officers and promoting or appointing appropriate replacements.

On campaign

On 22 April 1809 Sir Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington, disembarked in Lisbon, and took over the command of all the Anglo-Portuguese troops whereupon Beresford was nominated Marshal General of the Portuguese Army. The allied armies marched to the North. Wellington moved from Coimbra directly to Porto, which he entered on 12 May, and Beresford marched through the Province of Beira, arriving that same day at the banks of the Douro river, in the area of Lamego. Wellington's troops made a forced crossing of the Douro and defeated the French, forcing their Marshall-general Jean-de-Dieu Soult to withdraw from Porto. Soult was outnumbered and expelled from Portugal; the positioning of Beresford's forces compelled the French to leave Portugal by the poor roads through Montalegre. They managed to cross the border only after sacrificing their artillery and baggage, and faced numerous difficulties during the evacuation.

The Second French Invasion of Portugal was defeated and the allied armies moved back to the South, the British concentrating at Abrantes and the Portuguese at Castelo Branco. With the intention of cooperating with the Spanish against Marshal Victor, the Anglo-Portuguese forces under Wellesley moved into Spain in the Talavera campaign while Beresford remained on the Águeda River covering the Spanish-Portuguese border. After Wellesley's return, now as Viscount Wellington, following the Battle of Talavera, Beresford re-entered Portugal, where he distributed the army at various locations and established his General Headquarters in Lisbon. From Lisbon he dispatched numerous orders and instructions for the reform of the Portuguese military.

In the same year (1809), and the one following he made tours of inspection of the corps that were found quartered in the various provinces and he corrected any defects he noticed and established rules for the functioning of the different branches of the military service. In this way he improved the functioning of the Portuguese Army so that they might face the forces of Napoleon invading the country for the third time. The beneficial results of his efforts were proven at the campaign against Masséna in particular at the Battle of Buçaco on 27 September 1810 where the Portuguese troops played a prominent part, and also in the defence of the Lines of Torres Vedras).

The most notable action in which Beresford held independent command occurred in 1811 when a combined Anglo-Portuguese and Spanish army under his command, intercepted a French army commanded by Marshal Soult, who had been ordered by Marshal Auguste Marmont to move to protect the important Spanish fortress-city of Badajoz. As the French forces retreated from the Lines of Torres Vedras, Beresford marched towards Badajoz, which he laid siege to. Having, however, received notice that Soult was approaching, he lifted the siege and posted his army at Albuera in a defensive position. There he defeated the French forces on 16 May 1811. After the bloody Battle of Albuera the French were forced to retreat, though the siege of Badajoz had to be subsequently abandoned. Meanwhile, on 13 May 1811, he was created Count of Trancoso in Portugal by decree of Prince Regent John.

At the beginning of July 1811, Beresford was again in Lisbon, but he was subjected to fits of "nervous breakdowns", as described by Brigadier D'Urban, quarter master general of the Portuguese Army. He recuperated in February 1812 and then joined Wellington in his investment of Ciudad Rodrigo. Once the fortified town had fallen, he went with the army to Alentejo, and participated in the Anglo-Portuguese Siege of Badajoz. After Badajoz had been stormed, along with Wellington he once again took up position on the Águeda, and from there launched the Salamanca campaign. On 22 July 1812, the important Battle of Salamanca was fought, giving the Anglo-Portuguese forces a decisive victory over the French under Marshal Marmont. In the battle Beresford was badly wounded under his left breast while ordering the advance of one of the Portuguese brigades.

He retired to Lisbon, had bouts of fever and was half incapacitated for several months until May of the next year (1813). Meanwhile, he was also created Marquis of Campo Maior in Portugal by Prince Regent John on 17 December 1812. In March he was confirmed as second in command of the Allied Army and rejoined the campaigning army before assisting in the liberation of Spain by the British and Portuguese armies.

In the invasion of France, he assisted Wellington at the command of a corps and was hailed as the liberator of Bordeaux. He fought in France at Toulouse the last clash of the Peninsular War. During that conflict he had been present at the battles of A Coruña, Busaco, Albuera, Badajoz, Salamanca, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Orthez and Toulouse. His Peninsular Gold Medal had seven clasps - only the Duke of Wellington, with nine clasps, had more to their medal.[3]

Later career

After peace was declared he went to England on leave and came back again to Lisbon to reassume the command of the Portuguese Army. He did not limit himself, however, to that role, and intended to intervene in the general politics of the country, from this he came into conflict with the Regency. He then determined to go to the Court in Rio de Janeiro. He departed to there in August 1815 and returned in September 1816, invested with wider powers than the ones which he had previously enjoyed. Beresford took a high hand in his dealings with Gomes Freire de Andrade (1817) and, put into a difficult situation, he returned to Brazil, obtaining from John VI the confirmation of the powers he had already attained, which he desired to see amplified.

When he returned to Portugal, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 intervened; the British officers, for the most part, had been discharged, and the government would not even consent that Beresford could disembark. He was made Governor of Jersey in 1821 and held the position till 1854, the last titular Governor of Jersey; since his death the Crown has been represented in Jersey by the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey.

He was given the colonelcy of three regiments in succession. He was Colonel of the 69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot from 1807 to 1819, the 88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers) from 1819 to 1823 and the 16th (Bedfordshire) Regiment from 1823 until his death. Briefly returning to Portugal in 1827 at the request of the Regent, Infanta Isabel Maria of Braganza, he gave up his ambitions because of the resistance he encountered among the new Portuguese elite and returned to Britain.

In the 1840s, Beresford expanded the Bedgebury Estate near Goudhurst, Kent. He built the hamlet of Kilndown to the north west of Bedgebury.[4]

Legacy

Lord Beresford plaque Jersey
William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, was the last titular Governor of Jersey

Napier, in his History of the Peninsular War, severely criticized the tactics of Beresford at the Battle of Albuera, which gave origin to a heated correspondence between the Marshal and the historian. The published letters of Beresford which are mentioned below refer to this controversy. Wellington himself had no illusions over Beresford's ability as a General, but he appreciated his abilities as a military organizer that he recommended, in case of his death, that Beresford succeeded him in command. He published: Strictures on Certain Passages of L. Col. Napier's History of Peninsular War; Further Strictures; Refutation of Col. Napier's Justification, London, 1831–1834, 3 Vol.; Letter to Charles Edward Long, Esq. on the Extracts Recently Published from the Ms. Journal and Private Correspondence of the Late Lieut-Gen. R. B. Long, London, John Murray, 1833; A Second Letter to Charles Edward Long, Esq. on the Ms. Journal and Private Correspondence of the Late Lieut. General R. B. Long (1834). Also of interest is the Colecção das Ordens do Dia (Collection of Orders of the Day) produced by Beresford's general headquarters nos Anos de 1809 a 1823 (for the years 1809 to 1823), Lisbon, 13 Vol. (at the Library of the English Institute of the University of Coimbra).

Graves of William Carr Beresford GCB and his wife
Graves of William Carr Beresford GCB and his wife
Grave of William Carr Beresford GCB
Grave of William Carr Beresford GCB

As a reward for his services in the fight against the French he was raised to the peerage as Baron Beresford, of Albuera and Dungarvan in the County of Waterford, in 1814.[5][6] In 1823 he was further honoured when he was made Viscount Beresford, of Beresford in the County of Stafford, in 1823.[7] Beside many national and foreign honours and decorations he received the Grand Cross of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword. Some authors infer that he also had the title of 1st Duke of Elvas; but no document recording the granting this title is extant. Beresford County, New South Wales, Australia was named in his honour.[8]

Parliament

Beresford was Member of Parliament (MP) for County Waterford from a by-election on 28 June 1811 to 25 April 1814, just before being raised to his peerage.[9]

He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1821.

Family

Lord Beresford married his first cousin the Honourable Louisa, widow of Thomas Hope and daughter of William Beresford, 1st Baron Decies and Elizabeth Fitzgibbon, in 1832. The marriage was childless. She died in July 1851. Lord Beresford died in January 1854, aged 85. The barony and viscountcy became extinct on his death. His estates were passed on to his stepson, Alexander Beresford Hope.[1] Beresford's Portuguese titles were not renewed, although his nephews continued using them.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b thepeerage.com Lt.-Gen. William Carr Beresford, 1st and last Viscount Beresford of Beresford
  2. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  3. ^ Bob Burnham: The British Army Against Napoleon, p259
  4. ^ "Summary of the Bedgebury Forest archaeological survey". Forestry Commission. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  5. ^ "No. 16894". The London Gazette. 3 May 1814. p. 936.
  6. ^ "No. 16895". The London Gazette. 7 May 1814. p. 956.
  7. ^ "No. 17909". The London Gazette. 29 March 1823. p. 498.
  8. ^ "Beresford". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 11 August 2013. Edit this at Wikidata
  9. ^ Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs

Sources

External links

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Claudius Beresford
Richard Power
Member of Parliament for County Waterford
March 1830 – 1831
With: Richard Power to August 1830
Richard Shapland Power from August 1830
Succeeded by
Richard Shapland Power
Lord George Beresford
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Hildebrand Oakes, Bt
Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance
1823–1824
Succeeded by
Sir George Murray
Preceded by
The Marquess of Anglesey
Master-General of the Ordnance
1828–1830
Succeeded by
Sir James Kempt
Preceded by
Hugh Mackay Gordon
Colonel of the 16th (Bedfordshire) Regiment
1823–1854
Succeeded by
Thomas Erskine Napier
Preceded by
Sir Cornelius Cuyler, 1st Baronet
Colonel of the 69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot
1819–1823
Succeeded by
Sir John Hamilton, 1st Baronet, of Woodbrook
Preceded by
John Reid
Colonel of the 88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers)
1807–1819
Succeeded by
Sir Gordon Drummond
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Beresford
1814–1854
Extinct
Viscount Beresford
1823–1854
Portuguese nobility
New creation Count of Trancoso
1811–1854
Extinct
Marquis of Campo Maior
1812–1854
1768

1768 (MDCCLXVIII)

was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1768th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 768th year of the 2nd millennium, the 68th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1768, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1854

1854 (MDCCCLIV)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1854th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 854th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1854, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers)

The 88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers) ("the Devil's Own") was an infantry Regiment of the British Army, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 94th Regiment of Foot to form the Connaught Rangers in 1881.

Alexander Beresford Hope

Sir Alexander James Beresford Beresford Hope PC (25 January 1820 – 20 October 1887), known as Alexander Hope until 1854 (and also known as A. J. B. Hope until 1854 and as A. J. B. Beresford Hope from 1854 onwards), was a British author and Conservative politician.

Beresford, New Brunswick

Beresford is a Canadian town in Gloucester County, New Brunswick.It is situated on the shore of Chaleur Bay immediately north of the city of Bathurst. 81% of the town's residents are francophone.

Beresford-Peirse baronets

The Beresford, later Beresford-Peirse Baronetcy, of Bagnall in the County of Waterford, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 21 May 1814 for John Beresford. He was an admiral in the Royal Navy and also represented Coleraine, Berwick-on-Tweed, Northallerton and Chatham in the House of Commons. Beresford was the illegitimate son of George Beresford, 1st Marquess of Waterford, and the brother of William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford. He was succeeded by his son, the second Baronet, from his first marriage to Mary Molloy. He died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his nephew, the third Baronet. He was the eldest son of Henry William de la Poer Beresford-Peirse (1820–1859), eldest son of the first Baronet's second marriage to Harriett Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Peirse. He served as Chairman of the North Riding of Yorkshire County Council. His grandson, the fifth Baronet, was Director-General of the Forestry Commission between 1962 and 1968. As of 2014 the title is held by the latter's grandson, the seventh Baronet, who succeeded his father in 2013.

Beresford Square

Beresford Square is a pedestrianised town and market square in Woolwich in the Royal Borough of Greenwich in London, England. It was formed in the early 19th century and was named after the Anglo-Irish general William Beresford, Master-General of the Ordnance and Governor of the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich. With its lively street market and lined with shops, pubs and restaurants, Beresford Square has been the heart of Woolwich for over two centuries.

Catterick Bridge

Catterick Bridge is both a bridge across the River Swale in North Yorkshire, England, about 1 mile north of Catterick, and a hamlet at the south end of the bridge.

E. H. D. Sewell

Edward Humphrey Dalrymple Sewell (30 September 1872 – 20 September 1947) was a first-class cricketer, popular cricket and rugby journalist and author, known universally as E. H. D. Sewell.

Gordon Drummond

General Sir Gordon Drummond, GCB (27 September 1772 – 10 October 1854) was a Canadian-born British army officer and the first official to command the military and the civil government of Canada. As Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, Drummond distinguished himself on the Niagara front in the War of 1812 and later became Governor-General and Administrator of Canada.

Goudhurst

Goudhurst is a village in Kent on the Weald, about 12 miles (19 km) south of Maidstone.

It stands on a crossroads (A262 & B2079), where there is a large village pond. It is also in the Cranbrook School catchment area.

The parish consists of three wards: Goudhurst, Kilndown and Curtisden Green. Hamlets include Bedgebury Cross, Iden Green, Stonecrouch and Winchet Hill.

Hugh Gordon (British Army officer)

Lieutenant General Hugh Mackay Gordon (1760 – 12 March 1823) was a British Army officer who became Lieutenant Governor of Jersey.

January 8

January 8 is the eighth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 357 days remain until the end of the year (358 in leap years).

Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

The Lieutenant Governor of Jersey is the representative of the British monarch in the Bailiwick of Jersey, a Crown dependency of the British Crown.

The Lieutenant Governor has his own flag in Jersey, the Union Flag defaced with the Bailiwick's coat of arms. The Lieutenant Governor's official residence (Government House) in St. Saviour was depicted on the Jersey £50 note 1989–2010.

Lord Beresford

Lord Beresford may refer to:

William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford (1768–1854), British soldier, Governor of Jersey

Charles Beresford, 1st Baron Beresford (1846–1919), better known as Lord Charles Beresford, British naval commander and politician, great-nephew of the above

October 2

October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 90 days remain until the end of the year.

Sir John Murray, 8th Baronet

General Sir John Murray, 8th Baronet, (c. 1768 – 15 October 1827) led a brigade under Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War. Later in the war, he commanded an independent force that operated on the east coast of Spain.

Sir Tristram Beresford, 1st Baronet

Sir Tristram Beresford, 1st Baronet (died 15 January 1673) was an Irish soldier and politician. He is ancestor of the Marquesses of Waterford, the Barons Decies and the Beresford baronets, of William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford and Charles Beresford, 1st Baron Beresford.

He was the eldest son of Tristram Beresford, who originated from Kent and had settled in Ireland, and his wife Susannah Brooke. Beresford entered the Irish House of Commons in 1634, sitting for Londonderry County in this year. He represented the constituency again from 1656 until 1658 and stood successfully a third time in 1661, a seat he held for the next five years. Beresford was knighted in 1664 and was created a Baronet, of Coleraine, in the County of Londonderry on 5 May of the following year.He married firstly Anne Rowley, oldest daughter of John Rowley, and had by her a son and two daughters. After her death Beresford remarried Sarah Sackville. By his second wife he had another three sons and three daughters. Beresford died on 18 January 1673 and was buried in Coleraine five days later. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son Randal.

Thomas Napier (British Army officer)

General Sir Thomas Erskine Napier (10 May 1790 – 5 July 1863) was a British Army officer who became Commander-in-Chief, Scotland.

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