Based on the definitions created by the Office of Management and Budget and the U.S. Census Bureau, the concepts of race and ethnicity are mutually independent. For the Census Bureau, ethnicity distinguishes between those who report ancestral origins in Spain or Hispanic America (Hispanic and Latino Americans), and those who do not (non-Hispanic Americans). As views on race vastly differ between Latin America and anglophone North America, many Hispanic Americans who identify as white in the United States are "castizo", "mestizo", or "mulatto"; according to Pew Research, "about four-in-ten of Hispanic respondents identifying as mestizo/mulatto say their race is white, while [only] one-in-five volunteered their race as Hispanic". "Mexican" was officially added as a racial category on the United States Census beginning in 1930 in connection with the growing Mexican population, but was removed in the following decades due to much of the Mexican population being repatriated back to Mexico, in addition to political pressure. Prior to this, Latinos in the United States were often classified as "Mulattoes", "Indians" or, "Other" if they were not purely of European ancestry. Classification was up to each census official's discretion before the establishment of a centralized Census Bureau in 1902. A designation for Hispanic and Latino citizens returned in 1970, again coinciding with an increase of immigration from Latin America. As had been the case historically, classification of Latinos presented difficulties in the United States, for the country did not have large mixed-race domestic populations. "Hispanic/Latino" was used as an ethnicity until 2017, when the Census Bureau recommended that it gain official racial status.  Many employers had already given "Hispanic or Latino" the same demographic weight as a racial group for some time.  The U.S. Census Bureau asks each resident to report the "race or races with which they most closely identify."
White Americans are therefore referenced as white Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites, the former consisting of white Americans who report Hispanophone identity (Spanish Hispanic Latin America), and the latter consisting of white Americans who do not report Hispanophone ancestry.
|White Hispanic and Latino Americans|
Americanos hispanos y latinos blancos
8.7% of the total U.S. population
11.9% of all White Americans
53.0% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans (2010, census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|All areas of the United States|
|American English • American Spanish • Portuguese • Spanglish • Mexican Spanish • Nuyorican English • Miami English|
(mostly Roman Catholic, sizeable Protestant)
Minority Atheism • Irreligion • Judaism and others
|Related ethnic groups|
|White Latin Americans, White Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Spanish Americans, Portuguese Americans, Italian Americans, French Americans|
A small minority of White Hispanics in the United States of America today is descended from original Spanish colonists who settled the so-called "internal provinces" and Louisiana of New Spain. As the United States expanded westward, it annexed lands with a long-established population of Spanish-speaking settlers, who were overwhelmingly or exclusively of white Spanish ancestry (cf. White Mexican). This group became known as Hispanos. Prior to incorporation into the United States of America (and briefly, into Independent Texas), Hispanos had enjoyed a privileged status in the society of New Spain and later in post-colonial Mexico.
In the 2010 United States Census, 50.5 million Americans (16.3% of the total population) listed themselves as ethnically Hispanic or Latino. Of those, 53.0% (26.7 million) self-identified as racially white. The remaining respondents listed their races as: some other race 36.7%, two or more races (multiracial) 6.0%, Black or African American 2.5%, American Indian and Alaska Native 1.4%, Asian 0.4%, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0.1%.
The respondents in the "some other race" category are reclassified as white by the Census Bureau in its official estimates of race. This means that more than 90% of all Hispanic or Latino Americans are counted as "white" in some statistics of the US government.
Hispanics and Latinos who are native-born and those who are immigrant identify as White in nearly identical percentages: 53.9 and 53.7, respectively, per figures from 2007. The overall Hispanic or Latino ratio was 53.8%.
In 2017, the Pew Research Center reported that high intermarriage rates and declining Latin American immigration has led to 11% of U.S. adults with Hispanic ancestry (5.0 million people) to no longer identify as Hispanic. First generation immigrants from Spain and Latin America identify as Hispanic at very high rates (97%) which reduces in each succeeding generation, second generation (92%), third generation (77%), and fourth generation (50%).
|Population by national origin, 2010|
|Hispanic national origin||Self-identified White population||% of total Hispanic population||Inside its own population|
|Hispanic South Americans||1,470,464||5.5%||65.9%|
|All other Hispanics||2,018,397||6.8%||49.4%|
Some Hispanic or Latino American groups that have white majorities or pluralities originate in countries that do not. For example, Mexico's white population is 9% to 17% only, while Mexico is majoritarily mestizo, meaning that they have mixed European and Native American descent at an extent while 52.8% of Mexican Americans are White, or identify themselves as white in the Census (See the table). However, genetic studies performed in the general Mexican American and Mexican populations have shown that Mexicans residing in Mexico consistently have a higher European admixture in average (with results ranging from 37% to 78.5%) than Mexican-Americans (whose results, range from 50% to 68%). The discrepancy between the percentage of white Mexicans reported in United States and white Mexicans from Mexico can be explained if the differences in racial perceptions that exist in both countries are considered: The concept of race in Mexico is subtle not only including physical clues such as skin color but also cultural dispositions, morality, economic, and intellectual status. It is not static or well defined but rather is defined and redefined by situation. This makes racial distinctions different than those in other countries such as the United States.
Other important differences lay in the criteria and formats used for the censuses in each country: In Mexico, the only ethnic census including categories other than Amerindian (dated back to 1921) performed by the government offered the following options in the questionnaire:
The census had the particularity that, unlike racial/ethnic census in other countries, it was focused in the perception of cultural heritage rather than in a racial perception, leading to a good number of white people to identify with "Mixed heritage" due cultural influence. On the other hand, while only 2.9% of the population of the United States identifies as mixed race there is evidence that an accounting by genetic ancestry would produce a higher number, but historical and cultural reasons, including slavery creating a racial caste and the European-American suppression of Native Americans, often led people to identify or be classified by only one ethnicity, generally that of the culture they were raised in. While many Americans may be biologically multiracial, they often do not know it or do not identify so culturally.
|White Hispanics by state, 2007 ACS|
|State||Population||% of state||% of Hispanics|
|Regional distribution of White Hispanics, 2000|
|Region of the United States|
In popular use, Hispanic and Latino are often mistakenly given racial values, usually non-white and mixed race, such as half-caste or mulatto, in spite of the racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans. Hispanics commonly draw ancestry from European, Native American, and or African populations in different proportions; some Hispanics are largely of European ancestry, and some are predominantly of Native Central or South American Indian origin, or African origins, but a large number of Hispanics are descended from an admixture of two, three or more origins. Paradoxically, it is common for them to be stereotyped as being exclusively non-white due merely to their Spanish-speaking country of origin, regardless of whether their ancestry is European or not. Judith Ortiz Cofer noted that appellation varies according to geographical location, observing that in Puerto Rico she was considered white, but in the United States she was considered a "brown person."
On the other hand, since the early days of the movie industry in the United States of America, when White Hispanic actors are given roles, they are frequently cast in non-Hispanic white roles. Hispanic and Latino Americans began to appear in the American movie industry in the 1910s, and the leading players among them "were generally light skinned and Caucasian".
Myrtle Gonzalez was one such American actress in the silent film era; she starred in at least 78 motion pictures from 1913 to 1917. Anita Page was an American actress of Spanish descent who reached stardom in 1928, during the last years of the silent film. Page was referred to as "a blond, blue-eyed Latin" and "the girl with the most beautiful face in Hollywood". Hilary Swank an American actress and film producer recipient of numerous awards, including two Academy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards. Her maternal grandmother, Frances Martha Clough (née Dominguez), was born in El Centro, California, and was of Mexican descent.
Telenovelas (soap operas) have been criticized for not fully reflecting the racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans, and for underrepresenting non-white Hispanic, Latino Americans, and non-white Latin Americans. For example, in the 2005 U.S. Hispanic telenovela Olvidarte Jamas, white, blond, and blue-eyed Venezuelan American actress Sonya Smith portrayed Luisa Dominguez who is a poor mestiza woman; the actress had to wear a black wig to hide her obvious Caucasian appearance. Sonya Smith, however, was the first Hispanic actor to portray a Hispanic without stereotypical perception (portrayed as blond and blue-eyed Hispanic, not a Hispanic mestiza nor mulatta nor Mediterranean-looking Hispanic) in a Hollywood film Hunted by Night, an English-language movie with an all-Hispanic cast.
A total of 27% of Hispanics marry outside their ethnicity. Non-Hispanic White/Hispanic intermarriage is the most common intermarriage in the United States representing 42% of interracial/ethnic marriages compared to White/Black at 11%. Intermarriage rates between whites and Hispanics do not differ significantly among the genders.
Genetic research has found that the average non-European admixture is present in both White-Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites with different degrees according to different areas of the US. Average European admixture among self-identified White Hispanic Americans is 73% (the average for Hispanic Americans regardless of race is 65.1%), contrasting to that of non-Hispanic European Americans, whose European ancestry totals 98.6% on average.
African Americans in Alabama are residents of the state of Alabama who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 26.5% of the state's population.African Americans in California
African-American Californians or Black Californians are residents of the state of California who are of African ancestry. According to U.S. Census Bureau, those identified as African American or black constituted 5.9% or 2,265,387 residents in California in 2015.African Americans in Florida
African Americans in Florida are residents of the state of Florida who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 16.6% of the state's population. The African-American presence in the peninsula extends as far back as the early 18th century, when African-American slaves escaped from slavery in Georgia into the swamps of the peninsula.African Americans in Georgia (U.S. state)
African-American Georgians are residents of the U.S. state of Georgia who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 31.2% of the state's population.African Americans in Louisiana
African Americans in Louisiana are residents of the state of Louisiana who are of African-American ancestry.African Americans in Mississippi
African Americans in Mississippi are residents of the state of Mississippi who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 37.4% of the state's population.African Americans in North Carolina
African-American North Carolinians are residents of the state of North Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 22% of the state's population.African Americans in South Carolina
African-American South Carolinians are residents of the state of South Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 28% of the state's population. The first African descendants were brought on South Carolina shores as slaves by wealthy white planters from Barbados. Black people constituted the majority population of the colony by 1720, but were largely enslaved for plantation labor. This intensified when the later U.S. state of South Carolina largely switched from a rice-and-indigo-growing agriculture to one of cotton. The Civil War freed most African-Americans in the state, and a troubled respite from racist terrorism prevailed during the Reconstruction Era, but segregation dominated the government and economy of South Carolina from the 1870s to the 1960s, when the Civil rights movement occurred and African-Americans regained their voting rights.
A subset of the African-American population, the Gullah, live largely on the coastline of South Carolina.Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans
Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry that speak the Spanish language natively and are/or from Latin America, respectively. This includes Hispanic and Latino Americans who identify themselves (or were officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget, and other U.S. government agencies) as Asian Americans.
Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially unified by the U.S. Census Bureau. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "Asian American", is between those who report Hispanic or Latino ethnic backgrounds and all others who do not. In the case of Asian Americans, these two groups are respectively termed Asian Hispanics and non-Hispanic Asian Americans, the former being those who say Asian ancestry from Spanish-speaking Latin America, and the latter consisting of an ethnically diverse collection of all others who are classified as Asian Americans that do not report Hispanic ethnic backgrounds.Australian Americans
Australian Americans are Americans who have Australian ancestry.Belizean Americans
Belizean Americans are Americans who are of Belizean ancestry. These ancestors might be from Belize or of its diaspora.Black Hispanic and Latino Americans
In the United States, a Black Hispanic or Afro-Hispanic (Spanish: Afrohispano), is a person who is racially black and is from Latin America and/or speaks the Spanish language natively. They are officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies.Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "Black", is between those who report Hispanic backgrounds and all others who do not. Non-Hispanic Blacks consists of an ethnically diverse collection of all others who are classified as Black or African American that do not report Hispanic ethnic backgrounds.German Nebraskan
German Nebraskans are residents of the state of Nebraska who are of German ancestry. As of the 2000 U.S. Census, there are 738,894 German Americans living in Nebraska, making up 42.7% of the population, the third largest percentage of any state.Hispanos
Hispanos (from Spanish: adj. prefix Hispano- relating to Spain, from Latin: Hispānus) are people of colonial Spanish descent traditionally from what is today the Southwestern United States, who retained a predominantly Spanish culture, and have remained living there since before that region was territorially incorporated into the United States, dating back as far as the early 16th century when it was a part of New Spain. The distinction was made to compensate for flawed U.S. Census practices in the 1930s which used to characterize Hispanic people as recent immigrants rather than centuries-long established settlers, or as non-whites.The largest of these groups are the Hispanos of New Mexico, originating in Spanish and Mexican Santa Fe de Nuevo México, they have left a large impact on New Mexico’s culture, cuisine, and music. Many of the New Mexican Hispanos are mestizos, of mixed Hispanic ancestry, with Pueblo, Apache, Navajo, Comanche, and Native Mexican heritage.List of Criollos
This is a list of notable criollos. All people considered as criollos, i.e., people who are direct descendants of Spanish, having a reliable source that says, are in this list.Mestizos in the United States
Mestizos in the United States are Latino Americans whose racial and/or ethnic identity is Mestizo, i.e. a mixed ancestry of white European and Native American from Latin America (usually Iberian-Indigenous mixed ancestry).
This group does not include Métis people of the United States (usually with Anglo-Indigenous mixed ancestry) or Métis people of Canada (usually with Franco-Indigenous or Scottish-Indigenous mixed ancestry) residing in the US, nor does it include Tejanos, Nuevomexicanos, nor Multiracial Americans, whose ethnic identity is Native American or Latin American Indian. Their commonality is that they are all descendants of the indigenous American Indians and White Europeans. In fact the words Métis and Mestizos have the same meaning which is someone of American Indian and White European descent. Many Mestizos identify with their American Indian ancestry while others tend to self-identify with their European ancestry, others still celebrate both.
It is difficult to know the exact number of Latino Americans self-identifying as Mestizo, in part because "Mestizo" is not an official racial category in the Census. According to the 2010 United States Census, 36.7% of the 52 million Hispanic/Latino Americans identify as "some other race", and most of the remainder consider themselves white. Further complicating matters is the fact that many federal agencies such as the CDC or CIA do not even recognize the "some other race" category, including this population in the white category.Oceanian Americans
Oceanian Americans or Oceanic Americans are Americans whose ancestors came from Oceania, a region which is compose of the Australian continent and the Pacific Islands.
There are basically two Oceanian American groups, that well represent the racial and cultural population of Oceania: Euro Oceanic Americans (Australian Americans and New Zealand Americans) and the indigenous peoples of Oceania in the United States or Pacific Islands Americans (Chamorro Americans, Samoan Americans, etc.) Most of the Euro-Oceanians are descended from the European settlers in Oceania; while Pacific Islanders are of indigenous Oceanic descent.Uruguayan Americans
Uruguayan Americans (Spanish: uruguayo-americanos, norteamericanos de origen uruguayo or estadounidenses de origen uruguayo) are Americans of Uruguayan ancestry or birth. The American Community Survey of 2006 estimated the Uruguayan American population to number 50,538, a figure that notably increased a decade later.Similar to neighboring country Argentina, Uruguay took in many immigrants from Europe beginning in the late 19th century and lasting until the mid 20th century. As it stands, approximately 93% of Uruguay's population is of European descent with Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, French, and Germans being among the most populous groups to have settled in the country. Because of this, many Uruguayan Americans identify both with their nationality and their family's country of origin.Zoroastrianism in the United States
This article focuses on Zoroastrianism in the United States.
1 Poles came to the United States legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia until Poland regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I.
2 Russia has most of its territory in Asia, but the vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia as a whole is included as a European country here.Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.
Hispanic and Latino American groups in the United States
|Ethnic and religious groups|
|Related ethnic groups|