White-winged swallow

The white-winged swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) is a resident breeding swallow in tropical South America from Colombia, Venezuela, and Trinidad south to northern Argentina. It is not found west of the Andes. This swallow is largely non-migratory.

White-winged swallow
White-winged Swallow 1052
at rest in Los Llanos, Venezuela
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Hirundinidae
Genus: Tachycineta
Species:
T. albiventer
Binomial name
Tachycineta albiventer
(Boddaert, 1783)
Tachycineta albiventer distribution map

Taxonomy and etymology

The genus Tachycineta was established for this group of swallows by German ornithologist Jean Cabanis in 1850.[2] The genus name derives from Ancient Greek takhukinetos, "moving quickly"; the specific name albiventer is from Latin albus, "white", and venter, "belly".[3] This swallow is monotypic, and no subspecies are currently recognized.[4]

Description

The adult white-winged swallow is 14 centimetres (5.5 in) long and weighs 14–17 grams (0.49–0.60 oz). It has iridescent blue-green upperparts, white underparts and rump, and white edgings to the secondary flight feathers. The wings are otherwise black, along with the tail. It has dark brown eyes and a black bill and legs. The sexes are similar, although it is noted that the females have slightly less white on the wing. Juveniles have grayer underparts and are duller in general when compared to the adults. The juvenile also has less white on the wing.[4][5][6]

White-winged swallows can be distinguished from the similar mangrove swallow by the lack of a white line above its lores and a greater amount of white on its wings.[6]

The call is a harsh chirrup or a repeated, rising, buzz-like zweeed.[5] The alarm call is short and harsh.[4][6]

Distribution and habitat

The white-winged swallow is native to Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Occasional vagrants reach Panama.[1][7] They are usually not found on the Pacific coast, especially in the southern portion of South America.[4][5]

The species is usually found in or near lowland areas along bodies of water such as rivers or lakes, at elevations of about 500 metres (1,600 ft).[5]

Ecology

Diet

The white-winged swallow feeds primarily in flight at a low altitude, catching flying insects.[5] It usually forages over water but may also feeds over land. In between foraging attempts, it usually perches on branches near bodies of water.[8] Flight paths are direct and they fly with a flapping flight.[5][6]

Nesting and breeding

The white-winged swallow builds a cup nest lined with other birds' feathers and some seed inside a tree hole,[9] between boulders or in man-made structures. Nests are usually built a few metres above water; pairs nest separately. The clutch is three to six white eggs, measuring 17 mm–20 mm × 13 mm–14.6 mm (0.67 in–0.79 in × 0.51 in–0.57 in) in size and weighing 1.9 grams (0.067 oz).[4][5][6]

Migration

The white-winged swallow is resident in most of its range, although it is migratory in the southernmost part of its range. In Brazil and Argentina, it is only present from approximately mid September to mid April. Where this population winters is not well known, but it is most likely in the Guianas, Venezuela, and Colombia.[6]

Conservation

The white-winged swallow is classified as Least Concern by the IUCN, based on its very large range, apparently stable population, and large population size.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2016). "Tachycineta albiventer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22712065A94317143. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22712065A94317143.en.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Cabanis, Jean (1850). Museum Heineanum : Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstatdt (in German). 1. Independently commissioned by R. Frantz. p. 48. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 39, 377. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ a b c d e Turner, Angela (2013). del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A.; de Juana, Eduardo (eds.). "White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Sedgwick, Carolyn. "Overview - White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) - Neotropical Birds". Retrieved December 3, 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Turner, Angela K; Rose, Chris (1989). Swallows & Martins: An Identification Guide and Handbook. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-51174-9. p103–105
  7. ^ "White-winged Swallow - Tachycineta albiventer - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life". Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  8. ^ "White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer)". Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  9. ^ E.g. of Macrolobium sp. (Greeney & Merino M. 2006)
  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) (2000): Forty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 117(3): 847–858. DOI: 10.1642/0004-8038(2000)117[0847:FSSTTA]2.0.CO;2
  • ffrench, Richard; O'Neill, John Patton & Eckelberry, Don R. (1991): A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd edition). Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, N.Y.. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2
  • Greeney, Harold F. & Merino M., Paúl A. (2006): Notes on breeding birds from the Cuyabeno Faunistic Reserve in northeastern Ecuador. Boletín de la Sociedad Antioqueña de Ornitología 16(2): 46-57. PDF fulltext
  • Hilty, Steven L. (2003): Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
Atticora

Atticora is a genus of bird in the swallow family Hirundinidae. These species are found in South America.

It contains the following two species:

White-banded swallow (Atticora fasciata)

Black-collared swallow (Atticora melanoleuca)

Banded martin

The banded martin or banded sand martin (Riparia cincta) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It is an inhabitant of the African continent.

Black-and-rufous swallow

The black-and-rufous swallow (Hirundo nigrorufa) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

Fanti saw-wing

The Fanti saw-wing (Psalidoprocne obscura), also known as the Fanti rough-winged swallow, is a small passerine bird in the swallow family.

Forest swallow

The forest swallow (Petrochelidon fuliginosa) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria.

Galápagos martin

The Galápagos martin (Progne modesta) is a species of bird in the Hirundinidae family, endemic to the Galápagos Islands.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, pastureland, and heavily degraded former forest.

Grey-rumped swallow

The grey-rumped swallow (Pseudhirundo griseopyga) is a species of bird in the monotypic genus, Pseudhirundo, in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Peruvian martin

The Peruvian martin (Progne murphyi) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae. It is found in Peru and far norther Chile.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, pastureland, and urban areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Preuss's cliff swallow

Preuss's cliff swallow (Petrochelidon preussi), also known as Preuss's swallow, is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

Progne

Progne is a genus of birds. The genus name refers to Procne (Πρόκνη), a mythological girl who was turned into a swallow to save her from her husband. She had killed their son to avenge the rape of her sister.

Saw-wing

The saw-wings, Psalidoprocne, is a small genus of passerine birds in the swallow family. The common name of this group is derived from the rough outer edge of the outer primary feather on the wing, which is rough due to recurved barbs. The function of this is unknown. The birds are 11–17 cm long and black or black-and-white in colour. The genus has an African distribution and all species can be found foraging over forest and woodland.

Sinaloa martin

The Sinaloa martin (Progne sinaloae) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It breeds semicolonially in sheer cliff faces within pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of western Mexico. Presumed migrant records also come from Belize and Guatemala. It is assumed to winter in South America.

Southern martin

The southern martin (Progne elegans) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in Argentina and southern Bolivia ; in winter it migrates to the western Amazon Basin.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and urban areas.

Stelgidopteryx

Stelgidopteryx (Baird, 1858) is a small genus of swallows. It contains two species:

Adults of both species are brown on top with lighter underparts and a slightly forked tail. They nest in cavities but do not excavate their holes or form colonies.

These birds forage in flight over water or fields, usually flying low. They eat insects.

"Rough-winged" refers to the serrated edge feathers on the wing of this genus; this feature would only be apparent in the hand.

Tachycineta

Tachycineta (Greek: tachýs "fast", kīnéō "move") is a genus of birds in the swallow family. There are nine described species. Its members are restricted to the Americas.

These are slender swallows with forked tails. Most species have a metallic green back, green or blue head, and metallic blue or unglossed brown wings. All have pure white underparts, and four species have a white rump.

Most Tachycineta swallows are at least partially migratory, with only golden and mangrove swallow being essentially resident. All the species use natural or disused cavities for nest sites.

Tumbes swallow

The Tumbes swallow (Tachycineta stolzmanni) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in northwestern Peru and far southwestern Ecuador.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna, coastal saline lagoons, and arable land.

White-banded swallow

The white-banded swallow (Atticora fasciata) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae. They are black with white thighs, a white breast, and white bars on the edges of its wings. They have a distinct, deeply forked tail.

It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela, in tropical lowlands. They are non-migratory.

Its natural habitats are rivers and forested areas. They nest in burrows and do not use artificial cavities.

It is evaluated as least-concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Swallows (family: Hirundinidae)

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