Who dat? is both an African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) and lower middle- and working-class white pronunciation of the question "who's that?"
Recently, the phrase "Who dat?" has become a chant of team support. It is most widely used by fans of the New Orleans Saints, an American football team. The entire chant is: "Who dat? Who dat? Who dat say dey gonna beat dem Saints?" "Who dat" may also be used as a noun, describing a Saints fan.
Early references to "Who Dat?" can be found in the 19th Century in the poetry of Paul Laurence Dunbar, first in his poem "When Malindy Sings" and later in his lyrics to the song "Who Dat Say Chicken in dis Crowd," a featured song in Clorindy: The Origin of the Cakewalk, an "operetta" by Dunbar and Will Marion Cook that was first presented as part of E.E. Rice's 1898 show "Summer Nights". A common tag line in the days of Negro minstrel shows was: "Who dat?" answered by "Who dat say who dat?" Many different blackfaced gags played off that opening. Vaudeville performer Mantan Moreland was known for the routine. Another example is "Swing Wedding", a 1930s Harman-Ising cartoon musical, which caricatured Fats Waller, Cab Calloway, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Ethel Waters, and the Mills Brothers as frogs in a swamp performing minstrel show jokes and jazz tunes. The frogs repeatedly used the phrase "who dat?"
In the swing era, "who dat" chants back and forth between the band and the band leader or between the audience and the band were extemporaneous. That is, there was no one specific set of words except for the two magic ones.
"Who Dat?" lyrics from 1937:
Who dat up there who's dat down there
Who dat up there who dat well down there
Who's dat up there, sayin' who's dat down there
When I see you up there well who's dat down there
Who dat inside who's dat outside
Who's dat inside who dat well outside
Who's dat inside, singin' who's dat outside
When I see up there well who's dat out there
Button up your lip there big boy
Stop answerin' back
Give you a tip there big boy
Announce yourself jack
Who dat up there who's dat down there
Who dat up there who dat, well down there
Who's dat up there, singin' who's dat down there
When I see you up there you bum
Well who's dat down there
Staged minstrel skits featured frightened African American characters saying "who dat" when they encountered a ghost, or someone imitating a ghost. Then, the "who dat"–"who dat say who dat" skit would play itself out. This skit was done frequently in short reels from the 1930s to 1950s and in some early TV shows too. Even the Marx Brothers had a "who dat" routine, which they included in their film A Day at the Races. "Who Dat Man? Why It's Gabriel!" Often, a ghost was called a "who dat." Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's animated character Bosko once had such an encounter in a 1938 toon called "Lil Ol Bosko in Bagdad." In 1941 Butterfly McQueen infamously delivered what African American film historian Donald Bogle described as what "might be the most demeaning line ever uttered by a black in the movies" when she said, "Who dat say who dat when I say who dat?" in the movie Affectionately Yours.
"Who Dat?" became a familiar joke with soldiers during World War II.
Back in WWII, U.S. fighter squadron pilots would often fly under radio silence. But things get lonely up there in the cockpit, so after a while there'd be a crackle of static as someone keyed his mike. Then a disembodied voice would reply, "Who dat?" An answer would come, "Who dat say who dat?" And another, "Who dat say who dat when ah say who dat?" After a few rounds of this, the squadron commander would grab his microphone and yell, "Cut it out, you guys!" A few moments of silence. Then... "Who dat?"
"Who Dat" became part of a chant for fans cheering on their favorite team. It has been debated exactly where it started, but some claim it began with Southern University Jaguars fans either in the late 1960s or early 1970s and went "Who dat talkin' 'bout beatin' dem Jags?" Another claim is that it was connected with St. Augustine High School, a historically African-American all-boys Catholic high school in New Orleans, and yet another is that the cheer originated at Patterson High School in Patterson, Louisiana (home of Saints running back Dalton Hilliard). In the late 1970s fans at Alcorn State University and Louisiana State University picked up on the cheer. Fans of professional wrestler Junkyard Dog, a star on the Mid-South Wrestling circuit from 1979 to 1984 who frequently appeared in events at the Louisiana Superdome and Municipal Auditorium in New Orleans, had a similar chant: "Who dat think they gonna beat that Dog".
Its earliest known documented link specifically to the Saints organization was actually a December 9, 1972 New Orleans Times–Picayune newspaper column reference to a player from an opposing team, Carl Garrett of the New England Patriots.
By 1983 the cheer had become so popular among fans that the New Orleans Saints organization officially adopted it during the tenure of coach Bum Phillips, and Aaron Neville (along with local musicians Sal and Steve Monistere and Carlo Nuccio) recorded a version of "When the Saints Go Marching In" that incorporated the chant of "Who dat say dey gonna beat dem Saints" (performed by a group of Saints players). The song quickly became a major local hit, due in part to the support of sportscaster Ron Swoboda and the fact that Saints fans had been using the chant for some time.
Meanwhile, in about 1981 Cincinnati Bengals fans and players had started with their similar "Who Dey" cheer ("Who Dey think gonna beat them Bengals?"). In a 2006 article, Toni Monkovic, a New York Times writer, speculated that the 1981 popularity of the Bengals' "Who Dey" may have led Saints fans to expand their use of "Who Dat", from the "small number, and possibly a very small number" of Saints fans using it in the late 1970s to the much wider use of the chant in 1983. Monkovic noted that the fan bases of the two teams continue to disagree about this, and that ultimately the evidence is unclear. However, this speculation seems unlikely to be accurate as the "Who Dat" chant was so common at nearby LSU months before Cincinnati's 1981 Super Bowl run that a song called "Who Dat" had been written (in March 1981) to the tune of Frankie Smith's "Double Dutch Bus" and played regularly on local radio, in conjunction with the LSU men's basketball team's Final Four run.
After the Saints won the NFC Championship Game on January 24, 2010, against the Minnesota Vikings in the Superdome, fans from all across New Orleans, including fans who were exiting the game, started a Mardi Gras-style "Who Dat" on Bourbon Street with modified lyrics, chanting, "Who Dat, Who Dat, Who Dat in the Super Bowl!" in reference to the Saints advancing to the Super Bowl for the first time ever in their 43-year history. In Super Bowl XLIV, on February 7, 2010, the Saints beat the Indianapolis Colts 31-17. "Drew Dat" has occasionally been used in honor of quarterback Drew Brees.
In recent years the phrase "Who Dat Nation" has become a popular term for the entire community of Saints fans. According to Bobby Hebert, formerly a Saints quarterback and currently a sports commentator in New Orleans, the term "Who Dat Nation" originated after a highly anticipated 2006 game between the Saints and the favored Dallas Cowboys, which the Saints won; after the game, listeners from a wide geographic range called into Hebert's radio show on WWL (AM), and Hebert commented, "Man, there's a whole Who Dat Nation out there."
In January 2010, the NFL sent cease and desist letters to several Louisiana T-shirt shop owners ordering them to cease producing T-shirts bearing the phrase "Who dat". According to some recipients of these letters, the NFL was claiming to own the trademark to the term "Who dat", and that unlicensed T-shirts bearing the phrase would cause confusion among fans of the Saints about the official status of the merchandise. On January 27 one company tweeted about their whodat tee shirt cease and desist order from the NFL, and NewOrleans.com and Huffington Post interviewed the Monisteres about the NFL's claims in relation to their company Who Dat?, Inc. The next day, the brothers released a statement claiming rights to the phrase to NewOrleans.com, which they registered in 1983 after recording the version of "When the Saints Go Marching In" that incorporated the chant. The Monistere's record is listed as inactive, meaning that it was not renewed upon expiration. The Saints organization, through their company The New Orleans Louisiana Saints Limited Partnership, also registered the mark "Who Dat" in 1988 when used in conjunction with "fleur-de-lis design", but later the Saints released their claim of ownership to WhoDat, Inc., asserting that they owned the phrase.
The NFL's action also provoked responses from U.S. Senator David Vitter and Congressman Charlie Melancon of Louisiana, among others. Vitter sent a formal letter to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell criticizing the NFL's attempt to claim ownership of the chant, informing Goodell he would be printing T-shirts using the phrase, and daring the NFL to sue him. It was later reported that the NFL had responded to Vitter's letter, stating that it was only seeking to prevent unauthorized uses of "Who Dat?" together with other identifying marks of the Saints.
Louisiana Attorney General Buddy Caldwell called the NFL and had a conversation about the ownership of the "Who Dat" slogan and of the fleur-de-lis. Caldwell said the bottom line from the legal back-and-forth with the league is that the NFL "is conceding it has no exclusive rights to the fleur-de-lis and no exclusive rights to 'Who Dat' and offshoots of 'Who Dat,' and no exclusive rights to the colors black and gold." Caldwell said his office was drafting a document to be signed by the state and the NFL outlining what is and is not allowable.
On March 4, 2010, the Monisteres' company, Who Dat? Inc., filed suit in federal court against the Saints, NFL Properties, and the state of Louisiana, alleging improper interference with their business interests. The suit alleges: in 1987 the New Orleans Saints were granted a license by Who Dat?, Inc. to use the Who Dat phrase; in that agreement, the Saints agreed that the mark was original and that Monistere was the first use owner of the trademark; the Saints also agreed to never challenge Monistere's ownership of the mark or aid any one else in doing so; and the Saints were to also help protect the mark from infringement by others on behalf of the licensors (Who Dat?, Inc.). Who Dat? Inc. subsequently amended their complaint to name several local retailers as defendants, most notably Fleurty Girl, and the matter was set for initial hearing in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana on November 10, 2010.
In January 2012, it was reported that the NFL and the Monisteres had agreed to dismiss their claims against each other and to cooperate in the production of "co-branded merchandise". The lawsuit continued as to some of the other defendants, pending hearing of their motions to dismiss the case. In October 2012 it was reported that the remaining parties had settled the case on confidential terms. According to one attorney and restaurant owner who had been a party to the case, "The net effect of the settlement is that nobody owns Who Dat".
In 2009, New Orleans based artist K. Gates recorded "Black and Gold (Who Dat)" based on Ying Yang Twins' "Halftime (Get Crunk)".
"Who dat" is also used in the song "Holla Back" by New Orleans-based rapper Juvenile: "They want a pimp to give them some money, but I don't do that. But baby I'm a Saints fan that's why I say who dat."
JT Money has a 1999 single called "Who Dat". The song was a hit, but was likely not intended to have any relation to the Saints or Vaudeville.
In 2009, New Orleans rapper Birdman chants a "Who Dat". in the Single Wasted(Remix) by Gucci Mane featuring Birdman, Jadakiss and Lil Wayne.
In 2010, New Orleans native, Ashley Forrestier released "Who Dat (Going to the Super Bowl)" celebrating the New Orleans Saints 31-28 Overtime Win over the Minnesota Vikings in the 2009-10 NFC Championship Game.
In 2012, Bay Area based rapper G-Eazy, in collaboration with artists Mod Sun and Meta, released the song "Rappin' A$$ Rappers" in which G-Eazy raps "livin' in New Orleans where dem people holla 'Who Dat'".
Australian hip-hop artist Iggy Azalea has employed the refrain in several songs, including "Fancy" and "Leave It", drawing criticism from some who perceive an appropriation of Southern Black culture.
A deepwater oil and gas field in the Gulf of Mexico, discovered in 2007, was named "Who Dat" by its developer, LLOG Exploration Co., based in New Orleans. The field, encompassing Mississippi Canyon Blocks 503, 504 and 547 in about 3,000 feet of water, began production in 2011.
"4, 5, 6" is the first single released from Solé's debut album, Skin Deep. It was produced by Christopher "Tricky" Stewart and featured a guest verse from JT Money and a chorus by Kandi. This was Solé's second collaboration with JT Money and Stewart, as the three had worked together on JT Money's hit single "Who Dat" the previous year
The song was a success, peaking at number 21 on the Billboard Hot 100 while also topping the Billboard Hot Rap Singles chart. "4, 5, 6" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for selling over 500,000 copies in the year of 2000. It was one of the most successful rap songs of the year 2000, reaching number 2 on the Billboard Year-End Hot Rap Singles, only behind Missy Elliott's "Hot Boyz".911 / Mr. Lonely
"911 / Mr. Lonely" is a song by American rapper Tyler, the Creator. It was released on June 30, 2017 alongside, "Who Dat Boy" through Columbia Records, as the lead singles from his fourth studio album Flower Boy. The song was produced by Tyler himself and features vocals from Frank Ocean, The Internet's Steve Lacy and Norwegian singer Anna of the North.Flower Boy
Flower Boy (alternatively titled Scum Fuck Flower Boy) is the fourth studio album by American rapper Tyler, the Creator. The album was released on July 21, 2017, by Columbia Records. Produced entirely by Tyler, the album features guest vocals from a range of artists; including Frank Ocean, ASAP Rocky, Anna of the North, Lil Wayne, Kali Uchis, Steve Lacy, Estelle, Jaden Smith and Rex Orange County.
Flower Boy was supported by four singles: "Who Dat Boy" / "911", "Boredom", "I Ain't Got Time!" and "See You Again". The album received widespread acclaim from critics, and debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200. It was named among the best albums of 2017 by multiple publications and was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 2018 Grammy Awards.Good Feeling (song)
"Good Feeling" is a song by American rapper Flo Rida from his 2012 EP of the same name, also appearing on his fourth studio album, Wild Ones. It was released as the album's lead single on August 29, 2011 in the United States. The song was written by Flo Rida, Dr. Luke, Cirkut, Breyan Isaac, Arash Pournouri, Avicii, Etta James, Leroy Kirkland and Pearl Woods. It was also produced by Dr. Luke and Cirkut.
The song contains vocal samples from Etta James's 1962 single "Something's Got a Hold on Me", which is why James, Leroy Kirkland and Pearl Woods received writing credits. Avicii and Arash Pournouri received credits as well because Avicii's song "Levels", which also sampled the Etta James song, is used as the primary musical interpolation throughout "Good Feeling". In addition, this is Flo Rida's fourth collaboration with Dr. Luke (after "Right Round", "Touch Me" and "Who Dat Girl") and second collaboration with Cirkut (after "Who Dat Girl"). The three would next collaborate with Taio Cruz on the song "Hangover".
"Good Feeling" peaked at number 3 on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming Flo Rida's sixth top-ten and fourth top-five single on the chart. The song became a top ten hit in 16 countries. This song is the second track on Now 42.Harverd Dropout
Harverd Dropout is the second studio album by American rapper Lil Pump. It was released through The Lights Global and Warner Bros. Records on February 22, 2019. The album was met with mixed reviews from critics and debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200.JT Money
Jeffrey Thompkins, (born September 14, 1972) known by his stage name JT Money, is an American rapper and the leader of Miami-based hip hop group Poison Clan. Thompkins began his career in the late 1980s as a protegé of Luke, signing to Luke Records in 1990. His debut solo album Pimpin' on Wax was released in 1999 and spawned the successful single Who Dat, which peaked at #5 on the Billboard Hot 100.Jneiro Jarel
Omar Jarel Gilyard, known by his stage name Jneiro Jarel, is an American recording artist, music producer, composer and DJ. Recognized for his versatile, abstract, and often experimental style, he is also known for his beat-making alias Dr. Who Dat? and his groups Willie Isz, JJ DOOM and Shape of Broad Minds, who've shared the stage with artists ranging from Jay-Z to Radiohead. He has collaborated with artists such as Damon Albarn, Count Bass D, Massive Attack, TV on the Radio and Kimbra among others.New Orleans English
New Orleans English is American English native to the city of New Orleans and its metropolitan area. Native English speakers of the region actually speak a number of varieties, including: the variety most recently brought in and spreading since the 20th century among white communities of the South in general (Southern U.S. English); the variety primarily spoken by black residents (African American Vernacular English); the variety spoken by Cajuns in southern Louisiana (Cajun English); the variety traditionally spoken by affluent white residents of the city's Uptown and Garden District; and the variety traditionally spoken by lower middle- and working-class white residents of Eastern New Orleans, particularly the Ninth Ward (sometimes known, since at least the 1980s, as Yat). However, only the last two varieties are unique to New Orleans and are typically those referred to in the academic research as "New Orleans English." These two varieties specific to New Orleans likely developed around the turn of the nineteenth century and most noticeably combine speech features commonly associated with both New York City English and, to a lesser extent, Southern U.S. English. The noticeably New York-like characteristics include the NYC short-a split system (so that mad and map, for example, do not have the same vowel), the diphthongizing of to [ɔə] or [ɔʷ], non-rhoticity, th-stopping (so that, for example, "those" may merge with "doze"), and the recently disappearing coil–curl merger. Noticeably Southern characteristics include the fronting of and possible monophthongization of (just these features, plus non-rhoticity, often characterize the Uptown accent).
Often, the term "Yat" refers particularly to the New Orleans accents that are "strongest" or most especially reminiscent of a working-class New York City accent, though others use the term as a regional marker, to define the speech heard in certain parts of the city and its inner suburbs. Used in these narrower senses, Yat is simply one of many sub-dialects of New Orleans. The word comes from the common use of the local greeting, "Where y'at?" or "Where are you at (i.e. in life)?", which is a way of asking, "How are you?"Pimpin' on Wax
Pimpin' on Wax is the debut album by rapper, JT Money. It was released on May 25, 1999 through Priority Records and was produced by Christoper Stewart, Dallas Austin and Kevin "She'kspere" Briggs. The album was met with success, peaking at 28 on the Billboard 200 and 8 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, but it was the single "Who Dat" featuring rapper Solé that gained the most success, it made it to 5 on the Billboard Hot 100, 2 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks and 1 on the Hot Rap Tracks. "Who Dat" was certified gold on September 30, 1999.Still Striving
Still Striving is the second mixtape by American rapper ASAP Ferg. It was released on August 18, 2017, by ASAP Worldwide, Polo Grounds Music, and RCA Records. Still Striving is Ferg's fourth solo commercial project. The mixtape features guest appearances from Meek Mill, Cam'ron, Dave East, Lil Yachty, Nav, Famous Dex, Playboi Carti, Migos, ASAP Rocky, MadeinTYO, Busta Rhymes, French Montana, Rick Ross, and Snoop Dogg.
Still Striving was supported by three singles: "Plain Jane", "East Coast (Remix)" and "Nasty (Who Dat)".The Recession
The Recession is the third studio album by American rapper Jeezy. It was released on September 2, 2008, by Corporate Thugz Entertainment (CTE) and Def Jam Recordings. The album was supported by five singles: "Put On" featuring Kanye West, "Vacation", "Crazy World", "My President" featuring Nas, and "Who Dat".Tracy Jordan
Tracy Jordan is a fictional character in the American television series 30 Rock, played by the actor Tracy Morgan. The character is a movie star whose personality traits and life events are taken from Morgan's own life. In the episode "Grandmentor", Jordan refers to himself as "Tracy Morgan". In 2010, Entertainment Weekly ranked him the 55th Greatest Character of the Last 20 Years.For his portrayal of Jordan, Tracy Morgan has received one Primetime Emmy Award nomination, two Image Awards nominations, and seven Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, winning one.Who Dat
Who Dat (AAVE for "who is that?") can mean:
Who Dat?, the name of a support chant by fans of the New Orleans Saints
"Who Dat" (J. Cole song)
"Who Dat" (JT Money song)
"Who Dat" (Young Jeezy song)Who Dat (J. Cole song)
"Who Dat" is a song by the American hip hop recording artist J. Cole. It was released as a single in the United States on May 31, 2010. Despite initially being meant to be the lead single from Cole's first album Cole World: The Sideline Story (2011), "Who Dat" was ultimately cut from the album's standard track listing. It does, however, appear as a bonus track on the iTunes edition of the album.Who Dat (JT Money song)
"Who Dat" was the lead single released from JT Money's debut album, Pimpin' on Wax. It featured a verse from rapper, Solé.
Produced by Christopher "Tricky" Stewart (His first produced single), "Who Dat" became a huge hit, making it to #5 on the Billboard Hot 100 and to date is JT Money's only solo hit. On September 30, 1999, "Who Dat" was certified Gold by the RIAA; it ultimately sold 900,000 copies.
Later in the year, JT Money, Solé and Stewart collaborated on another top-40 single entitled, "4, 5, 6", which appeared on Solé's album, Skin Deep.Who Dat (Young Jeezy song)
"Who Dat" is the fifth single from Young Jeezy's third studio album The Recession. The single features and was produced by Shawty Redd.Who Dat Boy
"Who Dat Boy" is a song by American rapper Tyler, the Creator. It was released on June 30, 2017 alongside, "911 / Mr. Lonely" through Columbia Records, as the lead singles from his fourth studio album Flower Boy. The song features vocals from ASAP Rocky.Who Dat Girl
"Who Dat Girl" is a song by American rapper Flo Rida. It features American singer Akon. The song was written by Flo Rida, Dr. Luke, Claude Kelly, Benny Blanco, Bruno Mars, and Philip Lawrence, and it was produced by Dr. Luke and Benny Blanco. It was released on January 11, 2011 as the third single from Flo Rida's third studio album, Only One Flo (Part 1). It peaked at number twenty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100.
|Wild card berths (5)|
|Division championships (7)|
|Conference championships (1)|
|League championships (1)|
|Ring of Honor|
|Current league affiliations|
Championship seasons in bold