Wilhelmina was the only child of King William III and his second wife Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. At the age of four she became heir presumptive to the Dutch throne after her half brother and great uncle died. She became Queen when her father died, when she was 10 years old. As she was still a minor, her mother served as regent until she turned 18 years old. In 1901, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin with whom she had a daughter Juliana.
She reigned for nearly 58 years, longer than any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw the First and the Second world wars, the Dutch economic crisis of 1933, and the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial power. Outside the Netherlands she is primarily remembered for her role in World War II, in which she proved to be a great inspiration to the Dutch resistance.
Queen Wilhelmina in 1901
|Queen of the Netherlands|
|Reign||23 November 1890 – |
4 September 1948
|Inauguration||6 September 1898|
|Born||31 August 1880|
Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands
|Died||28 November 1962 (aged 82)|
Het Loo Palace, Apeldoorn, Netherlands
|Burial||8 December 1962|
Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(m. 1901; his death 1934)
|Issue||Juliana of the Netherlands|
|Father||William III of the Netherlands|
|Mother||Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont|
|Religion||Dutch Reformed Church|
Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. She was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a close relationship with her parents, especially with her father, who was 63 years old when she was born.
King William III had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg. However, when Wilhelmina was born, William had already outlived two of them and only the childless Prince Alexander and the King's uncle Prince Frederick of the Netherlands were alive, so under the Semi-Salic system of inheritance that was in place in the Netherlands until 1887, she was third in line to the throne from birth. When Prince Frederick died a year later in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the young girl became heir presumptive.
King William III died on 23 November 1890. Although 10-year-old Wilhelmina became queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, Emma, was named regent.
In 1895, Queen Wilhelmina visited Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who penned an evaluation in her diary:
The young Queen ... still has her hair hanging loose. She is slender and graceful, and makes an impression as a very intelligent and very cute girl. She speaks good English and knows how to behave with charming manners.
Wilhelmina was sworn-in and inaugurated at the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam on 6 September 1898. On 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nine months later, on 9 November, Wilhelmina suffered a miscarriage, and on 4 May 1902 she gave birth to a premature stillborn son. Her next pregnancy ended in miscarriage on 23 July 1906. During this time period, Wilhelmina's heir presumptive was her first cousin once removed William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and next in line was his aunt (and Wilhelmina's cousin) Princess Marie Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. As it was assumed that the former would renounce his claim to the Dutch throne, and that the latter was too elderly and sickly to become Queen, Marie Alexandrine's eldest son Prince Heinrich XXXII Reuss of Köstritz stood in line to succeed Wilhelmina, assuming she had no surviving children. Heinrich was a German prince with close associations with the Imperial family and the military; and there were fears that were the Queen to remain childless, the Dutch Crown "was bound to pass into the possession of a German prince, whose birth, training, and affiliations would naturally have led him to bring Holland [sic] within the sphere of the German Empire, at the expense of her independence, both national and economic", according to one contemporary publication. The birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage. Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages on 23 January and 20 October 1912.
Wilhelmina was well aware what was expected of her by the Dutch people and their elected representatives. At the same time, she was a strong-willed and forceful personality who spoke and acted her mind. These qualities showed up early in her reign when, at the age of 20, Queen Wilhelmina ordered a Dutch warship, HNLMS Gelderland, to South Africa to evacuate Paul Kruger, the embattled President of the Transvaal.
Wilhelmina had a stern dislike of the United Kingdom partly as a result of the annexation of the republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State in the Boer War. The Boers were descendants of early Dutch colonists, to whom Wilhelmina and the people of the Netherlands felt very closely linked. In conversation with her former governess Elisabeth Saxton Winter, she once teasingly referred to the Boer soldiers as "excellent shots". She was not amused to hear that a Dutch medical relief team was planning to accommodate the needs of both Boer and British wounded soldiers. Nevertheless, in 1940, King George VI sent the warship HMS Hereward, to rescue Wilhelmina, her family and her Government and bring them to safety to the United Kingdom, which offered the Netherlands facilities including broadcasting time on the BBC.
Queen Wilhelmina also had a keen understanding of business matters and her investments made her the world's richest woman, as well as the world's first female billionaire (in United States dollars).
Before the First World War started, the young Wilhelmina visited the powerful German Emperor Wilhelm II. The Emperor thought he could impress the queen of a relatively small country by telling her, "My guards are seven feet tall and yours are only shoulder-high to them." Wilhelmina smiled politely and replied, "Quite true, Your Majesty, your guards are seven feet tall. But when we open our dikes, the water is ten feet deep!"
The Netherlands remained neutral during World War I. However, the Allies included the Netherlands in their blockade of Germany, intercepting all Dutch ships and severely restricting Dutch imports to ensure goods could not be passed on to Germany.
Wilhelmina was a "soldier's queen"; being a woman, she could not be Supreme Commander, but she nevertheless used every opportunity she had to inspect her forces. On many occasions she appeared without prior notice, wishing to see the reality, not a prepared show. She loved her soldiers, and was very unhappy with most of her governments, which were always eager to cut the military budget. Wilhelmina wanted a small but well trained and equipped army.
In the war, she felt she was a "Queen-On-Guard". She was always wary of a German attack, especially in the beginning. However, the chief violation of Dutch sovereignty was the Allied blockade.
Civil unrest gripped the Netherlands after the war, spurred by the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Socialist leader Pieter Jelles Troelstra wanted to abolish the existing government and the monarchy. Instead of a violent revolution, he hoped to do this by winning control of Parliament in an election, supported by the working class. However, the popularity of the young Queen helped restore confidence in the government. Wilhelmina brought about a mass show of support by riding with her daughter through the crowds in an open carriage.
Furthermore the Russian revolution cost her almost 20% of her financial assets, forcing her to entertain at a quite different level than before the war.
At the end of World War I, Kaiser Wilhelm fled to the Netherlands, where he was granted political asylum, partly owing to his familial links with Queen Wilhelmina. In response to Allied efforts to get their hands on the deposed Kaiser, Wilhelmina called the Allies' ambassadors to her presence and lectured them on the rights of asylum.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the Netherlands began to emerge as an industrial power. Engineers reclaimed vast amounts of land that had been under water by building the Zuiderzee Works. In 1934, both Wilhelmina's mother Queen Emma and her husband, Prince Hendrik, died.
Most of the 1930s were also occupied by the need to find a suitable husband for Juliana. This was a difficult task since Wilhelmina was very religious, and insisted that her daughter's hand be given to a Protestant of royal birth. Several prospects from the United Kingdom and Sweden either declined or were turned down by Juliana. Finally, Wilhelmina found a suitable match for her daughter in Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a German aristocrat. The marriage initially drew some controversy due to rumours that Bernhard was pro-Nazi. It was subsequently confirmed that he had indeed been a member of the Nazi Party and of the so-called Reiter-SS (SS Cavalry Corps), as was proved by the Dutch national institute for war documentation, NIOD.
In 1939, the government proposed a refugee camp near the city of Apeldoorn for German Jews fleeing the Nazi regime. Wilhelmina intervened, as she felt the planned location was "too close" to her summer residence. If indeed spies were to be among the fugitives, they would be within walking distance of Het Loo Palace. The camp was finally erected about 10 km from the village of Westerbork.
On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands. There is an ongoing debate about the departure of the Queen and the royal family. Some say that an evacuation to the United Kingdom of the royal family had been planned some time in advance, since at least the end of 1939. Wilhelmina and her family fled The Hague, and she boarded HMS Hereward, a British destroyer which was to take her across the North Sea. Others say she boarded the destroyer with the intent of going to the Dutch province of Zeeland, which had not yet been conquered. However, along the journey, it became clear that due to advancing German forces, Zeeland was not safe either, forcing the destroyer to sail for the United Kingdom. In any case, she arrived in the United Kingdom on May 13, planning to return to the Netherlands as soon as possible.
The Dutch armed forces in the Netherlands, apart from those in Zeeland, surrendered on 15 May. In Britain, Queen Wilhelmina took charge of the Dutch government in exile, setting up a chain of command and immediately communicating a message to her people.
Relations between the Dutch government and the Queen were tense, with mutual dislike growing as the war progressed. Wilhelmina went on to be the most prominent figure, owing to her experience and knowledge. She was also very popular and respected among the leaders of the world. The government did not have a parliament to back them and had few employees to assist them. The Dutch prime minister, Dirk Jan de Geer, believed the Allies would not win and intended to open negotiations with Germany for a separate peace. Therefore Wilhelmina sought to remove De Geer from power. With the aid of a minister, Pieter Gerbrandy, she succeeded.
The Queen called Adolf Hitler "the arch-enemy of mankind". Her late-night broadcasts were eagerly awaited by her people, who had to hide in order to listen to them illegally. An anecdote published in her New York Times obituary illustrates how she was valued by her subjects during this period:
Although celebration of the Queen's birthday was forbidden by the Germans, it was commemorated nevertheless. When churchgoers in the small fishing town of Huizen rose and sang one verse of the Dutch national anthem, Wilhelmus van Nassauwe, on the Queen's birthday, the town paid a fine of 60,000 guilders.
Queen Wilhelmina visited the United States from 24 June to 11 August 1942 as guest of the U.S. government. She vacationed in Lee, Massachusetts, and visited New York City, Boston, and Albany, New York. In the latter city she attended the 300th anniversary celebration of the First Church in Albany, the city's oldest, established by Dutch settlers in the 17th century. She addressed the U.S. Congress on 5 August 1942, and was the first queen to do so.
Queen Wilhelmina went to Canada in 1943 to attend the christening of her grandchild Princess Margriet on 29 June 1943 in Ottawa and stayed a while with her family before returning to the United Kingdom.
During the war, the Queen was almost killed by a bomb that took the lives of several of her guards and severely damaged her country home near South Mimms in England (during Operation Steinbock). In 1944, Queen Wilhelmina became the first woman since the 15th century, other than Queens of the United Kingdom, to be inducted into the Order of the Garter. Churchill described her as the only real man among the governments-in-exile in London.:146:193
In England, she developed ideas about a new political and social life for the Dutch after the liberation. She wanted a strong cabinet formed by people active in the resistance. She dismissed De Geer during the war and installed a prime minister with the approval of other Dutch politicians. The Queen "hated" politicians, instead stating a love for the people. When the Netherlands was liberated in 1945 she was disappointed to see the same political factions taking power as before the war. In mid-March 1945 she travelled to the liberated areas of the southern Netherlands, visiting the region of Walcheren and the city of Eindhoven where she received a rapturous welcome from the local population. On 2 May 1945 she returned to the Netherlands, coming to live in a small country estate called Anneville located just south of Breda. She arrived in the company of Princess Juliana and adjuncts Peter Tazelaar, Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema and fellow Engelandvaarder Rie Stokvis. Anneville was the scene of a number of processions where the residents of Breda and the surrounding communities came to greet their queen. She remained there for a little over 6 weeks.
Shortly after the war, Queen Wilhelmina wanted to give an award to the Polish Parachute Brigade for their actions during Operation Market Garden and wrote the government a request. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Eelco van Kleffens, opposed the idea, as he thought an award for the Poles would upset the relations with the 'Big Three' and harm national interests. The Polish Parachute Brigade was awarded the Military Order of William on 31 May 2006 after 61 years.
Following the end of World War II, Queen Wilhelmina made the decision not to return to her palace but to move into a mansion in The Hague, where she lived for eight months. She travelled through the countryside to motivate people, sometimes using a bicycle instead of a car. However, in 1947, while the country was still recovering from World War II, the revolt in the oil-rich Dutch East Indies saw sharp criticism of the Queen by the Dutch economic elite.
Around the same time, Wilhelmina's health started failing her, forcing her to cede her monarchial duties to Juliana temporarily towards the end of 1947 (14 October through 1 December). She considered abdication, but Juliana pressed her to stay on for the stability of the nation, urging her to stay on the throne until 1950 so she could celebrate her diamond jubilee. Wilhelmina had every intention of doing so, but exhaustion forced her to relinquish monarchial duties to Juliana again on 12 May 1948. The timing was unfortunate, as it left Juliana to deal with the early elections caused by the ceding of the Indonesian colonies.
Dismayed by the return to pre-war politics and the pending loss of Indonesia, Wilhelmina abdicated on 4 September 1948.
By 1948, Wilhelmina was the only survivor of the 16 European kings and one queen who were sitting on their thrones at the time of her coronation in 1898. The Dutch Royal Family was also one of seven European royal houses remaining in existence.
On 4 September 1948, after a reign of 57 years and 286 days, Wilhelmina abdicated in favour of her daughter Juliana, because of advancing age and illness which had already caused two regencies, and the strain of the war years. She was thenceforward styled "Her Royal Highness Princess Wilhelmina of the Netherlands". After her reign, the influence of the Dutch monarchy continued to decline but the country's love for its royal family continued. No longer queen, Wilhelmina retreated to Het Loo Palace, making few public appearances until the country was devastated by the North Sea flood of 1953. Once again she travelled around the country to encourage and motivate the Dutch people.
During her last years she wrote her autobiography entitled Eenzaam, maar niet alleen (Lonely but Not Alone), in which she gave account of the events in her life, and revealed her strong religious feelings and motivations.
Wilhelmina died in Het Loo Palace at the age of 82 on 28 November 1962, and was buried in the Dutch Royal Family crypt in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, on 8 December. The funeral was, at her request and contrary to protocol, completely in white to give expression to her belief that earthly death was the beginning of eternal life. She was the last surviving grandchild of William II of the Netherlands.
According to German Salic law, the House of Orange-Nassau-Dietz became extinct upon her death, but this rule is not recognised by royal Dutch succession laws.
Wilhelmina's full regnal title from her accession to her marriage was: "Wilhelmina, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Limburg, etc." She adopted her husband's ducal title upon marriage as customary, becoming also a Duchess of Mecklenburg.
Since Princess Wilhelmina received no Dutch honours before ascending the throne aged ten and resigned the position of Grand Master when she abdicated in 1948, she was in the unusual position of being a Dutch princess and former queen regnant who did not hold a Dutch honour. Her daughter and successor therefore appointed her as a Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order. This was the only Dutch honour she ever held in her life in a personal capacity.
In 1892 the company Fortuin celebrated its 50th anniversary by producing mints with the image of the 12-year-old Princess Wilhelmina, which have continued in production since then. Among Dutch sweets, these mints have become the "most Dutch of all".
|Ancestors of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands|
After Wilhelmina had taken office in 1890, rumours were spread by Socialist satirical magazine De Roode Duivel ("The Red Devil") that William III was not her real father, but Emma's confidant S.M.S. de Ranitz. This would undermine the legitimacy of Wilhelmina's reign. Although no hard evidence exists for the allegations, and the consensus amongst historians is that they are false, the rumours were stubborn, and still feature in conspiracy theories circulating in republican circles.[note 1] The author of the rumour, the later parliamentarian and senator Louis Maximiliaan Hermans, was sentenced to six months imprisonment for lèse-majesté in 1895 for a different article and cartoon in De Roode Duivel, mocking the two queens.
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Cadet branch of the House of NassauBorn: 31 August 1880 Died: 28 November 1962
| Queen of the Netherlands
Kebun Binatang Bandung or Bandung Zoological Gardens is a zoo located in the city of Bandung in West Java, Indonesia. It was created in 1933 when two existing zoos in the city (Cimindi zoo and Dago Atas zoo) were combined and moved to the current location on Taman Sari street. The new zoo was located in "Jubileum Park", a botanical garden created in 1923 to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands.Bertie and Elizabeth
Bertie & Elizabeth is a 2002 television film produced by Carlton Television. The film explores the relationship between King George VI and his wife Queen Elizabeth from their very first meeting to the King's death in the winter of 1952. Bertie & Elizabeth was commissioned especially for the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II and was first broadcast on ITV1 on 4 June 2002, only two months after the death of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.Bronze Cross (Netherlands)
The Bronze Cross of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: "Het Bronzen Kruis") was instituted on 11 June 1940 by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands while she was residing in London during the German occupation of the Netherlands. The Bronze Cross has precedence after the Resistance Star East Asia, but is the third highest military decoration still being awarded for bravery.
Several British, American, Canadian and Polish soldiers are among the 3,501 recipients of the Bronze Cross that is awarded by Royal Decree.Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (German: Heinrich Wladimir Albrecht Ernst; Dutch: Hendrik Vladimir Albrecht Ernst; 19 April 1876 – 3 July 1934) was prince consort of the Netherlands as the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. He was the longest-serving consort of the Netherlands.Dutch government-in-exile
The Dutch government in exile (Dutch: Nederlandse regering in ballingschap), also known as the London Cabinet (Dutch: Londens cabinet) was the government in exile of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that evacuated to London after the German invasion of the country during World War II on 10 May 1940.Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont (2 August 1858 – 20 March 1934) was Queen consort of the Netherlands and Grand Duchess consort of Luxembourg by marriage to King-Grand Duke William III. An immensely popular member of the Dutch Royal Family, Queen Emma served as regent for her daughter, Queen Wilhelmina, during the latter's minority from 1890 until 1898.Equestrian statue of Queen Wilhelmina
The equestrian statue of Queen Wilhelmina in Amsterdam is located on Rokin street, at the corner with Langebrugsteeg alley. The statue of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands was sculpted in bronze by Theresia R. van der Pant.
The statue was commissioned by the Amsterdam Contact Group of Women's Organisations in 1964. The money was provided by the population of Amsterdam.
The initial commission envisaged an effigy of the queen seated behind a microphone, addressing the Dutch people on the wartime Radio Oranje programme of the BBC European Service, symbolising Wilhelmina's status as "war queen". Theresia van der Pant was not enthusiastic about this idea, arguing that several recent statues portrayed the elder, plucky Wilhelmina, such as Charlotte van Pallandt's in Rotterdam. Also, Van der Pant was most experienced sculpting animals. She therefore decided on a statue of the younger queen, riding horseback. Wilhelmina's daughter Queen Juliana assisted Van der Pant, suggesting what clothes Wilhelmina should wear.At first Damrak street was considered as the location for the statue. Because the sculpture turned out larger than expected, and it was not intended as a place of remembrance and therefore could possibly clash with the National Monument on nearby Dam Square, it was unveiled on Rokin street in 1972.Gambir Fair
Gambir Fair (Pasar Gambir in Indonesian) was a fair held in 1906 and yearly from 1921 until 1942 in the Koningsplein, Batavia, Dutch East Indies (now Merdeka Square, Jakarta, Indonesia) to celebrate the birthday of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. After the Japanese occupied the Indies, the fair was no longer held. However, after a failed attempt in 1952, in 1968 it was reinstated as the Jakarta Fair.
Gambir Market featured hundreds of kiosks selling arts and crafts, food, and other items. It also included singing competitions, dances, and movie showings. Other activities included association football games and a lottery. Most visitors were European and ethnic Chinese, although rich natives also went.HMS Hereward (H93)
HMS Hereward, named after Hereward the Wake, was an H-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s. She was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet before and the ship spent four months during the Spanish Civil War in mid-1937 in Spanish waters, enforcing the arms blockade imposed by Britain and France on both sides of the conflict. When the Second World War began in September 1939, the ship was in the Mediterranean, but was shortly transferred to the South Atlantic Command to hunt for German commerce raiders and blockade runners, capturing one of the latter in November. Hereward was transferred to the Home Fleet in May 1940 and rescued Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands after the Germans had invaded.
The ship was transferred back to the Mediterranean Fleet later that month, and escorted convoys to Malta as well as escorting the larger ships of the fleet. She sank an Italian submarine in December before sinking the Italian torpedo boat Vega the following month. Hereward participated in the Battle of Cape Matapan in March 1941 and helped to evacuate Allied troops from Greece in April. In May the ship sank several small ships of a German convoy attempting to land troops on Crete. Later that month, she was bombed and sunk by German dive bombers as she was evacuating Allied troops from Crete. Her survivors and a number of evacuees were rescued by Italian vessels and they became prisoners of war.Helen Ryan
Helen Ryan (born 16 June 1938, Liverpool, Lancashire) is a British actress, with a penchant for portraying royalty.
The Liverpool native played Queen Alexandra in the British television series Edward the Seventh, for which she received a BAFTA nomination in 1975. She also played Princess Alexandra in the 1980 movie The Elephant Man, and Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands in the 2002 television drama Bertie and Elizabeth. Her other credits include Madame Balzac in the TV series Prometheus: The Life of Balzac (1975) and films such as Clash of Loyalties (1983), Misunderstood (1984) and The Hawk (1993).Houten train accident
The Houten train accident was a railway accident in between Houten and Schalkwijk, the Netherlands on 7 June 1917 around 4.11 Amsterdam Time. The locomotive and the first eight coaches were detached from the other part of the train and came to a standstill. Eleven coaches derailed including one that rolled off the embankment, causing enormous damage. 11 people were injured. Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands who was in the train was unharmed.
The cause of the derailment was heat : the outside temperature was about 30 degrees Celsius causing expansion of the rails. It was named a "slap in the track". During the evening and night, soldiers who were stationed in the area helped to release one of the two tracks.
The train included two Royal coaches. These coaches were at the rear of the train and only the first one derailed. Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands was inside and was unharmed. The Queen had made a two-day visit to the Zaltbommel region and was on her way home to The Hague via Utrecht. The Queen helped with taking care over the injured people. She was described as calm and responded professionally. After 20 minutes to half an hour there was no more help needed and the Queen went on by train to Utrecht. The day after the accident there were at the various royal palaces registers opened where people could sign to congratulate the Queen with the good outcome.Order of the House of Orange
The Order of the House of Orange (Dutch: Huisorde van Oranje), sometimes referred to as the House Order of Orange, is a dynastic order of the House of Orange-Nassau, the royal family of the Netherlands similar to the Royal Victorian Order in the United Kingdom. The order was instituted by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands on 19 March 1905 and is not subject to ministerial responsibility or influence, but is awarded at the discretion of the Dutch monarch alone.Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (German: Prinzessin Marie von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt; 29 January 1850 – 22 April 1922) was the consort and third wife of Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was mother of Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and father of Queen Juliana.Princess Sophie of the Netherlands
Princess Sophie of the Netherlands (Wilhelmine Marie Sophie Louise; 8 April 1824 – 23 March 1897) was the only daughter and last surviving child of King William II of the Netherlands and of his wife Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia. She was heir presumptive to her niece, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, for seven years, from the death of her brother until her own death.SS Stolwijk
SS Stolwijk, a Dutch cargo ship of 2,489 tons, was wrecked off the coast of Donegal on 6 December 1940. She was part of a Convoy SC-13 sailing from the Dominion of Newfoundland to Liverpool, England, when her rudder was damaged in a fierce storm. Attempts to rescue her by her destroyer escort failed and she went on the rocks off Tory Island, County Donegal, Ireland. Ten of her crew were lost but the remaining 18 were rescued the following day by Arranmore Lifeboat and landed safely in Burtonport. The rescue of the survivors was conducted in terrible weather conditions and both the RNLI and Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands awarded medals to the Irish lifeboat crew.Soldier of Orange
Soldier of Orange (Dutch: Soldaat van Oranje, IPA: [sɔlˈdaːt fɑn oˈrɑɲə]) is a 1977 Dutch film directed and co-written by Paul Verhoeven and produced by Rob Houwer, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbé. The film is set around the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, and shows how individual students have different roles in the war. The story is based on the autobiographical book Soldaat van Oranje by Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema.
The film had a budget of ƒ 5,000,000 (€2,300,000), at the time the most expensive Dutch movie ever. With 1,547,183 viewers, it was the most popular Dutch film of 1977. The film received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Foreign Language Film in 1980.Soldier of Orange (musical)
Soldier of Orange (Dutch: Soldaat van Oranje) is a Dutch musical production, based on the true story of resistance hero Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema. In the 1970s, he wrote his experiences during World War II down in a book and director Paul Verhoeven made it into a feature film, starring actor Rutger Hauer.
The musical premiered on 30 October 2010, in a theatre that was purpose-built for the production: the TheaterHangaar on the former Valkenburg air base in Katwijk (in an old hangar). Queen Beatrix attended the premiere together with Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema's widow, Karin.
Soldier of Orange is produced by Robin de Levita and NEW Productions, which is a collaboration between investment company Amerborgh Nederland and Volterra, parent company of Montecatini Talent Agency.Stubbings
Stubbings is a hamlet in the civil parish of Bisham, west of Maidenhead, in the English county of Berkshire.
Stubbings House mansion was very briefly the home of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, the Governor of Quebec and later, during World War II, of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Another notable resident from 1947 to 1969 was physicist Sir Thomas Merton inventor of the "one-shilling rangefinder" which brought down flying bombs at a range of 300 yards.
The house, built by barrister Humphry Ambler about 1740, is located on an 80-acre (32 ha) estate just east of Burchetts Green.Tulip Festival (Albany, New York)
The Tulip Festival is held in Albany, New York every spring at Washington Park. It stems from when Mayor Erastus Corning 2nd got a city ordinance passed declaring the tulip as Albany's official flower on July 1, 1948. In addition, he sent a request to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to name a variety as Albany's tulip. On July 11, 1948 her reply was "Her Majesty gladly accepts the invitation to designate a tulip as the official flower of Albany." She picked the variety "Orange Wonder", an 18-inch tall tulip that is orange-shaded with a scarlet toward the center, it is a slow-grower and relatively rare. The first Tulip Fest was celebrated the next year on May 14, 1949 with opening ceremonies still carried on today as tradition, such as the sweeping of State Street and the crowning of a Tulip Queen. In 1997 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the festival the state of New York designated Albany as the "I Love New York Spring Destination". Also for the 50th anniversary a descendant variety of the "Wonder Orange" tulip was found in the Netherlands, and the new variety was named "City of Albany". The African-American tradition of Pinksterfest, whose origins are traced back even further to Dutch festivities, was later incorporated into the Tulip Fest. Since 1998 the Tulip Fest has included the Mother of the Year award.