William & Mary Tribe

The William & Mary Tribe are the athletic teams for the College of William & Mary. The name refers to the unity and camaraderie that William & Mary student-athletes display when competing in the classroom and on the field. The school's mascot is a griffin. The mythical animal reflects the school's history of heraldry and evokes symbols of both colonial and national America.

William & Mary has won two team national championships (both in men's tennis), the AIAW championships in women's golf, the NAIA championships in women's gymnastics, thirteen USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships, and many individual national championships. The College has more conference championships than any other school in the Colonial Athletic Association. As of the end of the 2010–11 academic year, the Tribe had won 101 conference championships. Dating back to the athletic program's beginning, there have been over 159 conference titles in all.

William & Mary is the second-oldest university in the United States. Since the founding of its athletic program in 1893 the school's athletes have worn different colours and nicknames. From 1893 to 1909 William & Mary football players were known simply as the Orange and White; this reflected the official school colors at that time. From 1910 to 1916 the team colors changed, and the new nickname, "The Orange and Black," reflected this. From 1916 to the mid-1980s William & Mary athletic teams were known as the Indians to reflect First American history in the area. Since 1978 the school's teams have been known simply as the Tribe. During the 2006–07 school year then–College President Gene Nichol removed two tribal feathers from the William & Mary athletic logo to bring the program into compliance with newly passed NCAA regulations. On April 6, 2010, after student discussion and polling, the griffin was announced as the school's new mascot.

William & Mary Tribe
Logo
UniversityThe College of William & Mary
ConferenceColonial Athletic Association
Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics League
NCAADivision I
Athletic directorSamantha Huge
LocationWilliamsburg, Virginia
Varsity teams23
Football stadiumZable Stadium
Basketball arenaKaplan Arena
Baseball stadiumPlumeri Park
Soccer stadiumAlbert–Daly Field
Lacrosse stadiumBusch Field
Other arenasMcCormack-Nagelsen Tennis Center
MascotGriffin
NicknameTribe
Fight songTribe Fight Song
ColorsGreen, Gold, and Silver[1]
              
Websitewww.tribeathletics.com
CAA logo in William & Mary colors
Colonial Athletic Association logo in William & Mary's colors

Sports sponsored

Men's sports Women's sports
Baseball Basketball
Basketball Cross country
Cross country Field hockey
Football Golf
Golf Gymnastics
Gymnastics Lacrosse
Soccer Soccer
Swimming Swimming
Tennis Tennis
Track and field Track and field
Volleyball
† – Track and field includes both indoor and outdoor

Baseball

In the 1960s Joe Plumeri, future Chairman & CEO of Willis Group Holdings and owner of the Trenton Thunder, who later donated $2 million to build the team's Plumeri Park, played on the baseball team as a second baseman and outfielder.[2] Plumeri also funded the Joseph J. Plumeri Endowment Fund for baseball scholarships for the school.[3] The baseball team has qualified for the NCAA Division I Baseball Championship in 1983, 2001, 2013 and 2016, with the most recent appearance including an upset of the Tribe's rival (and defending College World Series champion) Virginia Cavaliers.

Football

The football team has won eight conference championships. While a member of the Southern Conference, W&M were champions or co-champions in 1942, 1947, 1966, and 1970. In the 1960s, future Willis Group Holdings Chairman & CEO Joe Plumeri played on the football team on scholarship as a halfback for Lou Holtz.[2] After joining the Yankee Conference, the Tribe won the Mid-Atlantic Division in 1993 and won the conference championship in 1996. After the Yankee Conference's 1997 merger with the A-10 Conference, the Tribe were co-champions in 2001 and 2004. After the Colonial Athletic Association began sponsoring football with the 2007 season, the Tribe were co-champions in 2010 and in 2015.

The 2004 season saw William & Mary reach the Division I-AA national semi-finals before finally falling to rival James Madison University.

In 2008, the Tribe played Richmond, at home, on the very last game of the season. While Richmond was assured of a berth in the playoffs, having played and won an extra game due to a 12-game schedule that year (Tribe only played 11 games), the Tribe entered the game needing a win to secure a playoff spot. William & Mary trailed by 14 points going into the 4th quarter but made a huge comeback (largely due to Derek Cox) to send the game into overtime. The Tribe lost in overtime after Richmond blocked a field goal attempt during the Tribe's possession, then kicked a successful field goal during its possession. By failing to beat the Spiders William & Mary missed the playoffs. Richmond, however, would go on to win the NCAA Division I Football Championship by defeating Eastern Kentucky, Appalachian State, Northern Iowa, and the University of Montana 24–7 in the National Championship Game in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

In 2009, the Tribe played the Virginia Cavaliers (UVa), in a season opening match-up for both schools in Charlottesville for the first time since 1986. The Tribe upset Virginia 26–14. It was the second Tribe win over Virginia in as many tries and mirrored several other recent wins by CAA (FCS) programs over those in the ACC (FBS), including three by Richmond over Duke (2006, 2009, 2011). The Tribe finished the year 11–3, after a run to the national semifinals that ended with a 14–13 loss to CAA rival and eventual champion Villanova.

Basketball

Men

Traditionally, the Tribe has not been a storied basketball program, though they have achieved sporadic success. Their only postseason berths ever were the 1983 National Invitation Tournament after winning the regular season conference title and the 2010 National Invitation Tournament after beating both Wake Forest University and the University of Maryland on the road during the regular season. The Tribe qualified for the 2015 National Invitation Tournament after winning their first ever CAA regular season title.

They have appeared in nine conference tournament finals. While in the Southern Conference they lost the tournament final in 1958, 1961, 1965, and 1975, and while in the ECAC South (precursor to the Colonial Athletic Association) they lost the 1983 final to James Madison, 38–41. Their most recent CAA tournament final appearances came in 2008 (L, 59–68 vs. George Mason), 2010 (L, 53–60 vs. Old Dominion), 2014 (L, 74–75 vs. Delaware), and 2015 (L, 61–72 vs. Northeastern).

Women

The Tribe women's basketball team has generally not been a successful program. Their only conference tournament final appearance to date was in the 1993 CAA final, which they lost to perennial power Old Dominion, 51–65. The 2014–15 season was their most successful in many years and resulted in a bid to the 2015 Women's Basketball Invitational.

Cross country, track & field

The College of William & Mary's most dominant sports are its men's and women's cross country and track & field teams. The cross country teams host their home meets on the grounds of the Eastern State Hospital. Home track meets are held at Zable Stadium. However, the university's 2014 master plan called for relocating the track to a new facility adjacent to Albert–Daly Field and Plumeri Park. The totals below are current as of the end of the 2014–15 season.

Men

The men's cross country team qualified for fourteen straight NCAA Division I championships (1997–2010), and 26 total NCAA championship appearances. Alumnus Brian Hyde represented the United States in the 1996 Olympics. In November 2009, the Tribe placed 5th at the Division 1 NCAA Men's Cross Country Championship in Terre Haute, Indiana.

William & Mary hosted the men's cross country championship at Eastern State Hospital in 1970.

Total conference championships:

  • Cross Country – 38 (23 CAA, 15 Southern)
  • Track & Field – 32 championships in 21 separate years[a]

NCAA championship team appearances:

NCAA individual championships:

  • 1969-70: Hal Michael, indoor mile
  • 1973-74: Reggie Clark, indoor 880 yards[4]

Women

The women's cross country squad has made nine NCAA championship appearances, most recently in 2014 when they won their first-ever NCAA Regional title.

Total conference championships:

  • Cross Country – 21
  • Track & Field – 11

NCAA championship team appearances:

AIAW individual championships:

  • 1982: Jeri Daniels, (outdoor) shot put[5]

Soccer

Men

The Tribe men's soccer team has produced two First Team All-Americans and fourteen NCAA Tournament appearances, most recently in 2010. They have won eight conference tournaments since the program's inception in 1965. The most famous alumnus from this program is TV pundit Jon Stewart. He played from 1981–1983 and scored the lone goal in a 1–0 victory over UConn in the 1983 ECAC Tournament Championship to give William & Mary their second ever conference tournament championship crown. Stewart ended his career with 10 goals and 12 assists while playing as a midfielder and winger.

The majority of the Tribe's success in men's soccer was overseen by Al Albert during an illustrious 33-year career as head coach. In 2004, Albert passed the coaching reins to his capable protege, Chris Norris. Norris was a player and assistant coach at W&M for 13 years before becoming Albert's successor in Williamsburg.

Women

When counting all-time women's soccer NCAA Tournament appearances, just behind national powerhouses North Carolina (with 30) and UConn (with 28) are the William & Mary Tribe (24). As of the end of 2011, they were on an NCAA-record 30-year consecutive winning seasons streak (tied with North Carolina), dating back to 1982, capturing ten conference tournament crowns in that span. Twice players were selected as the NSCAA National Player of the Year (1987, 1995), and three times the team has made it all the way to the Tournament's Elite 8 (1987, 1994, 1997).

Field hockey

Busch Field 1
The women's lacrosse and field hockey teams play at Busch Field.

The field hockey team plays at Busch Field on campus. The team has one CAA championship (2018) and has qualified for three NCAA tournaments, with a combined record of 1–3.

NCAA Tournament performances

Year Round Opponents Results/Scores
2000 First Round Michigan L, 2–3 (OT)
2002 First Round Maryland L, 1–2 (OT)
2018 Opening Round
First Round
Monmouth
#1 North Carolina
W, 3–2 (OT)
L, 0-4

Gymnastics

The men's and women's gymnastics teams host their meets at William & Mary Hall.

Men

The men's team has been very successful across the years. While never winning a team national title, the team has achieved two individual championships: Scott McCall on the rings in 1996 and Ramon Jackson on the parallel bars in 2004. The team has appeared at five NCAA championship events: 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2008. Tribe men's gymnastics has also won thirteen USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009) and produced five CGCA National Academic Team Champions. Additionally, they are members of the Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics League. The Tribe has a total of four ECAC gymnastics titles, 1992, 1994, 2006, and 2014.

Year Results
2002 12th (of 12)
2003 12th (of 12)
2005 12th (of 12)
2006 11th (of 12)
2008 11th (of 12)
2014 12th (of 12)

Women

The women's team, on the other hand, has never qualified for the national championship meet or won an individual event. Nonetheless, the women's team has still won six ECAC gymnastics championships: 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2014 & 2015. They also won an NAIA gymnastics title in 1983.

Golf

18th hole green, Kingsmill Resort, James City County, Virginia
The golf teams host their tournaments at Kingsmill Resort.

Both the men's and women's golf teams host their home tournaments at the River Course at the Kingsmill Resort. Neither the men nor women have ever qualified as a team for the NCAA golf championships. However, the women's team won an AIAW championship in 1981. In conference play, the men's team won their sole CAA championship in 1985.

Lacrosse

The women's lacrosse team plays at Busch Field. They have qualified for seven NCAA tournaments and have a combined record of 0–7. They also have one CAA title, from 1992.

NCAA performances

Year Round Opponents Results/Scores
1983 First Round Delaware L, 7–11
1988 First Round Harvard L, 6–7
1994 First Round Virginia L, 4–8
1996 First Round Virginia L, 6–8
1997 First Round Loyola (MD) L, 2–11
1998 First Round James Madison L, 9–15
2001 First Round Loyola (MD) L, 7–15

Swimming and diving

The men's and women's teams compete at the Student Recreation Center. Previously, they swam at the Adair Gymnasium.

Men

The men's teams has competed at two NCAA championships, 1985 and 1986, but has not won a team or individual national championship. The team has won five CAA championships: 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019.

Year Results
1985 32nd (of 36)
1986 41st (of 43)

Women

The women's team, on the other hand, has never qualified for a NCAA championship meet. They have also won three CAA championships: 2007, 2016, and 2017.

Tennis

The men's and women's tennis teams play at the Millie West Tennis Facility and the McCormack–Nagelsen Tennis Center. Both teams (as of 2015) are the defending CAA tennis champions.

Men

The men's team won two NCAA championships in 1947 (10–4 vs. Rice) and 1948 (6–5 vs. San Francisco); they were led by coach Sharvey G. Umbeck to both titles. They were runners up in 1946 against USC. Individually, players have won two individual events: Gardner Larned won the singles title in 1947 and the pair of Fred Kovaleski and Bernard Bartzen won the doubles title in 1948. Since then, Tribe men's tennis has made four national championship appearances (with a record of 0–3): 1999, 2005, 2007, and 2015. Additionally, the men have won four CAA tennis championships: 1988, 1990, 2005, and 2015.

Year Round Opponent Results/Scores
1999 First Round Clemson L, 3–4
2005 First Round TAMU–Corpus Christi L, 2–4
2007 First Round NC State L, 0–4
2015 First Round North Carolina L, 0–4

Women

The women's team, while never winning an NCAA title, has also been prolific. The team has made 22 appearances in the NCAA championships with a combined record of 21–20: 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013, 2016, and 2017. Furthermore, the women's team has won 25 conference titles: 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017.

Year Round Opponent Results/Scores
1989 First Round San Diego State L, 3–6
1990 First Round South Carolina L, 0–6
1991 First Round Miami (FL) L, 3–6
1992 First Round
Second Round
Miami (FL)
Texas
W, 5–4
L, 3–5
1995 Second Round California L, 2–5
1996 East Regional
East Regional
East Regional
First Round
Seton Hall
Virignia
California
Texas
W, 5–4
W, 5–4
W, 5–4
L, 3–5
1997 East Regional
East Regional
East Regional
First Round
Quarterfinals
Richmond
Brown
Harvard
Georgia
Stanford
W, 5–0
W, 5–0
W, 5–3
W, 5–0
L, 0–6
1998 East Regional
East Regional
East Regional
First Round
Quarterfinals
Richmond
Virginia Tech
VCU
California
Georgia
W, 5–1
W, 5–1
W, 5–3
W, 5–3
L, 2–5
1999 Regional Semifinals
Regional Final
UMBC
Fresno State
W, 6–0
L, 3–5
2000 Round of 64
Round of 32
Loyola (MD)
Tennessee
W, 5–0
L, 3–5
2002 Round of 64 Clemson L, 3–4
2003 Round of 64
Round of 32
Round of 16
Temple
South Alabama
Duke
W, 4–0
W, 4–1
L, 0–5
2004 Round of 64
Round of 32
Illinois
Duke
W, 4–2
L, 0–4
2005 Round of 64
Round of 32
Wisconsin
Clemson
W, 4–1
L, 0–4
2006 Round of 64 NC State L, 3–4
2007 Round of 64
Round of 32
Round of 16
Richmond
Wake Forest
Georgia
W, 4–0
W, 4–1
L, 1–4
2008 Round of 64
Round of 32
NC State
Duke
W, 4–0
L, 1–4
2011 Round of 64 Yale L, 2–4

Volleyball

The women's indoor volleyball team competes at William & Mary Hall. They have won eight CAA championships (1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, and 2001) and made one appearance in the NCAA Tournament in 2001 losing in the first round to Duke University.

NCAA Tournament performances

Year Round Opponent Results/Scores
2001 First Round Duke L, 0–3

National championships

Team

William & Mary has won two NCAA national team championships, both for men's tennis;[6] the Tribe won back-to-back national championships in 1947 and 1948.[7][8] During the era when the AIAW conducted women's collegiate championships, the Tribe women claimed one AIAW national team title, for golf (Division II) in 1981.[9]

Association Division Sport Year Opponent/
runner-up
Score
NCAA University Division Men's Tennis (2) 1947 Rice 10–4 (+6)
1948 San Francisco 6–5 (+1)

Notable alumni

Main article: List of William & Mary alumni

Notable graduates from the athletic programs include Jon Stewart, Adin Brown, Mike Leach, Buster Ramsey, Darren Sharper, Mike Tomlin, Bill Chambers, J. D. Gibbs, Steve Christie, Wade Barrett, Jill Ellis, and Derek Cox.

Fight songs

In addition to the most common Fight Song, the "William and Mary Victory March" (composed in the 1930s by Rolf Kennard) is occasionally heard before games. There is a long-running superstition that playing the Victory March during a game will lead to a bad result.

Radio affiliates

Two radio stations in eastern Virginia broadcast Tribe football and men's basketball, under the branding "William & Mary Bookstore Tribe Radio Network."[10][11]

City Call Sign Frenquency
Deltaville, Virginia WTYD-FM 92.3 FM
West Point, Virginia WBQK-FM 107.9 FM

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Southern Conference named separate champions for indoor and outdoor track and field during William and Mary's membership in that conference. In eleven years (1957 and 1966–1975) the Tribe won both the indoor and outdoor championships; in one additional year (1958) they won the outdoor championship only.[12][13]

References

  1. ^ "William & Mary Athletics Logos and Marks". September 20, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Kennedy, Ben (October 9, 2006). "Plumeri tapped to lead homecoming parade". W&M Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  3. ^ "Plumeri Park". TribeAthletics.com. Archived from the original on May 17, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  4. ^ "Men's XC/Track Honors and Awards". William and Mary Athletics. College of WIlliam and Mary. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  5. ^ "Women's XC/Track Honors and Awards". William and Mary Athletics. College of William and Mary. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
  6. ^ "How many NCAA Division I championships has your school won?". NCAA. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
  7. ^ "About William & Mary athletics". The College of William & Mary. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
  8. ^ "Men's Tennis National Championships". The College of William & Mary. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  9. ^ "William and Mary Tribe Women's Golf Honors and Awards". The College of William & Mary. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
  10. ^ "Football on the Air". William & Mary. August 29, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  11. ^ "Basketball on the Air". The Tide 92.3 FM. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  12. ^ "Southern Conference Outdoor Track & Field Record Book" (PDF). Southern Conference. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
  13. ^ "Southern Conference Indoor Track & Field Record Book" (PDF). Southern Conference. Retrieved December 9, 2014.

External links

Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992, and the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.

Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College, Oxford, and Yale Law School. He met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979. As Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992, defeating incumbent Republican opponent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he became the third-youngest president and the first from the Baby Boomer generation.

Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term. He passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate in 1999 and completed his term in office. He is only the second U.S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to ever be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and assisted the Northern Ireland peace process.

Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U.S. president since World War II, and has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U.S. presidents, consistently placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. He has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund. In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with then-North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

Bill Cosby

William Henry Cosby Jr. (; born July 12, 1937) is an American stand-up comedian, actor, musician, and author. He held an active career for over six decades before being convicted and imprisoned for sex offenses in 2018.

Cosby began his career as a stand-up comic at the hungry i in San Francisco during the 1960s. He then landed a starring role in the television show I Spy, followed by his own sitcom The Bill Cosby Show, which ran for two seasons from 1969 to 1971. In 1972, using the Fat Albert character developed during his stand-up routines, Cosby created, produced, and hosted the animated comedy television series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids which ran until 1985, centering on a group of young friends growing up in an urban area. Throughout the 1970s, Cosby starred in about a half-dozen films, and occasionally returned to film later in his career. In 1976, he earned his Doctor of Education from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His dissertation discussed the use of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools.

Beginning in the 1980s, Cosby produced and starred in the television sitcom The Cosby Show, which aired from 1984 to 1992 and was rated as the number one show in America for 1985 through 1989. The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an affluent African-American family. Cosby produced the spin-off sitcom A Different World, which aired from 1987 to 1993. He also starred in The Cosby Mysteries from 1994 to 1995 and in the sitcom Cosby from 1996 to 2000, and hosted Kids Say the Darndest Things from 1998 to 2000.

Cosby's reputation was tarnished during the mid-2010s by numerous women who made sexual assault accusations against him; the earliest accusations date back decades. More than 60 women have accused him of either attempted assault, rape, drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, and sexual misconduct, which he had denied, and the statute of limitations had by then expired in nearly all cases. Cosby was found guilty of three counts of aggravated indecent assault and sentenced to three to ten years in prison in September 2018.

Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while also being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014.

In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest Personal computer software company. Gates led the company as chairman and CEO until stepping down as CEO in January 2000, but he remained chairman and became chief software architect. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning to a part-time role at Microsoft and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000. He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive. This opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings.Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, and held it consistently from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, and since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos.

Later in his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors. He donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity. In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, and is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio.

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982), is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is expected to become king of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a likely future queen consort.Catherine grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England. She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced in November 2010. They married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The couple's children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis of Cambridge, are third, fourth, and fifth in the line of succession to the British throne, respectively.The Duchess of Cambridge's charity works focus mainly on issues surrounding young children, addiction, and art. To encourage people to open up about their mental health issues, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and the Duke of Sussex initiated the mental health awareness campaign "Heads Together" in April 2016. The media have called Catherine's impact on British and American fashion the "Kate Middleton effect". In 2012 and 2013, Time magazine selected her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World.

Henry I of England

Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. He was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. He purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but his brothers deposed him in 1091. He gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert.

Present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, Henry seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. He married Matilda of Scotland and they had two surviving children, William Adelin and Empress Matilda; he also had many illegitimate children by a large number of mistresses. Robert, who invaded in 1101, disputed Henry's control of England; this military campaign ended in a negotiated settlement that confirmed Henry as king. The peace was short-lived, and Henry invaded the Duchy of Normandy in 1105 and 1106, finally defeating Robert at the Battle of Tinchebray. Henry kept Robert imprisoned for the rest of his life. Henry's control of Normandy was challenged by Louis VI of France, Baldwin VII of Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou, who promoted the rival claims of Robert's son, William Clito, and supported a major rebellion in the Duchy between 1116 and 1119. Following Henry's victory at the Battle of Brémule, a favourable peace settlement was agreed with Louis in 1120.

Considered by contemporaries to be a harsh but effective ruler, Henry skilfully manipulated the barons in England and Normandy. In England, he drew on the existing Anglo-Saxon system of justice, local government and taxation, but also strengthened it with additional institutions, including the royal exchequer and itinerant justices. Normandy was also governed through a growing system of justices and an exchequer. Many of the officials who ran Henry's system were "new men" of obscure backgrounds rather than from families of high status, who rose through the ranks as administrators. Henry encouraged ecclesiastical reform, but became embroiled in a serious dispute in 1101 with Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, which was resolved through a compromise solution in 1105. He supported the Cluniac order and played a major role in the selection of the senior clergy in England and Normandy.

Henry's son William drowned in the White Ship disaster of 1120, throwing the royal succession into doubt. Henry took a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain, in the hope of having another son, but their marriage was childless. In response to this, he declared his daughter Matilda his heir and married her to Geoffrey of Anjou. The relationship between Henry and the couple became strained, and fighting broke out along the border with Anjou. Henry died on 1 December 1135 after a week of illness. Despite his plans for Matilda, the King was succeeded by his nephew, Stephen of Blois, resulting in a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.

Liam Neeson

Liam John Neeson (born 7 June 1952) is an actor from Northern Ireland. He has been nominated for a number of awards, including an Academy Award for Best Actor, a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, and three Golden Globe Awards for Best Actor in a Motion Picture Drama. Empire magazine ranked Neeson among both the "100 Sexiest Stars in Film History" and "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time".In 1976, Neeson joined the Lyric Players' Theatre in Belfast for two years. He then acted in the Arthurian film Excalibur (1981). Between 1982 and 1987, Neeson starred in five films, most notably alongside Mel Gibson and Anthony Hopkins in The Bounty (1984), and Robert De Niro and Jeremy Irons in The Mission (1986). He landed a leading role alongside Patrick Swayze in Next of Kin (1989).

Neeson rose to prominence when he starred as Oskar Schindler in Schindler's List (1993). He has since starred in other successful films, including the drama Nell (1994), the historical biopic Michael Collins (1996), the 1998 film adaptation of Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, the epic space opera Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), the biographical drama Kinsey (2004), the superhero film Batman Begins (2005), the action thriller series Taken (2008–2014), the survival film The Grey (2011), and the historical drama Silence (2016). He also provided the voices of Aslan in The Chronicles of Narnia trilogy (2005–2010) and the titular monster in A Monster Calls (2016).

Paul Walker

Paul William Walker IV (September 12, 1973 – November 30, 2013) was an American actor, social activist and philanthropist. He was best known for his role as Brian O'Conner in The Fast and the Furious franchise. Walker began his career as a child actor during the 1970s and 1980s, but first gained recognition in the early 1990s after appearing in the television soap opera The Young and the Restless. He soon transitioned into film, and received praise in 1999 for his performances in the teen films She's All That and Varsity Blues, which helped kickstart his career. Walker then gained international fame after starring in The Fast and the Furious.

He subsequently gained commercial success in a number of other action and thriller films, enjoying critical praise for his performances in Joy Ride (2001), Into the Blue (2005), and Running Scared (2006). Walker also enjoyed critical and commercial success in other genres, such as the survival drama Eight Below (2006) and the war film Flags of Our Fathers (2006). Later in his career, Walker featured as a presenter for the marine biology series Expedition Great White and became known for his philanthropic efforts, founding the disaster-relief charity Reach Out Worldwide (ROWW) in 2010.Walker died on November 30, 2013 at age 40 as a passenger in a single-car crash alongside friend and driver Roger Rodas. Walker's father and daughter filed separate wrongful death lawsuits against Porsche, which resulted in settlements. At the time of his death, Walker did not complete filming Furious 7 (2015), so it was delayed for rewrites until his brother Cody had completed his filming with CGI. The song "See You Again" by Wiz Khalifa and Charlie Puth was commissioned for the Furious 7 soundtrack as a tribute to Walker.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, who is queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.

William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile, Belize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell, then underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He then trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance.

In 2011, Prince William was made Duke of Cambridge and married Catherine Middleton. The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

Rick Ross

William Leonard Roberts II (born January 28, 1976), known professionally as Rick Ross, is an American rapper, entrepreneur and record executive.After releasing his debut single, "Hustlin'" in 2006, Ross became the subject of a bidding war, receiving offers from Diddy's Bad Boy Entertainment and Irv Gotti's Murder Inc., before signing a multimillion dollar deal with Jay Z's Def Jam Records. Ross released his debut album Port of Miami through the label later that year, debuting at the top spot on the U.S. Billboard 200 album chart, with sales of 187,000 units during the first week. Ross released his second studio album, Trilla in 2008, once again debuting atop the Billboard 200.Rick Ross founded the record label Maybach Music Group in 2009, on which he released his studio albums Deeper Than Rap (2009), Teflon Don (2010), God Forgives, I Don't (2012), Mastermind, Hood Billionaire (2014), Black Market (2015), and Rather You Than Me (2017). Ross was also the first artist signed to Diddy's management company Ciroc Entertainment. In early 2012, MTV named Ross as the Hottest MC in the Game.

Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II or William II (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia. He reigned from 15 June 1888 until his abdication on 9 November 1918 shortly before Germany's defeat in World War I.

The eldest grandchild of Queen Victoria, Wilhelm's first cousins included King George V of the United Kingdom and many princesses who, along with Wilhelm's sister Sophia, became European consorts. For most of his life before becoming emperor, he was second in line to succeed his grandfather Wilhelm I on the German and Prussian thrones after his father, Crown Prince Frederick. His grandfather and father both died in 1888, the Year of Three Emperors, making Wilhelm emperor and king. He dismissed the country's longtime chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890.

Wilhelm launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" to cement its status as a respected world power. However, due to his impetuous personality, he frequently undermined this aim by making tactless, alarming public statements without consulting his ministers beforehand. He also did much to alienate other Great Powers from Germany by initiating a massive build-up of the German Navy, challenging French control over Morocco, and backing the Austrian annexation of Bosnia in 1908. His turbulent reign culminated in his guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary during the crisis of July 1914, which resulted in the outbreak of World War I. A lax wartime leader, he left virtually all decision-making regarding military strategy and organisation of the war effort in the hands of the German General Staff. This broad delegation of authority gave rise to a de facto military dictatorship whose authorisation of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram led to the United States' entry into the conflict in April 1917. Losing the support of the German army, Wilhelm abdicated and fled to exile in the Netherlands, where he died in 1941.

William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. What he called his prophetic works were said by 20th-century critic Northrop Frye to form "what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language". His visual artistry led 21st-century critic Jonathan Jones to proclaim him "far and away the greatest artist Britain has ever produced". In 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. While he lived in London his entire life, except for three years spent in Felpham, he produced a diverse and symbolically rich œuvre, which embraced the imagination as "the body of God" or "human existence itself".Although Blake was considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, he is held in high regard by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work. His paintings and poetry have been characterised as part of the Romantic movement and as "Pre-Romantic". A committed Christian who was hostile to the Church of England (indeed, to almost all forms of organised religion), Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American Revolutions. Though later he rejected many of these political beliefs, he maintained an amiable relationship with the political activist Thomas Paine; he was also influenced by thinkers such as Emanuel Swedenborg. Despite these known influences, the singularity of Blake's work makes him difficult to classify. The 19th-century scholar William Michael Rossetti characterised him as a "glorious luminary", and "a man not forestalled by predecessors, nor to be classed with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known or readily surmisable successors".

William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death.

Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1857. His father, Alphonso Taft, was a U.S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Skull and Bones. After becoming a lawyer, Taft was appointed a judge while still in his twenties. He continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, and he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor. Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important.

With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and easily defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and repeatedly intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs, then a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was heavily influenced by special interests. His administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft often sympathized, and the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912. Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory.

After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as chief justice, an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930, and died the following month. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is generally listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U.S. presidents.

William III of England

William III (Dutch: Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from the 1670s and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known as "King Billy" in Northern Ireland and Scotland, where his victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by Unionists and Ulster loyalists.

William was the only child of William II, Prince of Orange, who died a week before his birth, and Mary, Princess of Orange, the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, during the reign of his uncle King Charles II of England, he married his cousin Mary, the fifteen-year-old daughter of the King's brother James, Duke of York. A Protestant, he participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King Louis XIV of France, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, his Catholic uncle and father-in-law became King of England, Scotland and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, who feared a revival of Catholicism. Supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, William invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the south-western English port of Brixham. Shortly afterwards, James was deposed.

William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him and his wife to take power. During the early years of his reign, he was occupied abroad with the Nine Years' War (1688–97). Mary died on 28 December 1694. In 1696, the Jacobites plotted unsuccessfully to assassinate William and return his father-in-law to the throne. William's lack of children and the death in 1700 of his sister-in-law Anne's last surviving child Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, threatened the Protestant succession. The danger was averted by placing distant relatives, the Protestant Hanoverians, in line. The King died in 1702 and was succeeded by Anne.

William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover.

William served in the Royal Navy in his youth, spending time in North America and the Caribbean, and was later nicknamed the "Sailor King". In 1789, he was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews. In 1827, he was appointed as Britain's first Lord High Admiral since 1709. As his two older brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, and the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act 1832. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the last monarch to appoint a prime minister contrary to the will of Parliament. Through his brother Prince Adolphus, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution.

At the time of his death William had no surviving legitimate children, but he was survived by eight of the ten illegitimate children he had by the actress Dorothea Jordan, with whom he cohabited for twenty years. Late in life, he married and apparently remained faithful to the young princess who would become Queen Adelaide. William was succeeded by his niece Queen Victoria in the United Kingdom, and his brother King Ernest Augustus in Hanover.

William McKinley

William McKinley Jr. (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination six months into his second term. During his presidency, McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish–American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry and kept the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of free silver (effectively, expansionary monetary policy).

McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War and the only one to have started the war as an enlisted soldier, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial, which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival William Jennings Bryan after a front porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" (the gold standard unless altered by international agreement) and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity.

Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency. He promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition and in 1900 secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed he led the nation into the Spanish-American War of 1898. The United States victory was quick and decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines while Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the United States Army. The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a United States territory.

Historians regard McKinley's 1896 victory as a realigning election in which the political stalemate of the post-Civil War era gave way to the Republican-dominated Fourth Party System, which began with the Progressive Era. McKinley defeated Bryan again in the 1900 presidential election in a campaign focused on imperialism, protectionism and free silver. His legacy was suddenly cut short when he was shot on September 6, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a second-generation Polish-American with anarchist leanings. McKinley died eight days later and was succeeded by his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. As an innovator of American interventionism and pro-business sentiment, McKinley's presidency is generally considered above average, though his highly positive public perception was soon overshadowed by Roosevelt.

William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of some 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. At age 49 (around 1613), he appears to have retired to Stratford, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; this has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, his sexuality, his religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. Such theories are often criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.

Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres. Until about 1608, he wrote mainly tragedies, among them Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he wrote tragicomedies (also known as romances) and collaborated with other playwrights.

Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays. The volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time".Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain popular and are studied, performed, and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world.

William Shatner

William Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor, author, producer, director, and singer. In his seven decades of television, Shatner became a cultural icon for his portrayal of Captain James T. Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the Star Trek franchise. He has written a series of books chronicling his experiences playing Captain Kirk and being a part of Star Trek, and has co-written several novels set in the Star Trek universe. He has also written a series of science fiction novels called TekWar that were adapted for television.

Shatner also played the eponymous veteran police sergeant in T.J. Hooker (1982–1986) and hosted the reality-based television series Rescue 911 (1989–1996), which won a People's Choice Award for the Favorite New TV Dramatic Series. Shatner also appeared in seasons 4 and 5 of the NBC series 3rd Rock from the Sun as the "Big Giant Head" that the alien characters reported to. From 2004 until 2008, he starred as attorney Denny Crane both in the final season of the legal drama The Practice and in its spinoff series Boston Legal, a role that earned him two Emmy Awards. He appeared in both seasons of the comical NBC real-life travelogue with other male companions "of a certain age" in Better Late Than Never, from 2016 to 2017. Shatner has also pursued a career in music and spoken-word recordings since the late 1960s, having released eight albums.

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas, pronounced [ˈɯʎam ˈuəl̪ˠəs̪]; Norman French: William le Waleys; born c. 1270, died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence.Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297. He was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians.

Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland. He is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, and of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart. He was first cousin to Roger de Kirkpatrick. Roger himself was a third cousin to Robert the Bruce.

William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was an English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

Wordsworth's magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a semi-autobiographical poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published by his wife in the year of his death, before which it was generally known as "the poem to Coleridge". Wordsworth was Britain's poet laureate from 1843 until his death from pleurisy on 23 April 1850.

William the Conqueror

William I (c. 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.

William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church. His consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine.

In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, then held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, who was named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London. He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, and by 1075 William's hold on England was mostly secure, allowing him to spend the majority of the rest of his reign on the continent.

William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the landholdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, and was buried in Caen. His reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England.

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