Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder

Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (13 July 1773 – 13 February 1798) was a German jurist and writer. With Ludwig Tieck, he was a co-founder of German Romanticism.

Wackenroder was born in Berlin. He was a close friend of Tieck from youth until his early death. They collaborated on virtually everything they wrote in this period. Wackenroder probably made substantial contributions to Tieck's novel Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen (Franz Sternbald’s Wanderings, 1798), and Tieck to Wackenroder's influential collection of essays, Herzensergießungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (Outpourings of an Art-Loving Friar, 1797). Outpourings is a tribute to Renaissance and medieval literature and art, attributing to them a sense of emotion Wackenroder and Tieck felt was missing in German Enlightenment thought. It was also the first work to claim for Northern Renaissance art a status equivalent to that of the Italian Renaissance, at least in the case of Albrecht Dürer.[1] The Outpourings have been accorded a status in Germany akin to that of Lyrical Ballads in England, i.e. as the first work of the Romantic movement.[2]

Wackenroder died in Berlin in 1798 at the age of 24 of a case of typhoid fever.

Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder


  1. ^ Keith Moxey, “Motivating History,” Art Bulletin 77, no. 3 (September 1995), pp. 393–394.
  2. ^ Koerner, Joseph. Caspar David Friedrich and the Subject of Landscape, pp. 55-56


  • Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra. Die Transzendenz der Gefühle. Beziehungen zwischen Musik und Gefühl bei Wackenroder/Tieck und die Musikästhetik der Romantik. Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Literaturwissenschaft, no. 71. Ph.D. Dissertation (Saarbrücken, Germany: Universität des Saarlandes, 2000). St. Ingbert, Germany: Röhrig Universitätsverlag, 2001. ISBN 3-86110-278-1.

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Absolute music

Absolute music (sometimes abstract music) is music that is not explicitly "about" anything; in contrast to program music, it is non-representational. The idea of absolute music developed at the end of the 18th century in the writings of authors of early German Romanticism, such as Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, Ludwig Tieck and E. T. A. Hoffmann but the term was not coined until 1846 where it was first used by Richard Wagner in a programme to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.The aesthetic ideas underlying the absolute music derive from debates over the relative value of what were known in the early years of aesthetic theory as the fine arts. Kant, in his Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, dismissed music as "more enjoyment than culture" because of its lack of conceptual content, thus taking as a negative the very feature of music that others celebrated. Johann Gottfried Herder, in contrast, regarded music as the highest of the arts because of its spirituality, which Herder linked to the invisibility of sound. The ensuing arguments among musicians, composers, music historians and critics have, in effect, never stopped.

Christian Friedrich Tieck

Christian Friedrich Tieck (14 August 1776 – 24 May 1851), often known only as Friedrich Tieck, was a German sculptor and a occasional artist in oils. His work was primarily figurative and includes both public statuary and private commissions for portrait busts.

Fausto Cercignani

Fausto Cercignani (Italian pronunciation: [ˈfausto tʃertʃiɲˈɲani]; born March 21, 1941) is an Italian scholar, essayist and poet.

Franconian Switzerland

Franconian Switzerland (German: Fränkische Schweiz) is an upland in Upper Franconia, Bavaria, Germany, and a popular tourist retreat. Located between the River Pegnitz in the east and the south, the River Regnitz in the west and the River Main in the north, its relief, which reaches 600 metres in height, forms the northern part of the Franconian Jura (Frankenjura).

As several other mountainous landscapes in the German-speaking lands, e.g. Holstein Switzerland, Märkische Schweiz, or Pommersche Schweiz, Franconian Switzerland was given its name by Romantic artists and poets in the 19th century who compared the landscape to Switzerland. The Franconian Switzerland is famous for its high density of traditional breweries.

German Romanticism

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

The early period, roughly 1797 to 1802, is referred to as Frühromantik or Jena Romanticism. The philosophers and writers central to the movement were Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (1773–1798), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) (1772–1801).The early German romantics strove to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, by viewing the Middle Ages as a simpler period of integrated culture; however, the German romantics became aware of the tenuousness of the cultural unity they sought. Late-stage German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the daily world and the irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. In particular, the critic Heinrich Heine criticized the tendency of the early German romantics to look to the medieval past for a model of unity in art and society.

Index of modern philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in modern philosophy.

1649 in philosophy

1658 in philosophy

17th century philosophy

A Few Words on Non-Intervention

A General View of Positivism

A Letter Concerning Toleration

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

A System of Logic

A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

A Vindication of Natural Society

Adam Müller

Adam Smith

Adam Weishaupt

Age of Enlightenment

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alexander Pfänder

Aloys Hirt

American Enlightenment

An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals


Anarchism and anarcho-capitalism

Anarchism in Korea

Anarchism in Russia

Anarchism in Spain

Anarchism in Sweden

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in Turkey

Anarchism in Ukraine

Anarchism in Vietnam

Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas

Anarchist Manifesto


Anioł Dowgird

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury


Antoine Arnauld

Anton Kržan

Arnold Geulincx

Arnold Toynbee

Art manifesto

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics

Auberon Herbert

Auguste Comte

Augustus De Morgan



Benjamin Constant

Bernard Bolzano

Bête machine

Beyond Good and Evil

Black Panther Party

Blaise Pascal

Borden Parker Bowne


Bronisław Trentowski

Cartesian doubt

Charles Batteux

Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu

Charles Fourier

Charles Graves (bishop)

Charles Sanders Peirce


Christian Discourses

Christoph von Sigwart

Class consciousness

Classical Realism



Commodity fetishism


Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments

Cornelis Willem Opzoomer

Criticisms of electoralism

Critique of Judgement

Critique of Practical Reason

Critique of Pure Reason

Cultural hegemony

Dai Zhen

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler

David Hume

David Ricardo

David Strauss

Dharmarāja Adhvarin


Dialectical materialism

Die Anarchisten

Direct action

Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit

Edifying Discourses in Diverse Spirits

Edward Abramowski

Edward Dembowski

Egoist anarchism


Émile Pouget

Ernst Mach

Ernst Schröder

Fear and Trembling

Feliks Jaroński

For Self-Examination

Francesco Saverio Merlino

Francis Bacon

Francis Hutcheson (philosopher)

Franciszek Krupiński

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher

Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Groos

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Theodor Vischer

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

General will

Geohumoral theory

Georg Friedrich Meier

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

George Berkeley

George Boole

Giorgio Vasari

Gottfried Leibniz

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Hannah Arendt

Harriet Taylor Mill

Hayashi Hōkō

Hayashi Razan

Hayashi Ryūkō


Heimin Shimbun

Henri Bergson

Henry David Thoreau

Henry Home, Lord Kames

Herbert Spencer

Hirata Atsutane

Historical materialism

Hosoi Heishu

Hoter ben Shlomo

Howard Williams (humanitarian)

Hugo Grotius

Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose

Immanuel Kant

Individualist anarchism

Isaak Iselin

Itō Jinsai

Jakob Friedrich Fries

James Guillaume

Jan Wacław Machajski

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jena romantics

Jens Kraft

Jeremy Bentham

Jewish Communist Labour Party (Poalei Zion)

Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion)

Jewish Communist Union (Poalei Zion)

Johann Christian Lossius

Johann Friedrich Flatt

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Joachim Lange

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johannes Bredenburg

Johannes Phocylides Holwarda

John Austin (legal philosopher)

John Calvin

John Dewey

John Locke

John Stuart Mill

Józef Gołuchowski

Judah Leon Abravanel

Judge for Yourselves!

Justice as Fairness: A Restatement

Kaibara Ekken

Karl Heinrich Heydenreich

Karl Marx

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Karl Wilhelm Ramler

Kitaro Nishida

Krastyo Krastev

Krystyn Lach Szyrma

Lazarus Geiger

Lectures on Aesthetics

Léon Dumont

Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever

Lettre sur les aveugles à l'usage de ceux qui voient

Levi Hedge

Leviathan (book)

Lex, Rex

Libertarian Marxism

Libertarian socialism

List of communist ideologies

Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach

Ludwig Tieck

Luo Rufang

Man a Machine

Martin Luther

Marx's theory of alienation

Marx's theory of human nature

Marxist feminism

Marxist humanism

Marxist philosophy

Mary Wollstonecraft

Max Weber

Meditations on First Philosophy

Meinong's jungle

Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysics of Morals

Methodios Anthrakites

Michael Gottlieb Birckner

Michael Hissmann

Michał Wiszniewski

Michel Henry

Mikhail Bakunin

Miura Baien

Modern philosophy

Moses Mendelssohn

Motoori Norinaga

Muhammad Iqbal

Mulla Sadra

Muro Kyūsō

New England Transcendentalists

Nicholas Leonicus Thomaeus

Nicolas Malebranche

Nicolaus Hieronymus Gundling

Nietzsche's views on women

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nikolai Putyatin



Novum Organum

Observations on Man

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

Ogyū Sorai

On Liberty

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates

On the Genealogy of Morality

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Outline of anarchism

Paul Rée

Philosophical Fragments

Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom

Philosophy of Max Stirner

Philosophy of Spinoza

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre Cally

Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Nicole

Poale Zion

Political Justice

Political philosophy of Immanuel Kant

Port-Royal Logic

Practice in Christianity


Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics


Property is theft!

Randall Swingler

Rate of exploitation

Reification (Marxism)

Relations of production

Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner

René Descartes

Repetition (Kierkegaard)

Revolutionary Left (disambiguation)

Richard Sault

Robert Leslie Ellis

Roger Fry

Rudolf Seydel

Rudolph Goclenius

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Schopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulate

Science of Logic

Scottish School of Common Sense

Sebastian Petrycy

Seo Gyeong-deok

Simion Bărnuțiu

Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet

Social ecology


Søren Kierkegaard

Spinoza: Practical Philosophy

Stages on Life's Way

Statism and Anarchy

Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta

Structural Marxism

Sturm und Drang

Suzuki Shōsan

Tan Sitong

The Art of Being Right

The Blood of Others

The Book on Adler

The Communist Manifesto

The Concept of Anxiety

The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

The Foundations of Arithmetic

The Law of Peoples

The Methods of Ethics

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Phenomenology of Spirit

The Point of View of My Work as an Author

The Sickness Unto Death

The Soul of Man under Socialism

The Subjection of Women

Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Paine

Thomas Robert Malthus

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces

Three Critics of the Enlightenment

Toju Nakae


Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven

Utilitarianism (book)

Vasily Jakovlevich Zinger

Victor d'Hupay


Walter Goodnow Everett

War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian Civilization

What Is Property?

Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder

Wilhelm Windelband

Wilhelm Wundt

William Blackstone

William Godwin

William Graham Sumner

William Manderstown

William Whewell

Works of Love

Writing Sampler

Yamaga Sokō

Yamazaki Ansai

Yi I

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff

Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (10 March 1788 – 26 November 1857) was a Prussian poet, novelist, playwright, literary critic, translator, and anthologist. Eichendorff was one of the major writers and critics of Romanticism. Ever since their publication and up to the present day, some of his works have been very popular in Germany.Eichendorff first became famous for his 1826 novella Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts (freely translated: Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing) and his poems. The Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing is a typical Romantic novella whose main themes are wanderlust and love. The protagonist, the son of a miller, rejects his father's trade and becomes a gardener at a Viennese palace where he subsequently falls in love with the local duke's daughter. As, with his lowly status, she is unattainable for him, he escapes to Italy - only to return and learn that she is the duke's adopted daughter, and thus within his social reach. With its combination of dream world and realism, Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing is considered to be a high point of Romantic fiction. One critic stated that Eichendorff's Good-for-Nothing is the "personification of love of nature and an obsession with hiking." Thomas Mann called Eichendorff's Good-for-Nothing a combination of "the purity of the folk song and the fairy tale."Many of Eichendorff's poems were first published as integral parts of his novellas and stories, where they are often performed in song by one of the protagonists. The novella Good-for-Nothing alone contains 54 poems.


The Kammergericht (KG) is the Oberlandesgericht, i.e. the highest state court, for the city-state of Berlin, Germany. As an ordinary court according to the German Courts Constitution Act (Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz), it deals with criminal and civil cases, superior to the local Amtsgerichte and the Landgericht Berlin. Its name differs from other state courts for historic reasons; there are no other courts called Kammergericht in Germany.

Karl Philipp Moritz

Karl Philipp Moritz (Hameln, 15 September 1756 – Berlin, 26 June 1793) was a German author, editor and essayist of the Sturm und Drang, late enlightenment, and classicist periods, influencing early German Romanticism as well. He led a life as a hatter's apprentice, teacher, journalist, literary critic, professor of art and linguistics, and member of both of Berlin's academies.

List of German-language authors

This list contains the names of persons (of any ethnicity or nationality) who wrote fiction, essays, or plays in the German language. It includes both living and deceased writers.

Most of the medieval authors are alphabetized by their first name, not by their sobriquet.

List of romantics

List of romantics

Ludwig Tieck

Johann Ludwig Tieck (; German: [tiːk]; 31 May 1773 – 28 April 1853) was a German poet, fiction writer, translator, and critic. He was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Nikolai Melgunov

Nikolai Alexandrovich Melgunov (Russian: Николай Александрович Мельгунов, April 1804, – 16 February 1867) was a Russian writer, publicist, translator from German and French, and music critic, described as one of the most prolific and diverse authors of his time.

Philosophy of music

Philosophy of music is the study of "...fundamental questions about the nature of music and our experience of it". The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics.

Some basic questions in the philosophy of music are:

What is the definition of music? (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for classifying something as music?)

What is the relationship between music and mind?

What is the relationship between music and language?

What does musical history reveal to us about the world?

What is the connection between music and emotions? (in the 19th century there was a debate over whether instrumental music could convey emotion)

What is meaning in relation to music?

Ricarda Huch

Ricarda Huch (German: [huχ]; 18 July 1864 – 17 November 1947) was a pioneering German intellectual. Trained as an historian, and the author of many works of European history, she also wrote novels, poems, and a play. Asteroid 879 Ricarda is named in her honour. She was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times.

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