White-capped albatross

The white-capped albatross (Thalassarche cauta steadi) is a mollymawk that breeds on the islands off of New Zealand. Not all experts agree that this form should be recognized as a separate species from the shy albatross, Thalassarche cauta. It is a medium-sized black, slate gray, and white albatross and is the largest of the mollymawks.

Thalassarche cauta steadi
White-capped Albatross (8076884678)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Procellariiformes
Family: Diomedeidae
Genus: Thalassarche
Species:
Subspecies:
T. c. steadi
Trinomial name
Thalassarche cauta steadi
(Falla, 1933)[1]

Taxonomy

Mollymawks are a type of albatross that belong to Diomedeidae family and come from the Procellariiformes order, along with shearwaters, fulmars, storm petrels, and diving petrels. They share certain identifying features. First, they have nasal passages that attach to the upper bill called naricorns. Although the nostrils on the albatross are on the sides of the bill. The bills of Procellariiformes are also unique in that they are split into between seven and nine horny plates. Finally, they produce a stomach oil made up of wax esters and triglycerides that is stored in the proventriculus. This is used against predators as well as an energy rich food source for chicks and for the adults during their long flights.[2] They also have a salt gland that is situated above the nasal passage and helps desalinate their bodies, due to the high amount of ocean water that they imbibe. It excretes a high saline solution from their nose.[3]

The white-capped albatross is part of a greater complex of albatrosses consisting of the shy albatross, Thasassarche cauta, Salvin's albatross, Thalassarche salvini, and Chatham albatross, Thalassarche eremita. In 1998, Robertson and Nunn recommended a four way split,[4] some experts agreed. BirdLife International agreed in 2007,[5] ACAP agreed in 2006,[6] and Brooke agreed in 2004.[7] The SACC agreed to a three-way split, leaving steadi, the white-capped albatross grouped with the shy albatross.[8][9][10] Clements checklist of Birds [11] has yet to agree on any of these splits. Finally, following Brooke, this species was shifted from Diomedea to Thalassarche, which was generally agreed upon by most experts.

Description

The white-capped albatross averages 90 to 99 cm (35–39 in) in length, with a wingspan of 220 to 256 cm (87–101 in).[12] It weighs 3.4 to 4.4 kg (7.5–9.7 lb)[13] It has a bold white cap that contrasts with a pale silver gray face and a darker brow. Some adults have a white back with brown tipped feathers.[14] They have a dark gray mantle and a black tail. Most of the rest of the body is white. Its bill is pale gray to blue with a yellow tip. Juveniles have a gray bill with a dark tip, and their head is darker, with gray to the collar.

Range and habitat

Breeding population and trends[5]
Location Population Date Trend
Disappointment Island 72,000 pairs 1993
Auckland Island 3,000 pairs
Antipodes Island 50—100 pairs 1994
Adams Island 100 pairs
Total 150,000 1993 Stable

They are endemic to the islands off the coast of New Zealand, with a population of 75,000 breeding pairs, estimated in 2007,[15][16] and 350,000 to 375,000 total birds.[17] Disappointment Island has 72,000 pairs, Auckland Island has 3,000 pairs, Adams Island (Auckland Islands) has 100 pairs,[17][18] and Bollons Island (Antipodes Islands) has 100 pairs.[19]

Juvenile and non-breeding birds are believed to forage in the southwestern Atlantic[20] and a recent DNA test of a South Georgia bird confirmed it.[21] Also, using different techniques, scientists have proven that they forage off the coast of southwestern Africa.[22][23][24] Juveniles are also believed to go as far as the south Atlantic and the southwestern Indian Ocean.

Behavior

Feeding

They are a surface feeder, but may utilize shallow dives for their food which is fish, cephalopods, tunicates, and crustacea.[5]

Reproduction

The white-capped albatross breeds annually on rocks on small islands.[5]

Conservation

The IUCN classifies this species as near threatened,[1] with an occurrence range of 77,700,000 km2 (30,000,000 sq mi) and a breeding range of 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi). The largest threat for this bird is longline and trawl fisheries.[16] Net monitor cables were responsible for large numbers of deaths; however, they were phased out in 1992.[17][18] Commercial exploitation of squid in Bass Strait may present a threat by reducing the food supply. Also, pigs on Auckland Island reduced nesting from 1972–1982, and feral cats also take small number of chicks.[17][18][25]

Since 2006, Auckland Island birds have been tracked, and this will continue.[23]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2008)
  2. ^ Double, M. C. (2003)
  3. ^ Ehrlich, Paul R. (1988)
  4. ^ Robertson C. J. R. & Nunn G. B. (1998)
  5. ^ a b c d BirdLfie International (2008a)
  6. ^ ACAP (2006)
  7. ^ Brooke, M. (2004)
  8. ^ Remsen Jr., J. V. (2004)
  9. ^ Remsen Jr., J. V. (2005)
  10. ^ Remsen Jr., J. V. (2008)
  11. ^ Cornell Lab of Ornithology (2018)
  12. ^ Dunn, Jon L. & Alderfer, Jonathan (2006)
  13. ^ "White-capped mollymawk". New Zealand Birds Online. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  14. ^ Watkins, B. (2008)
  15. ^ Gales, R., et al. (1998)
  16. ^ a b Baker, G. B., et al. (2007)
  17. ^ a b c d Taylor, G. A. (2000)
  18. ^ a b c Croxall, J. P. & Gales, R. (1998)
  19. ^ Tennyson, A., et al. (1998)
  20. ^ White, R. W., et al. (2002))
  21. ^ Phalan, B., et al. (2004)
  22. ^ Abbott, C. L., et al. (2006)
  23. ^ a b Thompson, D. R. & Sagar, P. M. (2007)
  24. ^ Robertson, C. J. R., et al. (2003)
  25. ^ Thompson, D. R. & Sagar, P. M. (2006)

References

  • Abbott, C. L.; Double, M. C.; Gales, R.; Baker, G. B.; Lashko, A.; Robertson, C. J. R.; Ryan, P. G. (2006). "Molecular provenance analysis for Shy and White-capped Albatrosses killed by fisheries interactions in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa". Conservation Genetics. 7: 531–542. doi:10.1007/s10592-005-9064-y.
  • ACAP (2007). "Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels : ACAP Species". ACAP. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved 22 Feb 2009.
  • Baker, G. B.; Double, M. C.; Gales, R.; Tuck, G. N.; Abbott, C. L.; Ryan, P. G.; Petersen, S. L.; Robertson, C. J. R.; Alderman, R. (2007). "A global assessment of the impact of fisheries-related mortality on Shy and White-capped Albatrosses: conservation implications". Biological Conservation. 137: 319–333. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.02.012.
  • BirdLife International (2008). "Thalassarche steadi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 Feb 2009.
  • BirdLife International (2008a). "White-capped Albatross - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 22 Feb 2009.
  • Brooke, M. (2004). "Procellariidae". Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850125-0.
  • Clements, James (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World (6th ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9.
  • Croxall, J. P.; Gales, R. (1998). "Assessment of the conservation status of albatrosses". In Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Double, M. C. (2003). "Procellariiformes (Tubenosed Seabirds)". In Hutchins, Michael; Jackson, Jerome A.; Bock, Walter J.; Olendorf, Donna. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites to Hoatzins. Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. pp. 107–111. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0.
  • Dunn, Jon L.; Alderfer, Jonathan (2006). "Albatrosses". In Levitt, Barbara. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America (fifth ed.). Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7922-5314-3.
  • Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dobkin, David, S.; Wheye, Darryl (1988). The Birders Handbook (First ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 29–31. ISBN 0-671-65989-8.
  • Gales, R.; Brothers, N.; Reid, T. (1998). "Seabird mortality in the Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988-1995". Biological Conservation. 86: 37–56. doi:10.1016/s0006-3207(98)00011-1.
  • Phalan, B.; Phillips, R. A.; Double, M. C. (2004). "A White-capped Albatross, Thalassarche [cuata] steadi, at South Georgia: first confirmed record in the south-western Atlantic". Emu. 104: 359–361. doi:10.1071/MU03057.
  • Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. (December 2004). "Proposal #155 to South American Check-list Committee: Split Shy Albatross Thalassarche cauta into two or three species". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
  • Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. (February 2005). "Proposal (#166) to South American Classification Committee: Re-lump Thalassarche eremita and Thalassarche salvini with Thalassarche cauta". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
  • Remsen Jr., J. V.; et al. (28 Feb 2008). "Proposal (#255) to South American Classification Committee : Follow-up to Proposal 155: Split Thalassarche cauta into three species". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 18 Feb 2009.
  • Robertson, C. J. R.; Bell, D.; Sinclair, N.; Bell, B. D. (2003). "Distribution of seabirds from New Zealand that overlap with fisheries worldwide". Science for Conservation. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Conservation. 233.
  • Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. (1998). "Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses". In Robertson, G.; Gales, R. Albatross biology and conservation. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons. pp. 13–19.
  • Taylor, G. A. (2000). "Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Conservation". Threatened Species Occasional Publication. 16.
  • Tennyson, A.; Imber, M.; Taylor, R. (1998). "Numbers of Black-browed Mollymawks (Diomedea m. melanophrys) and White-capped Mollymawks (D. cauta steadi) at the Antipodes Islands in 1994-95 and their population trends in the New Zealand region". Notornis. 45: 157–166.
  • Thompson, D. R.; Sagar, P. M. (2006). "Conduct a population and distributional study on White-capped Albatross at the Auckland Islands". Unpublished annual report to the Conservation Services Programme, Department of Conservation.
  • Thompson, D. R.; Sagar, P. M. (2007). "Conduct a population and distributional study on White-capped Albatross at the Auckland Islands". Unpublished annual report to the Conservation Services Programme, Department of Conservation.
  • Watkins, B. (2008) in litt
  • White, R. W.; Gillon, K. W.; Black, A. D.; Reid, J. B. (2002). The distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in Falkland Islands waters. Peterborough, U.K.: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) is a legally binding international treaty signed in 2001 and entered into force on 1 February 2004 when South Africa ratified as the fifth Party to the agreement.

It was created in order to halt the drastic decline of seabird populations in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly albatrosses and petrels procellariids. Albatrosses and petrels are threatened by introduced species on their breeding islands, pollution, and being taken as bycatch by longline fisheries, as well as by trawl and gillnet fisheries. The agreement requires that measures be taken by signatory governments to reduce bycatch; protect breeding colonies; and control and remove introduced species from breeding sites, especially on islands.

Currently, ACAP protects all the world's albatross species, seven Southern Hemisphere petrel and two shearwater species. The agreement marks an increasing international commitment to protect albatrosses and petrels.

Albatross

Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels, and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there and occasional vagrants are found. Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the genus great albatrosses have the longest wingspans of any extant birds, reaching up to 3.7 m (12 ft). The albatrosses are usually regarded as falling into four genera, but disagreement exists over the number of species.

Albatrosses are highly efficient in the air, using dynamic soaring and slope soaring to cover great distances with little exertion. They feed on squid, fish, and krill by either scavenging, surface seizing, or diving. Albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic islands, often with several species nesting together. Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of "ritualised dances", and last for the life of the pair. A breeding season can take over a year from laying to fledging, with a single egg laid in each breeding attempt. A Laysan albatross, named Wisdom, on Midway Island is recognised as the oldest wild bird in the world; she was first banded in 1956 by Chandler Robbins.Of the 22 species of albatrosses recognised by the IUCN, all are listed as at some level of concern; three species are critically endangered, five species are endangered, seven species are near threatened, and seven species are vulnerable. Numbers of albatrosses have declined in the past due to harvesting for feathers, but today, the albatrosses are threatened by introduced species, such as rats and feral cats that attack eggs, chicks, and nesting adults; by pollution; by a serious decline in fish stocks in many regions largely due to overfishing; and by longline fishing. Longline fisheries pose the greatest threat, as feeding birds are attracted to the bait, become hooked on the lines, and drown. Identified stakeholders such as governments, conservation organisations, and people in the fishing industry are all working toward reducing this bycatch.

Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra

The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion, within the Tundra Biome, includes five remote island groups in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand: the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands and Campbell Island groups of New Zealand, and Macquarie Island of Australia.

List of birds of Africa

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Africa. The area covered by this list is the Africa region defined by the American Birding Association's listing rules. In addition to the continent itself, the area includes Socotra in the Arabian Sea, Zanzibar, the Canary Islands, and São Tomé, Príncipe, and Annobon in the Gulf of Guinea. It does not include Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde, the Sinai Peninsula, Madagascar, Seychelles or the Comoro Islands.

This list is that of the African Bird Club (ABC) supplemented by Bird Checklists of the World (Avibase) and The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of the Clements list. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behavior, and DNA, the names, sequence, and number of families and species change every year. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

List of birds of California

TThis list of birds of California is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the U.S. state of California as determined by the California Bird Records Committee (CBRC).As of December 2018, there are 673 species on this list. Two of these species are endemic, 11 were introduced by humans (directly or indirectly), one species has been extirpated, and one was extirpated in the wild but its reintroduction is in progress. Four additional species have been documented but "the CBRC could not reach a consensus as to whether records of these species involved true naturally occurring vagrants or escapes from captivity." The following tags note species in each of those categories and one additional category:

(En) Endemic to California

(I) Introduced but now established in California

(Ex) Extirpated from California

(RI) Reintroduction in progress - not yet established

(*) California Bird Records Committee Review Species (194 species; in general, review species average four or fewer occurrences per year in California over the most recent ten-year period.)

(UO) Of unknown originIndividuals or even flocks of many additional species have been recorded in California but these birds are assumed to be deliberately released or escaped from captivity. In the absence of evidence of wild origin, they are not included in the CBRC list.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list. The taxonomic sequencing of these bird species (as opposed to alphabetical) is done to more easily enable the identification of common traits between closely related species. With taxonomic sequencing, closely related species tend to be listed adjacent to one another.

List of birds of Kenya

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kenya. The avifauna of Kenya include a total of 1105 species, of which eight are endemic, 75 are accidental, and two have been introduced by humans. An additional six species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's Checklist of the Birds of Kenya. The club will be referred to as ABC throughout. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and non-endemic residents. The "A", "I", and "U" tags follow the ABC list. The "E" tags are based on Clements, because the ABC does not note endemics. The notes of population status are from the Avibase Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kenya (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Kenya

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Kenya as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Kenya

List of birds of Namibia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Namibia. The avifauna of Namibia include a total of 676 confirmed species, of which one is endemic, 15 are near endemic, four have been introduced by humans, and 56 are vagrants. An additional 35 species are unconfirmed and are not included in the total above.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Namibia Bird Records Committee (NBRC). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the NBRC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Namibia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Namibia

(NE) Near endemic - a species with "90% or more of its population in Namibia" per the NBRC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Namibia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population

(U) Unconfirmed - a "species reported to occur in Namibia but for which there is as yet no unequivocal evidence" per the NBRC

List of birds of New Zealand

In this list of New Zealand birds, Māori names (where known) are given first, followed by English alternatives. In some cases (tui, kākā, weka, pūkeko, moa, kiwi, kea, kōkako, takahē) the Māori name is the common name. In other cases (fantail, albatross, black-backed gull, bellbird, morepork, dotterel, wax-eye, oystercatcher) the English name is most commonly used.

This list's taxonomic treatment and nomenclature (common and scientific names) mainly follows the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2016 edition. Some supplemental referencing is that of the Avibase Bird Checklists of the World as of January 2017.

The species and subspecies marked extinct became extinct subsequent to humans' arrival in New Zealand. About two thirds of the extinctions occurred after the arrival of Māori but before the arrival of Pākehā and the rest since Pākehā arrived.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in New Zealand as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote other categories of species:

(B) Breeding - confirmed nesting records in New Zealand or a portion thereof.

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to New Zealand by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

(X) Extinct - a species that no longer exists

(ex) Extirpated - a species no longer found in New Zealand or a portion thereof but existing elsewhere

(P) - a regularly occurring in New Zealand or a portion thereof. The species occurs on an annual or mostly annual basis, but does not nest in New Zealand.

(V) Vagrant - a species rarely occurring in New Zealand or a portion thereof.

(*) following taxonomic name: (unexplained)The Checklist of the birds of New Zealand, published in 2010 by Te Papa Press, in association with the Ornithological Society of New Zealand, is an authoritative list of New Zealand birds.

List of birds of Oregon

This list of Oregon birds lists wild bird species found in the U.S. state of Oregon and accepted by the Oregon Rare Birds Committee. As of July 2017, there are 536 species on the list. Of them, 153 are on the review list (see below). Eight species have been introduced to Oregon or elsewhere in North America and three have been extirpated from the state.

Bird counts often change depending on factors such as the number and training of the observers, as well as opinions about what constitutes an officially recognized subspecies. Though northern climes typically do not support as many species as southerly locations, Oregon is fifth in bird species diversity in the United States, behind Florida, New Mexico, Texas and California. This amount of diversity is attributable to Oregon's numerous distinctive ecoregions and relatively mild winter weather, which make it an important wintering ground for migratory bird species, especially waterfowl, on the Pacific Flyway.

Another result of the state's varying ecology is the 120 Important Bird Areas, such as the Jackson Bottom Wetlands Preserve, that are recognized as important conservation sites for birds. Many of these dedicated wildlife refuges have become meccas for birding enthusiasts, and Oregon has participated in formally organized birding activities such as the Christmas Bird Count since the early 1900s. Other areas are closed to human access but are very popular with birds, such as Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge which spans some 250 miles (400 km) of the Oregon Coast.

As an important U.S. region of bird diversity, Oregon has faced some serious challenges in protecting endangered and threatened avian species. In addition to high profile, threatened species such as the northern spotted owl and snowy plover, even many common species—including Oregon's state bird, the western meadowlark—have declined considerably due to hunting, habitat loss and other factors.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Oregon as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Review list - birds that if seen require more comprehensive documentation than regularly seen species.

(I) Introduced - a species established as a result of human action

List of birds of South Africa

South Africa is a large country, ranked 25th by size in the world, and is situated in the temperate latitudes and subtropics. Due to a range of climate types present, a patchwork of unique habitat types occur, which contribute to its biodiversity and level of endemism. This list incorporates the mainland and nearshore islands and waters only. The submerged though ecologically important Agulhas Bank is for most part inside its territorial waters. Offshore, South Africa's territory includes the Prince Edward Islands in the Subantarctic Indian Ocean.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behaviour and DNA, the order and number of families and species may change. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy and IOU taxonomy).

Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of BirdLife South Africa (BLSA). Notes in the status column are also from this source. Notes of population status, such as "Endangered", refer to the worldwide population, not the South African part of it. Unless otherwise noted in the "status" column, the species is a resident or regularly-occurring migrant.

"Vagrant" means the species rarely or accidentally occurs in South Africa.

"Endemic" means the species is found only in South Africa.

"SLS endemic" means the species is found only in South Africa and the Kingdoms of Lesotho and Swaziland. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa and Swaziland nearly so.This list contains 845 species according to the Clements taxonomy. The BLSA list includes additional entries as species which Clements considers subspecies; some of them are noted. According to BLSA, 18 species are endemic, 20 are SLS endemic, and 11 have been introduced by humans. Clements describes only 16 as endemic and 15 as SLS endemic. Of the 845, 121 are considered vagrants.

List of birds of Washington (state)

This list of birds of Washington includes species credibly documented in the U.S. state of Washington. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Washington Bird Records Committee (WBRC) of the Washington Ornithological Society. As of October 2018, the list contains 515 species. Of them, 159 are considered accidental; 11 were introduced to North America or directly in Washington. This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Washington as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to designate some species:

(A) Accidental - species which have "20 or fewer Washington records during the previous 10-year period" according to the WBRC. The WBRC requires a formal report for sightings of these species to be included in the official record.

(S) Sight record - species whose records are supported only by written documentation, per the WBRC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Washington by humans, either directly or indirectly

List of birds of the Falkland Islands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Falkland Islands. The avifauna of the Falkland Islands include a total of 227 confirmed species, of which two are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, four have been extirpated, and 140 are rare or vagrants. Three additional species are hypothetical (see below).

The entries on this list and the list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence in addition to non-endemic resident species and regular visitors.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Falklands

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to the Falklands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Falklands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species which formerly occurred in the Falklands

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded in the Falklands but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of the United States

This list of birds of the United States is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species confirmed in the United States as of July, 2018. It includes species from all 50 states.

The birds of the continental United States most closely resemble those of Eurasia, which was connected to the continent as part of the supercontinent Laurasia until around 60 million years ago. Many groups occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere and worldwide. However some groups unique to the New World have also arisen; those represented in this list are the hummingbirds, the New World vultures, the New World quail, the tyrant flycatchers, the vireos, the mimids, the New World warblers, the tanagers, the cardinals, and the icterids.

Several common birds in the United States, such as the house sparrow, the rock pigeon, the European starling, and the mute swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by humans. Introduced species are marked on this list as (I). In addition, many non-native species which have individual escapees or small feral populations in North America are not on this list. This is especially true of birds that are commonly held as pets, such as parrots and finches.

The status of one bird on this list, the ivory-billed woodpecker, is controversial. Until 2005 this bird was widely considered to be extinct. In April of that year it was reported that at least one adult male bird had been sighted in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas. This report, however, has not been universally accepted and the American Birding Association still lists the ivory-billed woodpecker as extinct.

List of near threatened birds

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 971 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Mollymawk

The mollymawks are a group of medium-sized albatrosses that form the genus Thalassarche. The name has sometimes been used for the genus Phoebetria as well, but these are usually called sooty albatrosses. They are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, where they are the most common of the albatrosses. They were long considered to be in the same genus as the great albatrosses, Diomedea, but a study of their mitochondrial DNA showed that they are a monophyletic taxon related to the sooty albatrosses, and they were placed in their own genus.

Philopatry

Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area. The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, may be the most common. The term derives from the Greek 'home-loving', although in recent years the term has been applied to more than just the animal's birthplace. Recent usage refers to animals returning to the same area to breed despite not being born there, and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering grounds. Some of the known reasons for organisms to be philopatric would be for mating (reproduction), survival, migration, parental care, resources, etc.. In most species of animals, individuals will benefit from living in groups, because depending on the species, individuals are more vulnerable to predation and more likely to have difficulty finding resources and food. Therefore, living in groups increases a species chances of survival, which correlates to finding resources and reproducing. Again, depending on the species, returning to their birthplace where that particular species occupies that territory is the more favorable option. The birthplaces for these animals serve as a territory for them to return for feeding and refuge, like fish from a coral reef. In an animal behavior study conducted by Paul Greenwood, overall female mammals are more likely to be philopatric, while male mammals are more likely to disperse. Male Birds are more likely to philopatric, while females are more likely to disperse. Philopatry will favor the evolution of cooperative traits because the direction of sex has consequences from the particular mating system.

Salvin's albatross

Salvin's albatross, or Salvin's mollymawk, Thalassarche salvini, is a large seabird that breeds only in islands in New Zealand's realm. A medium-sized mollymawk in the albatross family, it was long considered to be a subspecies of the shy albatross. It is a medium-sized black and white albatross.

Shy albatross

The shy albatross or shy mollymawk (Thalassarche cauta) is a medium-sized albatross that breeds on three Australian islands and ranges across the southern Indian Ocean.

Some authorities call this species the white-capped albatross.

Threatened fauna of Australia

Threatened fauna of Australia are those species and subspecies of birds, fish, frogs, insects, mammals, molluscs, crustaceans and reptiles to be found in Australia that are in danger of becoming extinct. This list is the list proclaimed under the Australian federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The classifications are based on those used by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), however IUCN and Australian rankings do differ.

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