Widescreen

Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios (relationship of image width to height) used in film, television and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35mm film.

For television, the original screen ratio for broadcasts was in fullscreen 4:3 (1.33:1). Largely between the 1990s and early 2000s, at varying paces in different nations, 16:9 (1.78:1) widescreen TV displays came into increasingly common use. They are typically used in conjunction with high-definition television (HDTV) receivers, or Standard-Definition (SD) DVD players and other digital television sources.

With computer displays, aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are also referred to as widescreen. Widescreen computer displays were previously of 16:10 aspect ratio, but now are usually 16:9.

Widescreen wikipedia
The Wikipedia main page on August 15, 2010 as viewed with a widescreen monitor

Film

History

Widescreen was first used in the film of the Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight in 1897. This was not only the longest film that had been released to date at 100 minutes, but also the first widescreen film being shot on 63mm Eastman stock with five perforations per frame.

Widescreen was first widely used in the late 1920s in some short films and newsreels, including Abel Gance's film Napoleon (1927) with a final widescreen sequence in what Gance called Polyvision. Claude Autant-Lara released a film Pour construire un feu (To Build a Fire, 1928) in the early Henri Chretien widescreen process, later adapted by Twentieth Century-Fox for CinemaScope in 1952.

In 1927, The American aka The Flag Maker was released. The film, directed by J. Stuart Blackton and starring Bessie Love and Charles Ray, was made in the experimental widescreen process Natural Vision, developed by George K. Spoor and P. John Berggren, but was never released theatrically. In 1926, Spoor and Berggren had released a Natural Vision film of Niagara Falls. The Natural Vision widescreen process used 63.5mm film and had a 2:1 aspect ratio.[1][2]

On May 26, 1929, Fox Film Corporation released Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 in New York City in the Fox Grandeur process. Other films shot in widescreen were the musical Happy Days (1929) which premiered at the Roxy Theater, New York City, on February 13, 1930, starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell and a 12-year-old Betty Grable as a chorus girl; Song o’ My Heart, a musical feature starring Irish tenor John McCormack and directed by Frank Borzage (Seventh Heaven, A Farewell to Arms), which was shipped from the labs on March 17, 1930, but never released and may no longer survive, according to film historian Miles Kreuger (the 35mm version, however, debuted in New York on March 11, 1930); and the western The Big Trail (1930) starring John Wayne and Tyrone Power, Sr. which premiered at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood on October 2, 1930,[3] all of which were also made in the 70mm Fox Grandeur process.

RKO Radio Pictures released Danger Lights with Jean Arthur, Louis Wolheim, and Robert Armstrong on August 21, 1930 in a 65mm widescreen process known as NaturalVision, invented by film pioneer George K. Spoor. On November 13, 1930, United Artists released The Bat Whispers directed by Roland West in a 70mm widescreen process known as Magnafilm. Warner Brothers released Song of the Flame and Kismet (both 1930) in a widescreen process they called Vitascope.

In 1930, after experimenting with the system called Fanthom Screen for The Trail of '98 (1928), MGM came out with a system called Realife. MGM filmed The Great Meadow (1930) in Realife—however, it's unclear if it was ever released in that widescreen process due to declining interest of the movie-going public.

By 1932, the Great Depression had forced studios to cut back on needless expense and it was not until 1953 that wider aspect ratios were again used in an attempt to stop the fall in attendance due, partially, to the emergence of television in the U.S. However, a few producers and directors, among them Alfred Hitchcock, have been reluctant to use the anamorphic widescreen size featured in such formats as Cinemascope. Hitchcock alternatively used VistaVision, a non-anamorphic widescreen process developed by Paramount Pictures and Technicolor which could be adjusted to present various flat aspect ratios.[4]

Types

Masked (or flat) widescreen was introduced in April 1953. The negative is shot exposing the Academy ratio using spherical lenses, but the top and bottom of the picture are hidden or masked off by a metal aperture plate, cut to specifications of the theater's screen, in the projector. Alternatively, a hard matte in the printing or shooting stages may be used to mask off those areas while filming for composition purposes, but an aperture plate is still used to block off the appropriate areas in the theater. A detriment is that the film grain size is thus increased because only part of the image is being expanded to full height. Films are designed to be shown in cinemas in masked widescreen format but the full unmasked frame is sometimes used for television. In such an instance, a photographer will compose for widescreen, but "protect" the full image from things such as microphones and other filming equipment. Standardized "flat wide screen" ratios are 1.66:1, 1.75:1, 1.85:1, and 2:1. 1.85:1 has become the predominant aspect ratio for the format.

35mm anamorphic – This type of widescreen is used for CinemaScope, Panavision, and several other equivalent processes. The film is essentially shot "squeezed", so that the actors appear vertically elongated on the actual film. A special lens inside the projector unsqueezes the image so that it will appear normal. Films shot in CinemaScope or Panavision are usually projected at a 2.40:1 aspect ratio, though the historical aspect ratio can be 2.55:1 (original 4-track magnetic sound aspect ratio) or 2.35:1 (original mono optical sound aspect ratio). The negative is usually 2.66:1 or, in rare cases, 2.55:1 or 2.35:1. The sole purpose of the change to 2.39:1 and, later, to 2.40:1, was to better hide so-called "negative assembly" splices (splices employed in the composited camera negative. This was not a production change, rather it was a recommended projection change.)

A Chilean film, Post Mortem, used anamorphic lenses with 16mm film, to be projected at an ultra-widescreen 2.66:1 for a unique look.[5][6]

Super gauges – The full negative frame, including the area traditionally reserved for the sound track, is filmed using a wider gate. The print is then shrunk and/or cropped in order to fit it back onto release prints. The aspect ratio for Super 35, for example, can be set to virtually any projection standard.

Large gauge – A 70mm film frame is not only twice as wide as a standard frame but also has greater height. Shooting and projecting a film in 70mm therefore gives more than four times the image area of non-anamorphic 35mm film with no loss of quality. Few major dramatic narrative films have been filmed entirely on this format since the 1970s; the three most recent are Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet, Paul Thomas Anderson's The Master and Quentin Tarantino's The Hateful Eight. For many years, large budget pictures shot anamorphically used reserve stocks of 70mm film for SFX shots involving CGI or blue-screen compositing as the anamorphic format creates problems with said effects. It has also been used to sometimes strike 70mm blow-up prints for "roadshow" tours in select cities from the 35mm camera negative in order to capitalize on the extra sound channels provided. The introduction of digital sound systems and diminishing number of installed 70mm projectors has made a 70mm release largely obsolete. However, blowups from 35mm formats to IMAX has recently become popular for a limited number of blockbuster films.

Paramount's VistaVision was a larger gauge precursor to 70mm film. Introduced in 1954, it ran standard 35mm film through the camera horizontally to achieve a widescreen effect using greater negative area, in order to create a finer-grained four-perforation 35mm prints in an era where standard monopack stock could not produce finer results. Negative frames were eight perforations wide. Eight-perf photography is sometimes used for shooting special effects in order to produce a finer grained matte that can be used in optical printing without image degradation, and is notable for its use in Lucasfilm's original three Star Wars films, among others. Another similar system with horizontal orientation was MGM's Arnoldscope.[7]

Multiple lens camera/multiple projectors – The Cinerama system originally involved shooting with three lens camera, and projecting the three resulting films on a curved screen with three synchronized projectors, resulting in an ultrawide aspect ratio of 2.89. Later Cinerama movies were shot in 70mm anamorphic (see below), and the resultant widescreen image was divided into three by optical printers to produce the final threefold prints.

The technical drawbacks of Cinerama are discussed in its own article. Only two narrative feature films, The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm and How the West Was Won, were filmed in three-camera Cinerama, and several sequences from the latter were actually filmed in Ultra-Panavision. With the exception of a few films created sporadically for use in specialty Cinerama theaters, the format is essentially dead.

A non-Cinerama, three-projector process was famously pioneered for the final reel of Abel Gance's epic film Napoléon (1927) The process, called Polyvision by Gance, consisted of three 1.33 images side by side, so that the total aspect ratio of the image is 4:1. The technical difficulties in mounting a full screening of the film, however, make most theaters unwilling or unable to show it in this format.

Between 1956 and 1957, the Soviets developed Kinopanorama, which is identical in most respects to the original three-camera Cinerama.

Anamorphic 70mm – 70mm with anamorphic lenses, popularly known as "Ultra Panavision" or "MGM Camera 65", creates an even wider high-quality picture. This camera process was most famously used in the 1959 version of "Ben-Hur", resulting in an aspect ratio of 2.76:1, one of the widest projected images ever used for a feature film. 70mm anamorphic was not commonly used, due to the very high production costs, although it was favored for epic films such as Ben-Hur in order to capture wide panoramic landscapes and high-budget scenes with thousands of extras and enormous sets. This system is obsolete, despite its ease in setting up.

Television

The original screen ratio for television broadcasts was 4:3 (1.33:1). This was the same aspect ratio as most cinema screens and films at the time television was first sold commercially. Earlier 4:3 films such as Gone With The Wind have always been displayed on television in full frame, though color television was invented later.

When preparing a film that was originally intended to be displayed in widescreen for television broadcast the material was often edited with the sides truncated, using techniques such as Center cut or pan and scan. Sometimes, in the case of Super 35, the full film negative was shown unmasked on TV (i.e., with the hard matte removed), however this causes the 4:3 image not to be what the director intended the audience to see—and sometimes boom mikes, edited out of the shot when the picture is matted, can be visible. Modern widescreen televisions feature a 16:9 (and occasionally 16:10) aspect ratio, allowing them to display a 16:9 widescreen picture without letterboxing (or with a minimal letterbox in the case of 16:10).

In Europe, the PAL TV format, with its higher resolution than NTSC format, meant the quality issues of letterboxed or matted movies on TV was not as severe. There is also an extension to PAL, called PALplus, which allows specially equipped receivers to receive a PAL picture as true 16:9 with a full 576 lines of vertical resolution, provided the station employs the same system. Standard PAL receivers will receive such a broadcast as a 16:9 image letterboxed to 4:3, with a small amount of color noise in the black bars; this "noise" is actually the additional lines which are hidden inside the color signal. This system has no equivalent in analog NTSC broadcasting.

Despite the existence of PALplus and support for widescreen in the DVB-based digital satellite, terrestrial and cable broadcasts in use across Europe, only Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands, Austria, Germany, the Nordic countries and the UK have adopted widescreen on a large scale, with over half of all widescreen channels available by satellite in Europe targeting those areas. The UK, in particular, began moving to widescreen with the advent of digital terrestrial television in the late 1990s, and commercials were required to be delivered to broadcasters in widescreen as of 1 July 2000, on their widescreen "C-Day".

Widescreen televisions are typically used in conjunction with Digital, High-Definition Television (HDTV) receivers, or Standard-Definition (SD) DVD players and other digital television sources. Digital material is provided to widescreen TVs either in high-definition format, which is natively 16:9 (1.78:1), or as an anamorphically-compressed standard-definition picture. Typically, devices decoding Digital Standard-Definition pictures can be programmed to provide anamorphic widescreen formatting, for 16:9 sets, and formatting for 4:3 sets. Pan-and-scan mode can be used on 4:3 if the producers of the material have included the necessary panning data; if this data is absent, letterboxing or centre cut-out is used.

HD DVD and Blu-ray disc players were introduced in 2006. Toshiba ceased production of HD DVD players in early 2008. Consumer camcorders are also available in the HD-video format at fairly low prices. These developments will result in more options for viewing widescreen images on television monitors.

Computer displays

Computer displays with aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are also called widescreen. Widescreen computer displays are typically of the 16:9 or 16:10 aspect ratio. Widescreen (16:9) monitors can be found in resolutions of 1024×576, 1152×648, 1280×720, 1366×768, 1600×900, 1920×1080, 2560×1440 and 3840×2160. Apple's 27" iMac introduced the 16:9 resolution: 2560×1440 in late 2009. Widescreen monitors are since 2008 the mainstream standard for computer displays.

Screens png
Widescreen computer displays.

Transition to widescreen

Until about 2006, most computer monitors had a 4:3 aspect ratio and some had 5:4. Between 2006 and 2007, monitors with 16:9 and mostly 16:10 (8:5) aspect ratios became commonly available, first in laptops and later also in standalone monitors. Reasons for this transition is alleged to be the productive uses for such monitors, i.e. besides widescreen movie viewing and computer game play, are the word processor display of two standard letter pages side by side, as well as CAD displays of large-size drawings and CAD application menus at the same time.[8][9] In 2008, 16:10 became the most common sold aspect ratio for LCD monitors and the same year 16:10 was the mainstream standard for laptops and notebook computers.[10][11][12]

In 2008, the computer industry started to move over from 16:10 to 16:9. A report by displaysearch stated the reasons for this change as:[11][12]

  • Innovative product concepts drives a new product cycle and stimulating the growth of the notebook PC and LCD monitor market.
  • 16:9 provides better economic cut (panelization) in existing TFT LCD fabs.
  • 16:9 products provide wider aspect ratio.
  • The widespread adoption of High Definition in the consumer entertainment sector will help end users readily adopt the new products with the wider aspect ratio.
  • The 16:9 panels provide an opportunity for PC brands to further diversify their products.

In 2011, Bennie Budler, product manager of IT products at Samsung South Africa, confirmed that monitors capable of 1920×1200 resolutions aren't being manufactured anymore. "It is all about reducing manufacturing costs. The new 16:9 aspect ratio panels are more cost effective to manufacture locally than the previous 16:10 panels."[13]

In 2011, non-widescreen displays with 4:3 aspect ratios still were being manufactured, but in small quantities. The reasons for this was according to Samsung that the "Demand for the old 'Square monitors' has decreased rapidly over the last couple of years," and "I predict that by the end of 2011, production on all 4:3 or similar panels will be halted due to a lack of demand."[13]

In March 2011, the 16:9 resolution 1920×1080 became the most common used resolution among Steam users. The earlier most common resolution was 1680×1050 (16:10).[14]

Suitability for applications
  • Since many modern DVDs and some TV shows are in a widescreen format, widescreen displays are optimal for their playback on a computer. 16:9 material on a 16:10 display will be letterboxed. In data processing or viewing 4:3 entertainment material such as older films and digital photographs, the widescreen will be pillarboxed.[15]
  • In the majority of games since 2005, you get wider field of view with a widescreen monitor.[16]
  • Games prior to 2005 usually work better with a 4:3 than a widescreen monitor because of better compatibility.[16]

Conversion

When monitors are sold, the quoted size is the diagonal measurement of the display area. Because of the different ratio, a 16:9 monitor will have a shorter height than a 4:3 monitor of the same advertised size.

Since computer displays are advertised by their diagonal measure, for monitors with the same display area, a widescreen monitor will have a larger diagonal measure, thus sounding more impressive. (In other words, for monitors with the same diagonal measure, a widescreen monitor will have smaller display area). Within limits, the amount of information that can be displayed, and the cost of the monitor depend more on area than on diagonal measure.

Some monitors can be rotated to facilitate tasks that are more limited by the height of the monitor (such as word processing).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ SilentEra entry
  2. ^ The American Film Institute Catalog Feature Films: 1921–30 by The American Film Institute (1971)
  3. ^ Coles, David (March 2001). "Magnified Grandeur". The 70mm Newsletter. Australia: ..in70mm (63). Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  4. ^ North by Northwest (1959) on IMDb
  5. ^ Jonathan Marlow (15 February 2013). "The Art of Filmmaking: Pablo Larrain". Fandor. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  6. ^ Violet Lucca (19 April 2012). "Projecting and Excavating the Past: An Interview with Pablo Larraín". Film Comment. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  7. ^ August E. Grant; Jennifer Harman Meadows (2010). Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals. Focal Press/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-240-81475-9. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  8. ^ NEMA Specifications. 250. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. 2012.
  9. ^ "Introduction". Monitor Technology Guide. NEC Display Solutions. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007.
  10. ^ Dan, Knight (19 September 2008). "With 10% of the US Notebook Market, Where Will Apple Go Next?". Mac Musings. Low End Mac. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Product Planners and Marketers Must Act Before 16:9 Panels Replace Mainstream 16:10 Notebook PC and Monitor LCD Panels, New DisplaySearch Topical Report Advises" (PDF). DisplaySearch. Austin, Texas: NPD Group. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  12. ^ a b Thomas, Ricker (2 July 2008). "Widescreen LCDs going widescreen by 2010". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  13. ^ a b Vermeulen, Jan (10 January 2011). "Widescreen monitors: Where did 1920×1200 go?". MyBroadband. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Steam Hardware & Software Survey". Steam (survey). Valve Corporation. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  15. ^ Productivity, Screens and Aspect Ratio Archived January 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ a b "Master Game List". Widescreen Gaming Forum. Retrieved 28 June 2013.

External links

1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

720p

720p (1280×720 px; also called HD Ready or standard HD) is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). All major HDTV broadcasting standards (such as SMPTE 292M) include a 720p format, which has a resolution of 1280×720; however, there are other formats, including HDV Playback and AVCHD for camcorders, that use 720p images with the standard HDTV resolution. The frame rate is standards-dependent, and for conventional broadcasting appears in 50 progressive frames per second in former PAL/SECAM countries (Europe, Australia, others), and 59.94 frames per second in former NTSC countries (North America, Japan, Brazil, others).

The number 720 stands for the 720 horizontal scan lines of image display resolution (also known as 720 pixels of vertical resolution). The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. When broadcast at 60.00 frames/s frames per second, 720p features the highest temporal resolution possible under the ATSC and DVB standards. The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, thus implying a resolution of 1280×720 px (0.9 megapixels).

720i (720 lines interlaced) is an erroneous term found in numerous sources and publications. Typically, it is a typographical error in which the author is referring to the 720p HDTV format. However, in some cases it is incorrectly presented as an actual alternative format to 720p. No proposed or existing broadcast standard permits 720 interlaced lines in a video frame at any frame rate.

Active Format Description

In television technology, Active Format Description (AFD) is a standard set of codes that can be sent in the MPEG video stream or in the baseband SDI video signal that carries information about their aspect ratio and active picture characteristics. It has been used by television broadcasters to enable both 4:3 and 16:9 television sets to optimally present pictures transmitted in either format. It has also been used by broadcasters to dynamically control how down-conversion equipment formats widescreen 16:9 pictures for 4:3 displays.

Standard AFD codes provide information to video devices about where in the coded picture the active video is and also the "protected area" which is the area that needs to be shown. Outside the protected area, edges at the sides or the top can be removed without the viewer missing anything significant. Video decoders and display devices can then use this information, together with knowledge of the display shape and user preferences, to choose a presentation mode.

AFD can be used in the generation of Widescreen signaling, although MPEG alone contains enough information to generate this. AFDs are not part of the core MPEG standard; they were originally developed within the Digital TV Group in the UK and submitted to DVB as an extension, which has subsequently also been adopted by ATSC (with some changes). SMPTE has also adopted AFD for baseband SDI carriage as standard SMPTE 2016-1-2007, "Format for Active Format Description and Bar Data".

Active Format Description is occasionally incorrectly referred to as "Active Format Descriptor". There is no "descriptor" (descriptor has a specific meaning in ISO/IEC 13818-1, MPEG syntax). The AFD data is carried in the Video Layer of MPEG, ISO/IEC 13818-2. When carried in digital video, AFDs can be stored in the Video Index Information, in line 11 of the video.

By using AFDs broadcasters can also control the timing of Aspect Ratio switches more accurately than using MPEG signalling alone. This is because the MPEG signalling can only change with a new Group of Pictures in the sequence, which is typically around every 12 frames or half a second - this was not considered accurate enough for some broadcasters who were initially switching frequently between 4:3 and 16:9. The number of Aspect Ratio Converters required in a broadcast facility is also reduced, since the content is described correctly it does not need to be resized for broadcast on a platform that supports AFDs.

In 2012, a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award was awarded for the development and deployment of Active Format Description.

Anamorphic format

Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. It also refers to the projection format in which a distorted image is "stretched" by an anamorphic projection lens to recreate the original aspect ratio on the viewing screen. (It should not be confused with anamorphic widescreen, a different video encoding concept that uses similar principles but different means.) The word anamorphic and its derivatives stem from the Greek words meaning "formed again". As a camera format, anamorphic format is losing popularity in comparison to "flat" (or "spherical") formats such as Super 35 mm film shot using spherical lenses; however, because most film movie projectors use anamorphic projection format, spherical format negatives are commonly converted into anamorphic prints for projection.

In the years since digital cinema cameras and projectors have become commonplace, anamorphic has experienced a considerable resurgence of popularity, due in large part to the higher base ISO sensitivity of digital sensors, which facilitates shooting at smaller apertures.

Anamorphic widescreen

Anamorphic widescreen (also called Full height anamorphic) is a process by which a comparatively wide widescreen image is horizontally compressed to fit into a storage medium (photographic film or MPEG-2 Standard Definition frame, for example) with a narrower aspect ratio, reducing the horizontal resolution of the image while keeping its full original vertical resolution. Compatible play-back equipment (a projector with modified lens, or a digital video player or set-top box) can then expand the horizontal dimension to show the original widescreen image. This is typically used to allow one to store widescreen images on a medium that was originally intended for a narrower ratio, while using as much of the frame – and therefore recording as much detail – as possible.The technique comes from cinema, when a film would be framed and recorded as widescreen but the picture would be "squashed together" using a special concave lens to fit into non-widescreen 1.37:1 aspect ratio film. This film can then be printed and manipulated like any other 1.37:1 film stock, although the images on it will appear to be squashed horizontally (or elongated vertically). An anamorphic lens on the projector in the cinema (a convex lens) corrects the picture by performing the opposite distortion, returning it to its original width and its widescreen aspect ratio.

The optical scaling of the lens to a film medium is considered more desirable than the digital counterpart, due to the amount of non-proportional pixel-decimated scaling that is applied to the width of an image to achieve (something of a misnomer) a so-called "rectangular" pixel widescreen image. The legacy ITU Rec. 601 4:3 image size is used for its compatibility with the original video bandwidth that was available for professional video devices that used fixed clock rates of a SMPTE 259M serial digital interface. One would produce a higher-quality upscaled 16:9 widescreen image by using either a 1:1 SD progressive frame size of 640×360 or for ITU Rec. 601 and SMPTE 259M compatibility a letterboxed frame size of 480i or 576i. Similar operations are performed electronically to allow widescreen material to be stored on formats or broadcast on systems that assume a non-widescreen aspect ratio, such as DVD or standard definition digital television broadcasting.

Aspect ratio (image)

The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is commonly expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. For an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units.

For example, in a group of images that all have an aspect ratio of 16:9, one image might be 16 inches wide and 9 inches high, another 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high, and a third might be 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Thus, aspect ratio concerns the relationship of the width to the height, not an image's actual size.

Graphics display resolution

The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.

Lazy Afternoon (Barbra Streisand album)

Lazy Afternoon is a studio album recorded by American singer Barbra Streisand. It was released on October 14, 1975 by Columbia Records. After releasing the Funny Lady soundtrack earlier in 1975, the singer began working with new musicians for the project following the mediocre critical response generated from her previous studio album, ButterFly (1974). Recorded in April 1975 in Los Angeles, Lazy Afternoon contains pop standards. Producer Rupert Holmes wrote four songs on the album, and Streisand received her first songwriting credit for the song "By the Way". She also included a few cover songs, such as Four Tops' "Shake Me, Wake Me (When It's Over)", Stevie Wonder's "You and I", and Libby Holman's "Moanin' Low".

The album received generally favorable reviews from music critics who agreed that it was more exciting than ButterFly. The production also received praise from critics. Commercially, the album peaked at number 12 on the United States, number 42 in Canada, and number 84 in Australia. It was later certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments of 500,000 copies. "My Father's Song" and "Shake Me, Wake Me (When It's Over)" were released as the album's two singles in August and November 1975, respectively. The former entered the Adult Contemporary charts in the United States and Canada while the latter was a success on two of Billboard's dance charts in late 1975.

Letterboxing (filming)

Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the film's original aspect ratio. The resulting videographic image has mattes (black bars) above and below it; these mattes are part of the image (i.e., of each frame of the video signal). LBX or LTBX are the identifying abbreviations for films and images so formatted. The term refers to the shape of a letter box, a slot in a wall or door through which mail is delivered, being rectangular and wider than it is high.

Pan and scan

Pan and scan is a method of adjusting widescreen film images so that they can be shown in fullscreen proportions of a standard definition 4:3 aspect ratio television screen, often cropping off the sides of the original widescreen image to focus on the composition's most important aspects.

Some film directors and enthusiasts disapprove of pan and scan cropping, because it can remove up to 45% of the original image on 2.35:1 films or up to 53% on earlier 2.55:1 presentations, changing the director or cinematographer's original vision and intentions. The most extreme examples remove up to 75% of the original picture on such aspect ratios as 2.76:1 in epics such as Ben-Hur and It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. Lawrence of Arabia is an exception to the 75% rule, because its aspect ratio is 2.20:1.

The vertical equivalent is known as "tilt and scan" or "reverse pan and scan". The method was most common in the days of VHS, before widescreen home media such as Laserdisc, DVD and Blu-ray.

Center cut is similar with the difference as the name suggests that it is simply a direct cut of the material from the center of the image with no horizontal panning or vertical tilting involved. This method doesn't require the permission or availability of the film maker or director to identify the most important part of each frame. Most video displays have three options for 16:9 widescreen frame formatting, which are either center cut, letterbox or full frame. The first two options are reliant on the video stream's aspect ratio flag being set correctly.

Pillarbox

The pillarbox effect occurs in widescreen video displays when black bars (mattes or masking) are placed on the sides of the image. It becomes necessary when film or video that was not originally designed for widescreen is shown on a widescreen display, or a narrower widescreen image is displayed within a wider aspect ratio, such as a 16:9 image in a 2.39:1 frame (common in cinemas). The original material is shrunk and placed in the middle of the widescreen frame.

Some older arcade games that had a tall vertical and short horizontal are displayed in pillarbox even on 4:3 televisions. Some early sound films made 1928–1931, such as City Lights, were filmed in an even narrower format to make room for the sound-on-film track on then-standard film stock. These will appear pillarboxed even on 4:3 screens.Pillarboxing is the vertical equivalent of letterboxing and is sometimes called reverse letterboxing. Its name is derived from its resemblance to pillar box-style mailboxes used in the UK and the Commonwealth of Nations. The four-direction equivalent is called windowboxing, caused when programming is both letterboxed and pillarboxed.

In order to use the entire screen area of a widescreen display (which is already significantly less than a fullscreen of equal diagonal measurement), and to prevent a reverse screen burn-in on plasma displays, the simplest alternative to pillarboxing is to crop the top and bottom. However, this results in the loss of some of the image within what the producer assumed would be the safe area. This overscan may or may not bother the viewer, but it often cuts-off the channel banner or other on-screen displays. Likewise, the vertical equivalent of pan and scan is called "tilt and scan" or "reverse pan and scan". This moves the cropped "window" up and down, however it is rarely done. A third option is to stretch the video to fill the screen, but this is often considered ugly, as it severely distorts everything on the screen.

Because certain screen resolutions can be used for both fullscreen and widescreen (anamorphic), widescreen signaling (such as the Active Format Descriptor) must be used to tell the display device which to use, or the viewer must set it manually, in order to prevent unnecessary pillarboxing or stretching on widescreen displays.

Rupert Holmes

Rupert Holmes (born David Goldstein on February 24, 1947) is a British-American composer, singer-songwriter, musician, dramatist and author. He is widely known for the hit singles "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)" (1979) and "Him" (1980). He is also known for his musicals Drood, which earned him two Tony Awards, and Curtains, and for his television series Remember WENN.

Standard-definition television

Standard-definition television (SDTV or SD) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high or enhanced definition. The two common SDTV signal types are 576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems, and 480i based on the American NTSC system. SDTV and high-definition television (HDTV) are the two categories of display formats for digital television (DTV) transmissions.

In North America, digital SDTV is broadcast in the same 4:3 aspect ratio as NTSC signals, with widescreen content being center cut. However, in other parts of the world that used the PAL or SECAM color systems, standard-definition television is now usually shown with a 16:9 aspect ratio, with the transition occurring between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s depending on region. Older programs with a 4:3 aspect ratio are broadcast with a flag that switches the display to 4:3.Standards that support digital SDTV broadcast include DVB, ATSC, and ISDB. The last two were originally developed for HDTV, but are more often used for their ability to deliver multiple SD video and audio streams via multiplexing, than for using the entire bitstream for one HD channel.SDTV refresh rates can be 24, 25, 30, 50 or 60 frames per second with a possible rate multiplier of 1000/1001 for NTSC. 50 and 60 rates are generally frame doubled versions of 25 and 30 rates for jitter issues when using non-interlaced lines.

Digital SDTV in 4:3 aspect ratio has the same appearance as regular analog TV (NTSC, PAL, SECAM) without the ghosting, snowy images and white noise. However, if the reception has interference or is poor, where the error correction cannot compensate one will encounter various other artifacts such as image freezing, stuttering or dropouts from missing intra-frames or blockiness from missing macroblocks. The audio encoding is the last to suffer loss due to the lower bandwidth requirements.

VH1 (European TV channel)

VH1 (sometimes called VH1 Europe) is a European music television channel owned by Viacom International Media Networks Europe. This version of VH1 is very different from its American counterpart, since it has never ceased to be a proper music channel, playing a wide variety of music programs on a daily or weekly basis. VH1 was in 2013 the only major music channel in Western Europe still broadcasting in the 4:3 ratio while others broadcast in 16:9 widescreen. Since May 2014, VH1 is broadcasting in 16:9 widescreen.

VH1 Classic (European TV channel)

VH1 Classic, also known as VH1 Classic European, is a music television channel from Viacom International Media Networks Europe. The channel primarily features music videos from the 1980s through to the 2000s (decade), although rare live performances from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s can be seen as well. VH1 Classic was first launched in the United Kingdom on 1 July 1999 and made available from the beginning to the whole of Europe. However, the current pan-European service was launched in 30 November 2004, when it became a separate feed from VH1 Classic UK. Like VH1 European, it broadcast from MTV Networks Europe's premises in Camden Town (London, UK). It is officially available to viewers all over Europe and Latin America (except the UK & Ireland and Italy and San Marino). Unlike VH1 Classic UK, the pan-European version of the channel is entirely devoid of advertisements, with round-the-clock music videos played out from MTV Networks Europe's comprehensive library in London.

Wallpaper (computing)

A wallpaper or background (also known as a desktop wallpaper, desktop background, desktop picture or desktop image on computers) is a digital image (photo, drawing etc.) used as a decorative background of a graphical user interface on the screen of a computer, mobile communications device or other electronic device. On a computer it is usually for the desktop, while on a mobile phone it is usually the background for the 'home' or 'idle' screen. Though most devices come with a default picture, users can usually change it to custom files of their choosing.

"Wallpaper" was the term used in Microsoft Windows before Windows Vista (where it is called the "desktop background"), while macOS calls it "desktop picture". (Previously, the term desktop pattern was used to refer to a small pattern that was repeated to fill the screen.)

Wallpaper images are usually copyrighted as many other digital images found on the Internet, and as such, most websites collecting and sharing wallpapers, as well as the users downloading from them are an example of mass copyright infringement, a phenomenon which challenges the meaning and illegality of digital piracy and the validity of current copyright legislation around the world.

Widescreen comics

Widescreen comics is a movement within the field of comic books named both for its very cinematic decompression style and its tendency to use panels of greater width relative to their height, mimicking the aspect ratio of widescreen cinematic presentation.

Some widescreen comics, such as the New X-Men 2001 Annual, are published horizontally with the staples at the top.

Widescreen signaling

In television technology, widescreen signaling (WSS) is a digital stream embedded in the analog TV signal describing qualities of the broadcast, in particular the intended aspect ratio of the image. This can be used by a widescreen TV or other device to switch to the correct display mode.

Motion picture film formats
Film gauges
Film formats
Aspect ratio standards
Video framing

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