Whippomorpha

Whippomorpha is the clade containing the Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and their closest living relatives, the hippopotamuses, named by Waddell et al. (1999).[1] It is defined as a crown group, including all species that are descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Hippopotamus amphibius and Tursiops truncatus.[1] This would be a subgrouping of the Cetartiodactyla (which also includes pigs and ruminants). How recently whales and hippos share a common ancestor is unclear, though the genetic evidence is strong that the cetaceans arose from within the Artiodactyla, thus making the even-toed ungulate grouping a paraphyletic one.[2]

Whippomorpha is a mixture of English (wh[ale] + hippo[potamus]) and Greek (μορφή, morphē = form). Attempts have been made to rename the clade Cetancodonta[3] but Whippomorpha maintains precedence.[4]

   Artiodactyla   

 Tylopoda

   Artiofabula   

 Suina    

   Cetruminantia   

 Ruminantia

   Whippomorpha   

 Hippopotamidae

 Cetacea

Whippomorpha
Temporal range: Early Eocene–present
Hippo pod edit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Clade: Cetancodontamorpha
Suborder: Whippomorpha
Waddell et al. 1999
Taxa
Cladogram of Cetacea within Artiodactyla
Cladogram showing Whippomorpha within Artiodactylamorpha: Whippomorpha consists of the clades labeled Hippo and Cetaceamorpha.

References

  1. ^ a b Waddell, P. J.; Okada, N.; Hasegawa, M. (1999). "Towards resolving the interordinal relationships of placental mammals". Systematic Biology. 48 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1093/sysbio/48.1.1. JSTOR 2585262. PMID 12078634.
  2. ^ Beck, Robin M.D.; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R.P.; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo; Purvis, Andy (2006). "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. PMID 17101039.
  3. ^ Spaulding, Michelle; O'Leary, Maureen A.; Gatesy, John (2009). Farke, Andrew Allen, ed. "Relationships of cetacea (Artiodactyla) among mammals: Increased taxon sampling alters interpretations of key fossils and character evolution". PLoS ONE. 4 (9): e7062. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007062. PMC 2740860. PMID 19774069.
  4. ^ Asher, Robert J.; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2010). "Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 102. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-102. PMC 2865478. PMID 20406454.
Anhui musk deer

The Anhui musk deer (Moschus anhuiensis) is an endangered species of musk deer that is endemic to the Dabie Mountains of western Anhui province, China. It was formerly described as a subspecies of Moschus berezovskii and Moschus moschiferus, but is now classified as a separate species.

Anthracotheriidae

Anthracotheriidae is a family of extinct, hippopotamus-like artiodactyl ungulates related to hippopotamuses and whales. The oldest genus, Elomeryx, first appeared during the middle Eocene in Asia. They thrived in Africa and Eurasia, with a few species ultimately entering North America during the Oligocene. They died out in Europe and Africa during the Miocene, possibly due to a combination of climatic changes and competition with other artiodactyls, including pigs and true hippopotamuses. The youngest genus, Merycopotamus, died out in Asia during the late Pliocene. The family is named after the first genus discovered, Anthracotherium, which means "coal beast", as the first fossils of it were found in Paleogene-aged coal beds in France. Fossil remains of the anthracothere genus were discovered by the Harvard University and Geological Survey of Pakistan joint research project (Y-GSP) in the well-dated middle and late Miocene deposits of the Pothohar Plateau in northern Pakistan.In life, the average anthracothere would have resembled a skinny hippopotamus with a comparatively small, narrow head and most likely pig-like in general appearance. They had four or five toes on each foot, and broad feet suited to walking on soft mud. They had full sets of about 44 teeth with five semicrescentric cusps on the upper molars, which, in some species, were adapted for digging up the roots of aquatic plants.

Bovinae

The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is still debated, and their classification into loose tribes rather than formal subgroups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include cloven hooves and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having true horns. The largest extant bovine is the gaur.

In many countries, bovid milk and meat is used as food. Cattle are kept as livestock almost everywhere except in parts of India and Nepal where they are considered sacred by most Hindus. Bovids are used as draft animals and as riding animals. Small breeds of bovid, such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets.

Cephalorhynchus

Cephalorhynchus is a genus in the dolphin family Delphinidae.

Cetancodontamorpha

Cetancodontamorpha is a total clade of artiodactyls defined, according to Spaulding et al., as Whippomorpha "plus all extinct taxa more closely related to extant members of Whippomorpha than to any other living species". Attempts have been made to rename the clade Whippomorpha to Cetancodonta, but the former maintains precedent.Whippomorpha is the crown clade containing Cetacea (whales, dolphins, etc.) and hippopotamuses. According to Spaulding et al., members of the whippomorph stem group (i.e., "stem-whippomorphs") include such taxa as the family Entelodontidae and the genus Andrewsarchus.

Cetruminantia

The Cetruminantia are a clade made up of the Cetacodontamorpha (or Whippomorpha) and their closest living relatives, the Ruminantia.

Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla, from Ancient Greek ἄρτιος (ártios), meaning 'even', and δάκτυλος (dáktylos), meaning 'finger/toe') are ungulates - hoofed animals - which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of the five toes: their third and fourth toes. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on one (an odd number) of the five toes: the third toe. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do.

The aquatic cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) evolved from even-toed ungulates, so modern taxonomic classification sometimes combines the Artiodactyla and Cetacea into the Cetartiodactyla.

The roughly 220 land-based even-toed ungulate species include pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, llamas, alpacas, mouse deer, deer, giraffes, antelopes, sheep, goats, and cattle. Many of these are of great dietary, economic, and cultural importance to humans.

Grazing antelope

A grazing antelope is any of the species of antelope that make up the subfamily Hippotraginae of the family Bovidae. As grazers, rather than browsers, the "Hippo" in Hippotraginae refers to the slightly horse-like characteristics of body size and proportions: long legs and a solid body with a relatively thick muscular neck.

Subfamily Hippotraginae

Genus Hippotragus

Roan antelope, Hippotragus equinus

Sable antelope, Hippotragus niger

Giant sable antelope Hippotragus niger varani

Bluebuck, Hippotragus leucophaeus (extinct)

Genus Oryx

East African oryx, Oryx beisa

Common beisa oryx, Oryx beisa beisa

Fringe-eared oryx, Oryx beisa callotis

Scimitar oryx, Oryx dammah

Gemsbok, Oryx gazella

Arabian oryx, Oryx leucoryx

Genus Addax

Addax, Addax nasomaculatus

Hippopotamidae

This is the article on the family Hippopotamidae; for the main article on hippos, see Hippopotamus

Hippopotamuses are stout, naked-skinned, and amphibious artiodactyl mammals, possessing three-chambered stomachs and walking on four toes on each foot. While they resemble pigs physiologically and are pseudoruminants like camels, their closest living relatives are the cetaceans. Hippopotamuses are the only living members of the family Hippopotamidae.

There are two living species of hippopotamus in two genera; the pygmy hippo, Choeropsis liberiensis of the forests of west Africa, and the common hippo, Hippopotamus amphibius.

Kogia

Kogia is a genus of toothed whales within the superfamily Physeteroidea comprising two extant and one extinct species: Fossils date to the miocene

Pygmy sperm whale, Kogia breviceps

Dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima

Kogia pusilla extinct

Nanger

Nanger is a genus of antelopes, commonly called gazelles. Nanger was originally considered a subgenus within the genus Gazella, but has since been elevated to genus status. The three species within the genus Nanger are:

Nanger vanhoepeni†

Neotragini

The tribe Neotragini comprises the dwarf antelopes of Africa:

Dorcatragus

Beira D. megalotis

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik M. guentheri

Kirk's dik-dik M. kirkii

Silver dik-dik M. piacentinii

Salt's dik-dik M. saltiana

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope N. batesi

Suni N. moschatus

Royal antelope N. pygmaeus

Oreotragus

Klipspringer O. oreotragus

Ourebia

Oribi O. ourebi

Raphicerus

Steenbok R. campestris

Cape grysbok R. melanotis

Sharpe's grysbok R. sharpeiSome mammalogists (Haltenorth, 1963) considered this group as a distinct subfamily (Neotraginae).

Neotragus

Neotragus is a genus of dwarf antelope, native to Africa.

The genus includes only a single species without any dispute, namely Neotragus pygmaeus. Recent nucleic acid studies now suggest that the other two species formerly included in the genus are not closely related, and should be assigned to the genus Nesotragus.

Raoellidae

The Raoellidae, previously grouped within Helohyidae, are an extinct family of semiaquatic digitigrade artiodactyls in the clade Whippomorpha. Fossils of raoellids are found in Eocene strata of South and Southeast Asia.

An exceptionally complete skeleton of Indohyus from Kashmir suggests that raoellids are the "missing link" sister group to whales (Cetacea). All other Artiodactyla are relatives of these two groups. δO18 values and osteosclerotic bones indicate that the raccoon-like Indohyus was habitually aquatic, but δC13 values suggest it rarely fed in the water. The authors suggest that this documents an intermediate step in the transition back to water completed by the whales.

Ruminantia

Ruminantia is a taxon within the order Artiodactyla that includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing mammals: among them cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelope. All members of the Ruminantia employ foregut fermentation and are ruminants: they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way to begin with, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to rechew it and thus extract the maximum possible food value.

Suina

The suborder Suina (also known as Suiformes) is a lineage of omnivorous non-ruminant artiodactyl mammals that includes the pigs and peccaries of the families Suidae and Tayassuidae and their fossil kin. Hippopotamidae had historically been classified among the Suina for morphological reasons, but is now more often classified as the sister group of the whales, or Cetacea.

Tylopoda

Tylopoda (meaning "calloused foot") is a suborder of terrestrial herbivorous even-toed ungulates belonging to the order Artiodactyla. They are found in the wild in their native ranges of South America and Asia, while Australian feral camels are introduced. The group has a long fossil history in North America and Europe. Tylopoda appeared during the Eocene around 46.2 million years ago.Tylopoda has only one extant family, Camelidae, which includes camels, llamas, guanacos, alpacas and vicuñas. This group was much more diverse in the past, containing a number of extinct families in addition to the ancestors of living camelids (see below).

Tylopods are not ruminants.

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