Wiley (publisher)

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., branded primarily as simply Wiley in recent years (NYSEJW.A), is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and instructional materials. The company produces books, journals, and encyclopedias, in print and electronically, as well as online products and services,[1] training materials, and educational materials for undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education students.[2]

Founded in 1807, Wiley is also known for publishing the For Dummies book series. In 2017, the company had 5100 employees and a revenue of $1.7 billion.[3]

Wiley logo
Traded as
New York City, United States
FounderCharles Wiley
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters locationHoboken, New Jersey
Nonfiction topicsScience, technology, medicine, professional development, higher education
RevenueUS$1.7 billion (Increase FY 2017)
No. of employees5,100
Official websitewww.wiley.com


The Hoboken, New Jersey headquarters

Wiley was established in 1807 when Charles Wiley opened a print shop in Manhattan. The company was the publisher of such 19th century American literary figures as James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, and Edgar Allan Poe, as well as of legal, religious, and other non-fiction titles. Wiley worked in partnership with Cornelius Van Winkle, George Long, George Palmer Putnam, and Robert Halsted. The firm took its current name in 1865. Wiley later shifted its focus to scientific, technical, and engineering subject areas, abandoning its literary interests.[4]

Charles Wiley's son John (born in Flatbush, New York, 4 October 1808; died in East Orange, New Jersey, 21 February 1891) took over the business when his father died in 1826. The firm was successively named Wiley, Lane & Co., then Wiley & Putnam, and then John Wiley. The company acquired its present name in 1876, when John's second son William H. Wiley joined his brother Charles in the business.[4][5]

Through the 20th century, the company expanded its publishing activities, the sciences, and higher education. Since the establishment of the Nobel Prize in 1901, Wiley and its acquired companies have published the works of more than 450 Nobel Laureates, in every category in which the prize is awarded.[4]

One of the world's oldest independent publishing companies, Wiley marked its bicentennial in 2007 with a year-long celebration, hosting festivities that spanned four continents and ten countries and included such highlights as ringing the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange on May 1. In conjunction with the anniversary, the company published Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807-2007, depicting Wiley's pivotal role in the evolution of publishing against a social, cultural, and economic backdrop. Wiley has also created an online community called Wiley Living History, offering excerpts from Knowledge for Generations and a forum for visitors and Wiley employees to post their comments and anecdotes.

High-growth and emerging markets

In December 2010, Wiley opened an office in Dubai.[6] The company has had an office in Beijing, China, since 2001, and China is now its sixth-largest market for STEM content. Wiley established publishing operations in India in 2006 (though it has had a sales presence since 1966), and has established a presence in North Africa through sales contracts with academic institutions in Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt.[7] On April 16, 2012, the company announced the establishment of Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA in São Paulo, Brazil, effective May 1, 2012.[8]

Strategic acquisition and divestiture

Wiley's scientific, technical, and medical business was significantly expanded by the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007.[9] The combined business, named Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly (also known as Wiley-Blackwell), publishes, in print and online, 1,400 scholarly peer-reviewed journals and an extensive collection of books, major reference works, databases, and laboratory manuals in the life and physical sciences, medicine and allied health, engineering, the humanities, and the social sciences. Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799. Wiley-Blackwell also publishes on behalf of about 700 professional and scholarly societies; among them are the American Cancer Society (ACS), for which it publishes Cancer, the flagship ACS journal; the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing; and the American Anthropological Association. Other major journals published include Angewandte Chemie, Advanced Materials, Hepatology, International Finance and Liver Transplantation.[10]

Launched commercially in 1999, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, major reference works, and books, including backfile content. Journals previously from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley also began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service.

On February 17, 2012, Wiley announced the acquisition of Inscape Holdings Inc., which provides DISC assessments and training for interpersonal business skills.[11] Wiley described the acquisition as complementary to the workplace learning products published under its Pfeiffer imprint, and one that would help Wiley advance its digital delivery strategy and extend its global reach through Inscape's international distributor network.

On March 7, 2012, Wiley announced its intention to divest assets in the areas of travel (including the Frommer's brand), culinary, general interest, nautical, pets, and crafts, as well as the Webster's New World and CliffsNotes brands. The planned divestiture was aligned with Wiley's "increased strategic focus on content and services for research, learning, and professional practices, and on lifelong learning through digital technology".[12] On August 13, 2012, Wiley announced it entered into a definitive agreement to sell all of its travel assets, including all of its interests in the Frommer's brand, to Google Inc.[13] On November 6, 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt acquired Wiley's cookbooks, dictionaries and study guides.[14] In 2013, Wiley sold its pets, crafts and general interest lines to Turner Publishing Company and its nautical line to Fernhurst Books.[15] HarperCollins acquired parts of Wiley Canada's trade operations in 2013; the remaining Canadian trade operations were merged into Wiley U.S.[16]

On October 2, 2012, Wiley announced it would acquire Deltak edu, LLC, a privately held Chicago-based leader in higher education and online learning. The acquisition, which was expected to close by the end of October, would significantly accelerate Wiley's digital learning strategy and diversify the company's service offerings to include operational and academic solutions for higher education institutions.[17]


Brands and partnerships

Sybex logo old
The old logo of Sybex, a Wiley brand of computer books

Wiley's Professional Development brands include For Dummies, Jossey-Bass, Pfeiffer, Wrox Press, J.K. Lasser, Sybex, Fisher Investments Press, and Bloomberg Press. The STMS business is also known as Wiley-Blackwell, formed following the acquisition of Blackwell Publishing in February 2007. Brands include The Cochrane Library and more than 1,500 journals.

Wiley has publishing alliances with partners including Microsoft, CFA Institute, the Culinary Institute of America, the American Institute of Architects, the National Geographic Society, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Wiley-Blackwell also publishes journals on behalf of more than 700 professional and scholarly society partners including the New York Academy of Sciences, American Cancer Society, The Physiological Society, British Ecological Society, American Association of Anatomists, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and The London School of Economics and Political Science, making it the world's largest society publisher.[18]

Wiley partners with GreyCampus to provide professional learning solutions around big data and digital literacy.[19] Wiley has also partnered with five other higher-education publishers to create CourseSmart, a company developed to sell college textbooks in eTextbook format on a common platform.[20] In 2002, Wiley created a partnership with French publisher Anuman Interactive in order to launch a series of e-books adapted from the For Dummies collection.[21] In 2013, Wiley partnered with American Graphics Institute to create an online education video and e-book subscription service called The Digital Classroom.[22]

In 2016, Wiley launched a worldwide partnership with Christian H. Cooper to create a program for candidates taking the Financial Risk Manager exam offered by Global Association of Risk Professionals. The program will be built on the existing Wiley efficient learning platform and Christian's legacy Financial Risk Manager[23] product. The partnership is built on the view the FRM designation will rapidly grow to be one of the premier financial designations for practitioners that will track the growth of the Chartered Financial Analyst designation. The program will serve tens of thousands of FRM candidates worldwide and is based on the adaptive learning technology of Wiley's efficient learning platform and Christian's unique writing style and legacy book series.[24]

With the integration of digital technology and the traditional print medium, Wiley has stated that in the near future its customers will be able to search across all its content regardless of original medium and assemble a custom product in the format of choice.[25] Web resources are also enabling new types of publisher-customer interactions within the company's various businesses.

Open Access

In 2016, Wiley started a collaboration with the open access publisher Hindawi to help convert nine Wiley journals to full open access. In 2018 a further announcement was made indicating that the Wiley-Hindawi collaboration would launch an additional four new fully open access journals.[26]

On January 18, 2019, Wiley signed a contract with Project DEAL to begin open access to its academic journals for more than 700 academic institutions.[27] It is the first contract between a publisher and a leading research nation (Germany) toward open access to scientific research.

Higher education

Higher Education's "WileyPLUS" is an online product that combines electronic versions of texts with media resources and tools for instructors and students. It is intended to provide a single source from which instructors can manage their courses, create presentations, and assign and grade homework and tests; students can receive hints and explanations as they work on homework, and link back to relevant sections of the text.

"Wiley Custom Select" launched in February 2009 as a custom textbook system allowing instructors to combine content from different Wiley textbooks and lab manuals and add in their own material. The company has begun to make content from its STMS business available to instructors through the system, with content from its Professional/Trade business to follow.[28]


In January 2008, Wiley launched a new version of its evidence-based medicine (EBM) product, InfoPOEMs with InfoRetriever, under the name Essential Evidence Plus, providing primary-care clinicians with point-of-care access to the most extensive source of EBM information[29] via their PDAs/handheld devices and desktop computers. Essential Evidence Plus includes the InfoPOEMs daily EBM content alerting service and two new content resources—EBM Guidelines, a collection of practice guidelines, evidence summaries, and images, and e-Essential Evidence, a reference for general practitioners, nurses, and physician assistants providing first-contact care.

Architecture and design

In October 2008, Wiley launched a new online service providing CEU/PDH credits to architects and designers. The initial courses are adapted from Wiley books, extending their reach into the digital space. Wiley is an accredited AIA continuing education provider.

Wiley Online Library

Wiley Online Library is a subscription-based library of John Wiley & Sons that launched on August 7, 2010, replacing Wiley InterScience.[30] It is a collection of online resources covering life, health, and physical sciences as well as social science and the humanities. To its members, Wiley Online Library delivers access to over 4 million articles from 1,500 journals, more than 14,000 books, and hundreds of reference works, laboratory protocols, and databases from John Wiley & Sons and its imprints, including Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley-VCH, and Jossey-Bass.

Corporate structure

Governance and operations

While the company is led by an independent management team and Board of Directors, the involvement of the Wiley family is ongoing, with sixth-generation members (and siblings) Peter Booth Wiley as the non-executive Chairman of the Board and Bradford Wiley II as a Director and past Chairman of the Board. Seventh-generation members Jesse and Nate Wiley work in the company's Professional/Trade and Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly businesses, respectively.

Wiley has been publicly owned since 1962, and listed on the New York Stock Exchange since 1995; its stock is traded under the symbols NYSEJW.A (for its Class A stock) and NYSEJW.B (for its class B stock).

Wiley's operations are organized into three business divisions:

  • Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly (STMS), also known as Wiley-Blackwell
  • Professional Development
  • Global Education

The company has approximately 5,000 employees worldwide, with headquarters in Hoboken, New Jersey, since 2002.

Corporate culture

In 2008, Wiley was named for the second consecutive year to Forbes magazine's annual list of the "400 Best Big Companies in America". In 2007, Book Business magazine cited Wiley as "One of the 20 Best Book Publishing Companies to Work For". For two consecutive years, 2006 and 2005, Fortune magazine named Wiley one of the "100 Best Companies to Work For". Wiley Canada was named to Canadian Business magazine's 2006 list of "Best Workplaces in Canada", and Wiley Australia has received the Australian government's "Employer of Choice for Women" citation every year since its inception in 2001. In 2004, Wiley was named to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Best Workplaces for Commuters" list. Working Mother magazine in 2003 listed Wiley as one of the "100 Best Companies for Working Mothers", and that same year, the company received the Enterprise Award from the New Jersey Business & Industry Association in recognition of its contribution to the state's economic growth. In 1998, Financial Times selected Wiley as one of the "most respected companies" with a "strong and well thought out strategy" in its global survey of CEOs.

In August 2009, the company announced a proposed reduction of Wiley-Blackwell staff in content management operations in the UK and Australia by approximately 60, in conjunction with an increase of staff in Asia.[31] In March 2010, it announced a similar reorganization of its Wiley-Blackwell central marketing operations that would lay off approximately 40 employees. The company's position was that the primary goal of this restructuring was to increase workflow efficiency. In June 2012, it announced the proposed closing of its Edinburgh facility in June 2013 with the intention of relocating journal content management activities currently performed there to Oxford and Asia. The move would lay off approximately 50 employees.[32]

Copyright cases

Photographer copyrights

A 2013 lawsuit brought by a stock photo agency for alleged violation of a 1997 license was dismissed for procedural reasons.[33]

A 2014 ruling by the District Court for the Southern District of New York,[34] later affirmed by the Second Circuit,[35] says that Wiley infringed on the copyright of photographer Tom Bean by using his photos beyond the scope of the license it had purchased. The case was connected to a larger set of copyright infringement cases brought by photo agency DRK against various publishers.[36]

A 2015 9th Circuit Court of Appeals opinion established that another photo agency had standing to sue Wiley for its usage of photos beyond the scope of the license acquired.[37]

Used books

In 2018, a Southern District of New York court upheld the award of over $39 million to Wiley and other textbook publishers in a vast litigation against Book Dog Books, a re-seller of used books which was found to hold and distribute counterfeit copies. The Court found that circumstantial evidence was sufficient to establish distribution of 116 titles for which counterfeit copies had been presented and of other 5 titles. It also found that unchallenged testimony on how the publishers' usually acquired licenses from authors was sufficient to establish the publishers' copyright on the books in question.[38][39]

Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons

In 2008, John Wiley & Sons filed suit against Thailand native Supap Kirtsaeng over the sale of textbooks made outside of the United States imported into the United States.[40] In 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court held 6–3 that the first-sale doctrine applied to copies of copyrighted works made and sold abroad at lower prices, reversing the Second Circuit decision which had favored Wiley.[41]

See also


  1. ^ "Wiley: Redesign and redecorate your home the simple way with Home Design 3D For Dummies". www.wiley.com.
  2. ^ "About Wiley" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  3. ^ "FORM 10-K" (PDF). John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "News" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  5. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Wiley, John" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  6. ^ "Wiley Opens Office in Dubai".
  7. ^ "High growth and emerging markets: a 21st century strategy" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Wiley Establishes Wiley Brasil Editora LTDA" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons.
  9. ^ "Wiley to Acquire Blackwell Publishing (Holdings) Ltd" (PDF) (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  10. ^ "Scientific, Technical, Medical, and Scholarly (Wiley-Blackwell)" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  11. ^ "Wiley Acquires Inscape, a Leading Provider of DiSC®-Based Learning Solutions" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  12. ^ "Wiley to Divest Selected Publishing Assets" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  13. ^ "Wiley to Sell Travel Publishing Program" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  14. ^ "HMH buys John Wiley portfolio". Financial Times. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  15. ^ "Wiley: Fernhurst Books Acquires Nautical Titles from Wiley's General Interest Consumer Publishing Program". Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  16. ^ "Wiley stops publishing Canadian business books: Roseman | The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2019-01-01.
  17. ^ "Wiley to Acquire Deltak edu, LLC Leading Provider of Online Degree Program Services" (Press release). Deltak. 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  18. ^ "Rittenhouse Quarterly Report" (Press release). Rittenhouse Book Distributors. 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  19. ^ "Wiley-GreyCampus Partnership".
  20. ^ "New Agreement Makes eTextbooks Available to Students".
  21. ^ "Logiciels : Anuman Interactive s'attaque au marché américain". lesechos.fr.
  22. ^ "Wiley, American Graphics Institute Launch the Digital Classroom". Publishers Weekly. 2013-03-19. Retrieved 2016-10-17.
  23. ^ "Wiley FRM - FRM Study Material & Exam Prep". Wiley FRM.
  24. ^ "Wiley Partners With Christian H. Cooper To Deliver Cutting-Edge Study Materials For FRM® Candidates Worldwide". PRWeb.
  25. ^ "2006 Annual Report" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  26. ^ "Wiley and Hindawi expand open access publishing collaboration". October 25, 2018. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  27. ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai (January 18, 2019). "Groundbreaking deal makes large number of German studies free to public". Science.
  28. ^ "Wiley Custom Select" (Press release). Mark Logic. 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
  29. ^ "News" (Press release). John Wiley & Sons. 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  30. ^ "Wiley Online Library". Wiley.
  31. ^ "Wiley plans redundancies in the UK and Australia". Archived from the original on 2009-10-01.
  32. ^ "John Wiley to close Edinburgh facility".
  33. ^ "Minden Pictures, Inc. v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc". 2014-01-27. Minden is a stock photography agency that licenses photographs to publishers, including Wiley. [...] In 1997, Minden licensed a number of photographs to Wiley for use in several educational publications. Compl. [...] In the instant action, Minden alleges that Wiley infringed the copyrights in the licensed photographs by exceeding the limitations imposed in the licenses.
  34. ^ "JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., Plaintiff/Counter-Defendant, v. DRK PHOTO, Defendant/Counter-Plaintiff". 2014-02-21. 998 F. Supp. 2d 262 No. 11 Civ. 5454(KPF) United States District Court, S.D. New York. DRK contends that its licenses with Wiley for the images at issue in these instances were limited in scope in terms of the print run, media, and/or geographic distribution, and that Wiley violated the license terms by printing more units than authorized, selling the photographs beyond the licensed geographic distribution areas, and/or using the photographs electronically without permission. [...] The record establishes that Wiley infringed on DRK’s copyrights for the Three Bean Instances. [...] Because Wiley has failed to raise any issue of material fact as to whether it exceeded the scope of its license for the Three Bean Instances, summary judgment is granted in DRK's favor for these instances.
  35. ^ Peter Leung (2018-02-20). "John Wiley Partial Photo Copyright Win Affirmed On Appeal". Intellectual Property on Bloomberg Law.
  36. ^ Thomas Long (2014-06-11). "Agreements with photographers did not give stock photo agency standing to sue for copyright infringement". Intellectual Property Law Daily.
  37. ^ Minden Pictures v. John Wiley & Sons (Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit) ("Until recently, Minden entered into “Agency Agreements” with the individual photographers for whom it serves as a licensing agent. The Agency Agreements at the heart of this case were executed between 1993 and 2008. [...] One company to which Minden granted licenses is an educational publisher, John Wiley & Sons. [...] Because we conclude that the Agency Agreements convey the rights to reproduce, distribute, and display the photographs to Minden via an “exclusive license” to grant licenses to third parties, we hold that Minden may bring an infringement action to remedy the unauthorized reproduction, distribution, and display of the photographs by those to whom it has granted licenses. We do not reach Minden’s remaining arguments."). Text
  38. ^ Judge William H. Pauley, III (2018-08-17). "John Wiley & Sons, Inc. et al v. Book Dog Books, LLC et al". 448. Scorched-earth litigation ensued, including numerous discovery motions, followed by appeals of determinations made by the Magistrate Judge, and multiple motions for summary judgment (followed by motions for reconsideration). [...] Defendants now resurrect that argument, contending that no reasonable jury could find sufficient evidence of distribution for 116 works. [...] Defendants continued to purchase from sources that they knew sold counterfeits. [...] Further, the jury learned that Defendants kept inadequate records. [...] Defendants acknowledge that infringement can be established through circumstantial evidence. [...] Second, Defendants challenge the five works for which Plaintiffs did not present a counterfeit copy. However, the jury heard that Defendants had purchased copies of those works from Best Books World, a known counterfeiter [...] But deposition testimony revealed that those distributors considered Defendants to be one of the most prevalent suppliers of counterfeit books and had ceased doing business with Defendants based on their history of infringement. [...] Defendants assert that Plaintiffs failed to demonstrate ownership for thirteen titles, meaning that Plaintiffs failed to establish statutory standing to sue for those works. [...] In each instance, while the copyright registrations submitted in evidence identified someone other than Cengage or Pearson as the copyright holder, trial testimony established that the person or entity listed was either the textbook’s author or a publishing company acquired by Cengage or Pearson. Plaintiffs maintained that Cengage or Pearson were granted exclusive licenses for these works. Although Plaintiffs did not submit documentation, Cengage representative Jessica Stitt testified that Cengage owns or holds the exclusive license for every Cengage title. [...] Defendants never challenged this testimony, nor did they ask any questions regarding Plaintiffs’ ownership of these works. No contradictory evidence of ownership presented. The jury was entirely justified in concluding that Plaintiffs established ownership for all works.
  39. ^ Lindsay McKenzie (2018-04-09). "Publishers Win Big in Fake-Textbook Lawsuit". Inside Higher Ed.
  40. ^ John Wiley & Sons, Inc. v. Kirtsaeng, CIV.A.08CIV.7834DCP, 2009 WL 3364037 (S.D.N.Y. Oct. 19, 2009) aff'd, 654 F.3d 210 (2d Cir. 2011)
  41. ^ "Supreme Court says copyright law does not protect publishers in discount re-sales". AP via Washington Post. March 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-19..

Further reading

  • The First One Hundred and Fifty Years: A History of John Wiley and Sons Incorporated 1807–1957. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1957.
  • Moore, John Hammond (1982). Wiley: One Hundred and Seventy Five Years of Publishing. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-86082-2.
  • Wright, Robert E.; Jacobson, Timothy C.; Smith, George David (2007). Knowledge for Generations: Wiley and the Global Publishing Industry, 1807–2007. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-75721-4.
  • Wiley, Peter Booth; Chaves, Frances; Grolier Club (2010). John Wiley & Sons: 200 years of publishing (PDF). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

External links


Agumbe is a small village located in Shimoga district, Thirthahalli taluk in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. It is sometimes called "The Cherrapunji of the South" after Cherrapunji, in Northeast India. Agumbe is associated with rainforest conservation efforts, documentation of medicinal plants, tourism (trekking and photography), and the promotion of cottage industry.

American Journal of Community Psychology

The American Journal of Community Psychology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering community psychology. It was established in 1973 and is published by Wiley (publisher). The editor-in-chief is Nicole E. Allen (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). The journal has a 2017 2-year impact factor of 2.32 and a 5-year impact factor of 3.09.

Artificial intelligence for video surveillance

Artificial intelligence for video surveillance utilizes computer software programs that analyze the images from video surveillance cameras in order to recognize humans, vehicles or objects. Security contractors program is the software to define restricted areas within the camera's view (such as a fenced off area, a parking lot but not the sidewalk or public street outside the lot) and program for times of day .(such as after the close of business) for the property being protected by the camera surveillance. The artificial intelligence ("A.I.") sends an alert if it detects a trespasser breaking the "rule" set that no person is allowed in that area during that time of day.

The A.I. program functions by using machine vision. Machine vision is a series of algorithms, or mathematical procedures, which work like a flow-chart or series of questions to compare the object seen with hundreds of thousands of stored reference images of humans in different postures, angles, positions and movements. The A.I. asks itself if the observed object moves like the reference images, whether it is approximately the same size height relative to width, if it has the characteristic two arms and two legs, if it moves with similar speed, and if it is vertical instead of horizontal. Many other questions are possible, such as the degree to which the object is reflective, the degree to which it is steady or vibrating, and the smoothness with which it moves. Combining all of the values from the various questions, an overall ranking is derived which gives the A.I. the probability that the object is or is not a human. If the value exceeds a limit that is set, then the alert is sent. It is characteristic of such programs that they are self-learning to a degree, learning, for example that humans or vehicles appear bigger in certain portions of the monitored image – those areas near the camera – than in other portions, those being the areas farthest from the camera.

In addition to the simple rule restricting humans or vehicles from certain areas at certain times of day, more complex rules can be set. The user of the system may wish to know if vehicles drive in one direction but not the other. Users may wish to know that there are more than a certain preset number of people within a particular area. The A.I. is capable of maintaining surveillance of hundreds of cameras simultaneously. Its ability to spot a trespasser in the distance or in rain or glare is superior to humans' ability to do so.

This type of A.I. for security is known as "rule-based" because a human programmer must set rules for all of the things for which the user wishes to be alerted. This is the most prevalent form of A.I. for security. Many video surveillance camera systems today include this type of A.I. capability. The hard-drive that houses the program can either be located in the cameras themselves or can be in a separate device that receives the input from the cameras.

A newer, non-rule based form of A.I. for security called "behavioral analytics" has been developed. This software is fully self-learning with no initial programming input by the user or security contractor. In this type of analytics, the A.I. learns what is normal behavior for people, vehicles, machines, and the environment based on its own observation of patterns of various characteristics such as size, speed, reflectivity, color, grouping, vertical or horizontal orientation and so forth. The A.I. normalizes the visual data, meaning that it classifies and tags the objects and patterns it observes, building up continuously refined definitions of what is normal or average behavior for the various observed objects. After several weeks of learning in this fashion it can recognize when things break the pattern. When it observes such anomalies it sends an alert. For example, it is normal for cars to drive in the street. A car seen driving up onto a sidewalk would be an anomaly. If a fenced yard is normally empty at night, then a person entering that area would be an anomaly.

Bab Agnaou

Bab Agnaou (Arabic: باب اكناو; Berber: Bab Agnaw or Tawurt n Wegnaw) is one of the nineteen gates of Marrakesh, Morocco. It was built in the 12th century in the time of the Almohad dynasty.While Bab er Robb was the official entrance to the city, Bab Agnaou gives entrance to the royal kasbah in the southern part of the medina of Marrakech. The kasbah, built by the Almohad sultan Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, is the site of El Mansouria (the kasbah mosque), the El Badi Palace and the Saadian Tombs.

Charles Jencks

Charles Alexander Jencks (born June 21, 1939) is a cultural theorist, landscape designer, architectural historian, and co-founder of the Maggie’s Cancer Care Centres. He has published over thirty books and became famous in the 1980s as theorist of Postmodernism. In recent years Jencks has devoted time to landform architecture, especially in Scotland. These landscapes include the Garden of Cosmic Speculation and earthworks at Jupiter Artland outside Edinburgh. His continuing project Crawick Multiverse, commissioned by the Duke of Buccleuch, opened in 2015 near Sanquhar.

John G. Ellis

John Garrett Ellis, AIA, RIBA is an Anglo-Californian architect, urban designer and teacher. He grew up in London, the son of Tom Ellis, the Brutalist architect and was a student at Cambridge University 1965-70 under Sir Leslie Martin, Colin St John Wilson and David Roberts. While a student he ran the Architectural Society and invited numerous distinguished architects to speak including Louis Kahn, the Russian Constructivist Berthold Lubetkin and the American Jack MacAllister. In 1968 he and four other students drove 12,000 miles from London to Moscow and Leningrad and out through Scandinavia to research the work of the Russian Constructivist architects. At Cambridge he was also taught by Richard Saul Wurman (TED talks, etc.) who offered him a position in his office in Philadelphia in the summer of 1969 where he met his late wife Becky, an art historian.

Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh

Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh (born in November 1971) is an Australian scientist involved in research in the fields of materials sciences, electronics, and transducers. He is best known for his works on two-dimensional semiconductors, ingestible sensors and liquid metals. He led his group to the invention of an ingestible chemical sensor: human gas sensing capsule..

List of oldest companies in the United States

This list of the oldest companies in the United States includes brands and companies, excluding associations, educational, government or religious organizations. To be listed a brand or company name must remain, either whole or in part since inception, and should have been established before 1820. If the original name has since changed due to acquisitions or renaming, this must be verifiable.

Structural Equations with Latent Variables

Structural Equations with Latent Variables is a book by Kenneth Bollen. It explains basic ideas and methods in the field of structural equation modeling and is considered to be an important technical reference. It is held to be a classic textbook on the topic.

Water supply and sanitation in the Republic of Ireland

Water supply and sanitation services in Ireland are governed primarily by the Water Services Acts of 2007 to 2014 and regulated by the Commission for Energy Regulation. Until 2015, the relevant legislation provided for the provision of water and wastewater services by local authorities in Ireland, with domestic usage funded indirectly through central taxation (including motor taxation), and non-domestic usage funded via local authority rates. From 2015, the legislation provided for the setup of a utility company, Irish Water, which would be responsible for providing water and wastewater services, and funded through direct billing. The transition between these models, and certain aspects of operation of the new company, caused controversy in its initial period of operation.In general in Ireland, water resources are abundant and 83% of drinking water comes from surface water. However, wastage levels were estimated at 800 million litres lost to leaks each day in 2015, while usage levels were calculated at 80 litres per capita per day in 2016. The quality of water from the public mains is usually quite high, with, for example, 98.9% of public water supplies complying with the standards for E. coli levels in 2004. However, the microbiological quality of some rural private group water schemes led to Ireland being cited in 2002 by the European Court of Justice for failing to abide by EU drinking water guidelines.For wastewater treatment, 94% of wastewater collected in urban area sewers receives at least secondary treatment, and 1.6 billion litres of water are treated each day nationally. Wastewater infrastructure includes 25,000 km of pipes to approximately 1,000 wastewater treatment plants.

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