Whadjuk

Whadjuk, alternatively Witjari, are an indigenous Noongar people of the Western Australian region of the Perth bioregion of the Swan Coastal Plain.

Noongar1
Noongar language groups

Name

The ethnonym appears to derive from whad, their word for "no".[a]

Country

The traditional tribal territory of the Whadjuk, in Norman Tindale's estimate, took in some 2,600 square miles (6,700 km2) of land, from the Swan River, together with its eastern and northern tributaries. Its hinterland extension ran to beyond Mount Helena. It included Kalamunda on the Darling Scarp and Armadale. To the north it encompassed the Victoria Plains, an area south of Toodyay, and reached eastwards as far as west of York. Its southern coastal frontier extended to the vicinity of Pinjarra.[1] Their northern neighbours were the Yued, the Balardong people lay to their east, and the Pindjarup on their southern coastal flank.

Culture and pre-history

The Whadjuk formed part of the Noongar language group, with their own distinctive dialect. Culturally they were divided into two matrilineal moieties:[2] Wardungmaat, from wardung ("crow", that is, the Australian raven, Corvus coronoides) and maat ("lineage"; literally "leg") and; Manitjmaat, from manitj ("sulphur-crested cockatoo, Cacatua galerita ") and maat. Moieties were endogamous, and children took the moiety of their mother. Each moiety also contained two "sections" (or "skins"): in the case of the Manitjmaat these were Ballarok and Tondarup and for the Wardungmaat, they were Ngotak and Naganyuk.

The Whadjuk also preserved many stories of the Wagyl, a water-python held to be responsible for most of the water features around Perth. This may have been a cultural memory of an extinct Madtsoiidae python-like serpent, a water dwelling ambush predator, part of the extinct megafauna of Australia that disappeared between 40,000 and 20,000 years ago.

Coastal dwelling Whadjuk have an oral tradition describing the separation of Rottnest from the mainland, which occurred between 12,000–8,000 BCE, technically a post-glacial Flandrian transgression.[b]

Seasonal divisions

Like other Noongar peoples, the Whadjuk seem to have moved more inland in the wetter weather of winter, returning to the coast as interior seasonal lakes dried up.[4][5] The Whadjuk, like many Noongar people divided the year into six seasons.[4]

  • Birak: November to December, was the "fruiting", characterised by the onset of hot, easterly winds which blow during the day. Noongar people used to burn mosaic sections of scrubland to force animals into the open to hunt, and to open the canopy and allow the few November rains to increase germination of summer foodstuffs and marsupial grazing. This was the season of harvesting wattle seeds which were pounded into flour and stored as damper.
  • Bunuru: January to February, was the "hot-dry", characterised by hot dry easterly conditions with afternoon sea-breezes, known locally in Western Australia as the Fremantle doctor. To maximise the effects of these cooling breezes, the Noongars moved to coastal estuaries and reefs where fish and abalone (Haliotis roei) constituted a large proportion of the seasonal diet. Mallee fowl eggs from tuart forests also formed a part of the diet.
  • Djeran: March to April, was "first rains-first dew", with the weather was becoming cooler with winds from the south west. Fishing continued (often caught in fish traps) and zamia palm (Noongar = djiriji, Macrozamia ridlei) cycad nuts (Noongar = buyu), (nardoo, Marsilia quadrifolia) bulbs and other seeds were collected for food. Zamia palm, which is naturally highly poisonous, was prepared in a fashion which removed its toxicity. Burrowing frogs (kooyar, Heleioporus eyrei) were caught in large numbers with the opening rains of winter.
  • Makuru: from May to June, was "the wet", and Noongars moved inland from the coast to the Darling Scarp to hunt yongka, grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus) and tammar (Macropus eugenii) once rains had replenished inland water resources. This was the season of mid-latitude cold frontal rains. Noongar gnow (or malleefowl (Leipoa ocellata)) were also caught.
  • Djilba: from July to August, was "the cold-wet" saw Noongar groups moving to the drier soils of the Guildford and Canning-Kelmscott areas, where roots were collected and emus (Noongar = wej) (Dromaius novaehollandiae), ringtail possums (Noongar = goomal) (Psudocheirus occidentalis) and kangaroo were hunted.
  • Kambarang: from September to October, was "the flowering" at the height of the wildflower season. This time saw rain decreasing. Families moved towards the coast where frogs, tortoises and freshwater crayfish or gilgies (Cherax quinquecarinatus) and blue marron, (Noongar = marrin (from marr = "hand")) were caught. Birds returning from their Northern Hemisphere migration also formed a part of their diet.

These seasons were roughly divided (rather than by specific date) and Whadjuk took account of environmental signals such as the spring call of the motorbike frog (green tree frog (Litoria moorei)) [1], in marking seasons. For example, the onset of Kambarang, or the flowering of the Western Australian Christmas tree (Nuytsia floribunda [2] showing the onset of Bunuru.

Ceremonies

Whadjuk used high quality wilgi (red ochre) in ceremonies, which they obtained from the site now occupied by Perth Railway Station and which they traded with peoples to the east.[2] By repute it was traded as far as Uluru. In pre-contact times it was used to colour hair, which was worn long (in a style similar to "dreadlocks"). Among indigenous groups that practised initiatory circumcision, the territory of the Whadjuk was known as "The Land of the Boys". Quartz from the Darling Scarp was also traded with Balardong groups for the making of spears.

Contact history

The Whadjuk peoples bore the brunt of the European invasion and colonisation, as the cities of Perth and Fremantle were built in their territory.

No doubt Whadjuk peoples had been familiar with Dutch explorers like Vlamingh, and the occasional visit of whalers to the coast, before the arrival of settlers under the command of Governor James Stirling. After a near disaster at Garden Island, a long-boat under the command of Captain (later Lieutenant Governor) Irwin was dispatched and met with Yellagonga and his family at Crawley, on the coast of what is now the University of Western Australia or by Mount Eliza (Noongar = Goonininup). As Aboriginal women had been earlier seized by European seal hunters, Yellagonga subsequently moved his encampment to what is now Lake Monger (Noongar = Kallup).[2] With the alienation from their lands due to settlers claiming land and fencing it off, Aboriginal people lost access to important seasonal foods, they did not understand or accept private ownership of their lands, which led to spearing of stock and digging in food gardens. Reprisals led to a cycle of increased violence on both sides. The first attempted Aboriginal massacre was the "Battle for Perth" when there was an attempt to surround and capture Aboriginal people who had retreated into Lake Monger. The area was cordoned, but the hunted people escaped. Once Lake Monger was settled by the Monger family, Yellagonga moved to Lake Joondalup. In 1834 this Wanneroo area was explored by John Butler, and in 1838 by George Grey. With the lands seized for settlement in 1843, Yellagonga was reduced to begging for survival, and shortly thereafter he accidentally drowned.[6]

The situation for Midgegooroo was even more precarious. Violence flared when it was said 200 "savages" were going to attack the ferry from Fremantle, and citizens armed themselves and rushed to the site to find nothing but a bemused ferryman. A Tasmanian settler shot one of the local Aboriginal men and Yagan, Midgegooroo's son and Yellagonga's nephew, speared a white in revenge. Yagan was arrested and sent to Carnac Island in the care of Robert Lyon who claimed he was a freedom fighter. Yagan escaped from the island in a boat, and waged a guerrilla campaign on both sides of the river. He was eventually killed by one of two European boys he had befriended and his head was smoked and sent to England, finally being recovered and returned home by Ken Colbung in 1997.

Following the Pinjarra massacre, Whadjuk Aboriginal people became totally dispirited, and were reduced to dependent status, settling at their site at Mount Eliza for handouts under the authority of Francis Armstrong. An Anglican school was established for a number of years at Ellenbrook, but was never very successful and was greatly under funded.

Relations between the settlers and the Noongar people had deteriorated badly in the final years of Stirling's reign, with settlers shooting at Aboriginal people indiscriminately for the spearing of stock, leading to payback killings of settlers. Stirling's response was to attempt to subdue the Aboriginal people through harsh punishment. When Stirling retired he was replaced as Governor by John Hutt, 1 January 1839, who rather than adopting Stirling's vindictive vengeful policies against Aborigines, tried protecting their rights and educating them. This ran foul of frontier settlers intent on seizing Aboriginal lands without compensation, who felt they needed strong-arm tactics to protect themselves from Aboriginal "reprisals". In 1887 a reserve for the remaining Whadjuk people was established near Lake Gnangara, one of a whole series of wetlands which may have, within the memory of Aboriginal people here, been a series of caves along an underground river whose roof fell in. This reserve was re-established in 1975. In addition to the "feeding station" at Mount Eliza, under the control of Francis Armstrong, first "Protector of Aborigines". Hutt also tried to establish an Aboriginal yeomanry by giving Aboriginal "settlers" grants of government land. The lands chosen for this venture were marginal and Aboriginal people were expected to make improvements without giving them access to needed bank finance, so the scheme quickly collapsed. Aboriginal campsites were temporarily established at many metropolitan locations including Ellenbrook, Jolimont, Welshpool and Allawah Grove. These sites however were frequently moved at the discretion of European authorities once an alternative use was found for the land (as happened at Karrakatta Cemetery, the Swanbourne Rifle Range and Perth Airport).

In 1893 the granting of self-government to Western Australia, specifically excluded provision for Aboriginal Affairs, which remained vested in the British crown. The state's constitution also stated that 1% of government expenditures had to be for the benefit of Aboriginal people, a condition that has never been met. The Premier John Forest unilaterally took control in Aboriginal Affairs, without an amendment to the constitution in 1896. As of 2016, Aboriginal people number 3% of the state's population, but number 50% of the women in Bandyup Women's Prison and of youth in detention in Western Australia. Many are imprisoned for the non-payment of fines incurred for minor offences. The number of Noongar youth in incarceration exceeds the number in school or formal training.

Daisy Bates claimed she interviewed the last fully initiated Whadjuk Noongar people in 1907, reporting on informants Fanny Balbel and Joobaitj, who had preserved in oral tradition the Aboriginal viewpoints of the coming of the Europeans. Fanny had been born on the Aboriginal sacred site that underlies St George's Cathedral, while Joobaitj's sacred lands were near the current Youth Hostel at Mundaring Weir.

Social structure

The Whadjuk people were divided by the Swan River into four groups, each with its own territory:[2]

  • The Beeliar. Their country lay south east of Perth in the Canning River region, and at the beginning of white settlement were led by Midgegooroo, father of Yagan.[7]
  • The Beeloo – Their leader was Mundy. Over the winter they camped in the area of the Kalamunda and Mundering hills.[7]
  • The Mooro – led by Yellagonga – lay north of the Swan River, encompassing the coast area and Melville Water.[7]
  • The Upper Swan group, a mountain clan, is said by early settlers to have been led by Weeip.[8]

Several Europeans in particular contributed to modern understanding of Whadjuk Noongar language and culture.

  • Robert Menli Lyon befriended the Aboriginal resistance fighter Yagan, when the latter was exiled to Carnac Island.
  • Francis Armstrong took early efforts to befriend Aboriginal people (being known to them as "Pranji Djanga"), but later in life became very authoritarian and bitter in his dealings with them.
  • George Fletcher Moore rapidly came to understand the Whadjuk dialect of the Nyungar language, and later came to serve as magistrate in legal cases in which Whadjuk people were involved.
  • Lieutenant George Grey took great efforts to learn the Whadjuk tongue, and was recognised by the Yellagonga's Whadjuk group as being the returned dead son (i.e. Djanga) of an Aboriginal woman, before going on to a distinguished political career in South Australia and New Zealand.[2][9]

European settlers were initially called Djanga – a term referring to spirits of the dead – by the Whadjuk. This belief incorporated Europeans into the social structure of the Noongar peoples and was reinforced by several factors. To the Whadjuk, the settlers resembled dead people because they:

  • came from the west, the direction of the setting sun and Kuranyup, the land of the dead for the Whadjuk;
  • were pale in complexion – which was seen by the Whadjuk as the pallor of people after death;
  • often changed their clothing and, therefore, their general appearance;
  • smelled bad and often had rotten teeth, reflecting early 19th century standards of hygiene and;
  • were not affected by infectious diseases to which most Aboriginal people had no genetic resistance.

Work by Neville Green in his book Broken Spears has shown how Aboriginal culture could not explain the high death rates associated with European infections, and believed that Aboriginal sorcery was involved, leading to rising numbers of reprisal spearing and killings within the Aboriginal community. Coupled with the declining birth rates, these factors led to a collapsing population in those areas nearby European settlement. In addition to white killings and massacres in Fremantle and elsewhere, the arrival of Europeans saw many deaths from diseases to which Aboriginal people had no resistance. These were interpreted as sorcery within traditional culture and led to "pay-back" vendettas, which increased mortality of those in closest contact with Europeans.[10]

Aboriginal camping sites around Perth

  • Goonininup, now built over by the present day Swan Brewery, together with the nearby site of Goodinup, marked the place where coastal and inland Nyungar met for trade and ritual purposes. It was a focal point for trading in red ochre. Male initiations also took place there. Close by was Koyamulyup (frog camp), so-called because of the abundance of frogs, an important part of the local diet.[11] The Boya (or Birthing stone) there was pushed into the River by European settlers to try to prevent Aborigines accessing the site.
  • Lake Monger was an Aboriginal camping site until the 1920s. When it was closed the land was used for market gardening, and the Aboriginal groups moved to Jolimont and Njookenboro (Innaloo).
  • People from the site of Jolimont later moved to the site of the Swanbourne Rifle Range, later resumed by the Australian Army in 1913.
  • There was also a small Aboriginal camping site near the Australian Broadcasting Corporation building in East Perth and on Heirisson Island. The shallows off Heirisson Island, known as Matagarup ("Leg Deep") afforded a passage for crossing the Swan River.[12] They were later moved to Burswood, until the site became garbage dump for the city of Perth, before finally becoming the site of the Burswood Casino.
  • Wanneroo (= "the place where women dig yams") had a number of Aboriginal camp sites, well into the 20th century. Orchestra Shell Cave in Wanneroo had Aboriginal paintings on the roof and walls. George Grey met Aboriginal people at Lake Joondalup when he returned to Perth.[13]
  • Welshpool was a camping site for Aboriginal people at the turn of the 20th century. Daisy Bates conducted most of her interviews with Perth Aboriginal people here.
  • Bennett Brook is significant to Aboriginal people, as it is believed that it was formed by the creative activities of the Waugal. It is said that the Waugal's resting place is a cave in the deep, still water. Python Bridge crosses Bennett Brook approximately 200 meters from its confluence with the Swan River and it is believed to be the home of an evil and dangerous spirit. Some Aboriginal families have said that camping areas existed from the Southern boundaries of this site to Bennett Swamp in pre-contact times. There is a tradition of digging wells for freshwater supplies in the western bank of Bennett Brook and a traditional fish trap supplied food for these camps. Benara Road is the southern boundary to this Aboriginal site. From the 1930s to 1960s, Aboriginal camps spread across Lord Street into the area that is now a housing estate. It is reported that burials have taken place between Benara Road and Widgee Road, however their exact location is not known.
  • Aboriginal people from the Swan River made their campsites along Perth's central lakes to avoid the salty lakes closer to the coast. 16 Aboriginal campsites have been found in the City of Cockburn
  • In 1941 a group of Swan Valley Nyungah women purchased 20 acres (8.1 ha) of bushland bounded by Gallagher Street and Mary Crescent, Eden Hill.[14] The local council refused their requests for water and applications to build housing[15] so they camped in mia mias, bush breaks and tin camps and relied on water dug from their own wells. In the 1950s the area was resumed by the State Housing Commission for the creation of the suburb of Eden Hill.[15]
  • The Swan Valley Nyungah Community was an Indigenous Australian community of Noongar people at Lockridge, Western Australia. In controversial circumstances, the Government of Western Australia closed the settlement in 2003 by act of Parliament. The buildings were later bulldozed by the Barnett government. SVNC are amongst the leaders of the 2015-2016 Aboriginal Refugee community on Heirisson Island.
  • Munday Swamp is located against the northeastern perimeter fence of Perth Airport, southwest of King Road and west of the Forrestfield and Kewdale Railway Yards. Munday Swamp was an area of ancient Aboriginal usage and had been used as a turtle-fishing ground in pre-contact times. The Melaleuca shrub offered shade and coolness to the turtle fishermen, who were known to camp there on occasions. These days, Munday Swamp lies on private property beside the Perth Airport's perimeter fence.
  • Nyibra Swamp has been used by Aboriginal people from Bayswater and Bassendean areas as a fishing area from the 1920s until recent times.[16]
  • Bibra Lake was a frequently used camping ground as the presence of Aboriginal artefacts from the area attests.
  • Walyunga hosts one of the largest known Aboriginal campsites near Perth, used by regional tribes for more than 60,000 years, now a National Park.
  • Gnangara hosted a large Aboriginal camping site. Gnangara contained the Aboriginal Community College (K-12), founded in 1979 and closed in 2008. It was one of two independent Indigenous schools in the metropolitan area.[17]
  • Allawah Grove on the north-west edge of Perth airport in South Guildford has long been associated with "campies", as Aboriginals called themselves. It was gazetted as an aboriginal reserve in 1911, and repeated efforts were made to shift indigenous people into there, despite their refusal to stay on the site, preferring their traditional campsites around Eden Hill. Eventually in the late 1950s, aboriginals from camps in Bassendean and Eden Hill accepted the site because, harassed by a policy of keeping native peoples out of the Perth area and often left homeless, the government offered to house them on the site and guarantee some freedom from continual police harassment. By February 1958 some 29 families, constituted by 220 people, had settled there.[18]
  • Weld Square in Northbridge was often used as a camping spot by Aboriginal people. The Aboriginal Advancement Council established its headquarters there in the 1940s.

Alternative names/spellings

  • Wadjuk, Wadjug, Whajook
  • Witja:ri
  • Wadjup (toponym for the flats of the Canning River)
  • Juadjuk
  • Yooard
  • Yooadda
  • Minalnjunga, (Yued term composed of minang (south) and njunga (man)
  • Minnal Yungar
  • Derbal
  • Karakata(a toponym for Perth)/Karrakatta (bank of Swan River at Perth)
  • Caractterup tribe
  • Ilakuri wongi (language name)[1]

Some words

  • mamman (father)
  • jukan (mother)
  • gengar (whiteman)[19]

Notes

  1. ^ This equates with other words in the Noongar dialect continuum – wada/'yuad/i:wat, all meaning "no".[1]
  2. ^ The early British settler and diarist George Fletcher Moore wrote an account of this tradition[3]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Tindale 1974, p. 260.
  2. ^ a b c d e Bates 1938.
  3. ^ Moore 1842, p. 11.
  4. ^ a b Green 1984.
  5. ^ Hallam 1986.
  6. ^ Hallam 1974.
  7. ^ a b c Hughes-Hallett 2010, p. 9.
  8. ^ Green & Moon 1997, p. 185.
  9. ^ Grey 1841.
  10. ^ Green 1984, p. ?.
  11. ^ Hughes-Hallett 2010, p. 32.
  12. ^ Ryan, Brady & Kueh 2015.
  13. ^ http://www.joondalup.wa.gov.au/Welcome/History.aspx Retrieved 29 Mar 2011
  14. ^ Carter 1986.
  15. ^ a b Delmege 2005.
  16. ^ Bassendean 2009.
  17. ^ Aboriginal Community College.
  18. ^ Delmege 2015, pp. 85–86.
  19. ^ Parker 1886, p. 340.

Sources

Aboriginal groupings of Western Australia

An overview of Australian Aboriginal kinship groupings within Western Australia, 1979. Tribal Boundaries map based on Norman Tindales 1974 map. It was published in Western Australia: An Atlas of Human Endeavour by the State Government, given to every school aged child in Western Australia, in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the settlement of the Swan River Colony (the cities of Perth and Fremantle) by a small English military force and several hundred free colonists in 1829.

Noongar - occupying the area of the South West Agricultural Division of Western Australia - affected from 1827 onwards, and today represented by the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council. It includes five cultural groups:Perth Type: Matrilineal moieties and totemic clans. Patrilineal local descent groups. Includes Amangu, Yued, Whadjuk, Binjareb, Wardandi, Ganeang and Wilmen.

Nyakinyaki Type: Alternate generational levels similar to Western Desert type, with patrilineal local descent groups. Includes Balardong and Nyakinyaki.

Bibelmen type: Patrilineal moieties and patrilineal local descent groups. Includes Bibulmen and Minang.

Wudjari type: similar to Nyakinyaki except they have named patrilineal totemic local descent groups.

Nyunga type: similar to Wangai with two endogamous named divisions (Bee-eater and King fisher), in which marriage took place within one's own division but children were in the opposite, modified from the Western Desert system. Includes Nyunga.Yamatji - occupying the Murchison, Gascoyne- affected from the 1840s onwards, represented today by the Yamatji Bana Baaba Marlpa Land and Sea Council.Nganda type:Patrilineal totemic local descent groups, no moieties or sections. Includes Nganda and Nandu.

Inggadi-Badimaia gtype: Sections not well defined, Patrilineal totemic local clans grouped into larger divisions. Includes Inggada, Dadei, Malgada, Ngugan, Widi, Badimaia, Wadjari, and Goara.

Djalenji-Maia type: Sections corelaed with kin terms, Matrilineal descent groups. Includes Noala, Djalenji, Yinigudira, Baiyungu, Maia, Malgaru, Dargari, Buduna, Guwari, Warianga, Djiwali, Djururu, Nyanu, Bandjima, Inawongga, Gurama, Binigura and Guwari.

Nyangamada type: Sections with indirect matrilineal descent, with patrilineal local descent groups. Includes Bailgu, Indjibandji, Mardudunera, Yaburara, Ngaluma, Gareira, Nyamal, Ngala, and Nyangamada.Wankai or Wongai - occupying the Goldfields and Nullarbor regions of Western Australia affected from the 1880s onwards, represented today by the Goldfields Land and Sea Aboriginal Council Corporation.Galamaia-Gelago type: Like Nyunga, but practising circumcision. Includes Galamaia, Ngurlu, Maduwongga, and Gelago.

Mirning Type: Patrilineal local totemic descent groups, No moieties or sections. Similar to the Western Desert type. Includes Ngadjunmaia, Mirning.Kimberley peoples - in the Kimberley region - speaking a variety of languages and affected from the 1870s onwards, represented today by the Kimberley Land Council.Garadjeri type: As for Nyangamada. Includes Garadjeri, Mangala, Yaoro, Djungun, Ngombal, Djaberadjabera, and Nyulnyul.

Bardi type. Patrilineal local descent groups, no moieties or sections. Includes Warwar, Nimanburu, Ongarang, Djaul Djaui.

Ungarinyin type: Patrilineal. Includes Umedi, Wungemi, Worora, WunumbulNgaanyatjarra - occupying the Central Desert region - and being much less affected than the other Aboriginal groups of Western Australia.

Bicton Baths

Bicton Baths is a popular swimming location located on the Swan River commonly used by prawn hunters, diving trainers, swimming lessons, sport, leisure and for annual events.Formally known as Bicton River Jetty, and Jetty 1248, it is known to the local Aboriginal people, the Whadjuk Noongar people, as Kwoppa Kepa, meaning 'beautiful water' in Noongar.

Bicton Baths were initiated by the local Melville Amateur Swimming Club, a group who had previously utilised the jetty of the quarantine station jetty as a platform. In 1946 the Melville Water Polo Club was founded at the baths, a move which resulted in the Bicton Pool being built in 1979.

The baths themselves consist of a wooden U-shaped jetty which contains exit ladders. Bicton baths is located in a tidal gorge and is heavily influenced by ocean water inflow. It contains a variety of wildlife, including algae, anemones, crabs, dolphins, fish, nudibranchs, shrimp, sponges and starfish.

Cantonment Hill, Fremantle

Cantonment Hill is a small rise overlooking the port city of Fremantle, Western Australia. Since the early 1900s the hill and the surrounding 4 hectares (9.9 acres) precinct has been mainly used for military purposes with extensive buildings now present. It has been under the control of the Department of Defence.

The area is known as Dwerda Weelardinup meaning 'place of the Dingo Spirit' and the peak is also referred to as Walyarup which means 'Sea-Eagle nest' by the indigenous Whadjuk people.The site includes the last remaining stand of pre-European settlement Rottnest Island pine (Callitris preissii) on the mainland.

Carnac Island

Carnac Island is a 19-hectare (47-acre), A Class, island nature reserve about 10 km (6.2 mi) south-west of Fremantle and 3.5 km (2.2 mi) north of Garden Island in Western Australia.

Corina Abraham

Corina Patricia Abraham is a Whadjuk Noongar woman. In 2016, she challenged the Western Australian Government for failure in procedural fairness during its change to the Aboriginal Heritage status of the land to be impacted by the extension to Roe Highway known as Roe 8.

Daren (disambiguation)

Daren may refer to:

Daren, a place in Trefeurig, Ceredigion, Wales.

Daren, Taitung, Taiwan

Daren (given name), a masculine given name of uncertain etymological origins

Daren people, a subgroup of the Whadjuk Aboriginal people, from the eastern Swan Valley and Darling Scarp of Western Australia

Fanny Balbuk

Fanny Balbuk (1840-1907) was a prominent Noongar Whadjuk woman who lived in Perth, Western Australia during the early years of the Swan River Colony. Balbuk (sometimes recorded as "Yooreel") was born on Heirisson Island in the Swan River, and her country included the swamps and wetland in the area currently occupied by the Perth Railway Station and Perth Cultural Centre. She is remembered for her fierce commitment to land rights, and her reactions to the buildings, fences and homes which quickly replaced her land as the colony expanded at the cost of Noongar peoples' land, language and lives.

Leonard Collard

Leonard Michael Collard (born 24 December 1959) is a Noongar elder, professor and Australian Research Council chief investigator at the School of Indigenous Studies University of Western Australia.Collard is a Whadjuk/Balardong Noongar, the traditional owners of the Perth region of Western Australia. He has a background in literature and communications, and has researched areas including Noongar interpretive histories and Noongar theoretical and practical research models.In 2011 Collard commenced a three-year study of Noongar place names and intends to create a public website of 25,000 Noongar words for different places around the South West of Western Australia. In 2014 he announced his project to create the world's first online Aboriginal encyclopaedia, Noongarpedia, to preserve the endangered Noongar language.

List of Noongar sites in the City of Melville

The City of Melville local government area lies within the traditional lands of the Beeliar people, a subgroup of the Whadjuk dialectical group of the Noongar Indigenous Australians.

These are several significant Noongar sites within the City of Melville.

Narelda Jacobs

Narelda Jacobs is an Australian television journalist with Network Ten in Australia. She has been the lead news presenter for 10 News First in Perth, Western Australia since 2008.

Noongar

The Noongar () (also spelt Nyungar, Nyoongar, Nyoongah, Nyungah, Nyugah, Yunga) are a constellation of peoples of Indigenous Australian descent who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. Noongar country is now understood as referring to the land occupied by 14 different groups: Amangu, Ballardong, Yued, Kaneang, Koreng, Mineng, Njakinjaki, Njunga, Pibelmen, Pindjarup, Wardandi, Whadjuk, Wiilman and Wudjari.The members of the collective Noongar cultural block descend from peoples who spoke several languages and dialects that were often mutually intelligible. What is now classed as the Noongar language is a member of the large Pama-Nyungan language family. Contemporary Noongar speak Australian Aboriginal English (a dialect of the English language) laced with Noongar words and occasionally inflected by its grammar. Most contemporary Noongar trace their ancestry to more than one of these groups. The 2001 census figures showed that 21,000 people identified themselves as indigenous in the south-west of Western Australia.

Nyungar language

Nyungar (; also Noongar) is an Australian Aboriginal language or dialect continuum, still spoken by members of the Noongar community, who live in the southwest corner of Western Australia. The 1996 census recorded 157 speakers; that number increased to 232 by 2006. The rigour of the data collection by the Australian Bureau of Statistics census data has been challenged, with the number of speakers believed to be considerably higher.Noongar was first recorded in 1801 by Matthew Flinders, who made a number of word lists.

Perth

Perth ( (listen) PURTH) is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is named after the city of Perth, Scotland and is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2.06 million living in Greater Perth. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port (Fremantle) both later founded downriver.

Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It gained city status (currently vested in the smaller City of Perth) in 1856 and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929. The city inherited its name due to the influence of Sir George Murray, then Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes in the late 19th century. During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, and a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay. An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece, Italy, and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth. This was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for several large mining operations located around the state.

As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network in 2010 as a Beta world city. The city hosted the 1962 Commonwealth Games.

Perth is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, and east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Fremantle and Joondalup. Most of those were originally established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city.

Pindjarup

The Binjareb, Pindjarup or Pinjareb were an indigenous Noongar people, now believed to be extinct, who once occupied part of the south-western region of Western Australia.

Pinjarra massacre

The Pinjarra Massacre, also known as the Battle of Pinjarra, was an attack that occurred at Pinjarra, Western Australia on a group of up to 80 Noongar people by a detachment of 25 soldiers, police and settlers led by Governor James Stirling in 1834. After attacks on the displaced Swan River, Whadjuk people and depredations on settlers by a group of the Binjareb people led by Calyute had, according to European settlers, reached unacceptable levels, culminating in the payback killing of an ex-soldier, Stirling led his force after the party. Arriving at their camp, five members of the pursuit party were sent into the camp to arrest the suspects; Whadjuk community resisted. In the ensuing melee, Stirling reported 15 killed (eleven names were collected later from Aboriginal sources); police superintendent Theophilus Tighe Ellis later died of wounds and a soldier was wounded. Stirling warned the tribe against payback killings and arranged a peace between the warring tribes, but Calyute continued to break it by raiding the Whadjuk until his demise.

Point Walter

Point Walter (Noongar: Dyoondalup) is a point on the Swan River, Western Australia, notable for its large sandbar that extends into the river. It is located on the southern shore of Melville Water, and forms its western end. Point Walter is located in the suburb of Bicton, approximately 12 kilometres (7 mi) south of the Perth central business district, and 7 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of Fremantle, and is on the opposite side of the river to the suburbs of Mosman Park, Peppermint Grove, and Dalkeith.

Point Walter is a site of Aboriginal Australian heritage, both for its place in the Dreamtime and because of the local Whadjuk people's historical activities at the site. Named in 1827 by James Stirling, it was popular among the public for its variety of recreational activities and its facilities, such as tea rooms, a bathing house and a tavern. Through a series of events, the point suffered a drop in patronage from the late 19th century to World War II. At that time, it was rehabilitated from a state of disrepair, and an army camp was built on the premises, which was later transformed into a migrant settlement camp. Since the migrant camp's closure in 1972, the facilities have been used for multiple activities.

Since 1912 Point Walter has been run by Melville City Council, and today is contained in the Point Walter Reserve. The reserve and the sandbar serve as important sites for flora and fauna, particularly bird-life. It is popularly used for a variety of recreational activities, and currently hosts the annual Point Walter concert.

Queens Park, Western Australia

Queens Park is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the City of Canning. Its postcode is 6107.

There is 6,853 persons living in Queens Park. The top 5 ancestries represented in the suburb were English, Chinese, Australian, Indian and Filipino. The majority of persons living in Queens Park were between the ages of 18 – 49 (school leavers, university students, young workforce and parents and homebuilders).

Yellagonga

Yellagonga was the leader of the Whadjuk Noongar on the north side of the Swan River (Aboriginal: Derbal Yaragan). Colonists saw Yellagonga as the owner of this area. However, land rights were also traced through women of the group. Yellagonga could hunt on wetlands north of Perth because of his wife Yangani's connections to that country (boodja).

Yued

Yued, also spelled Juat, are an indigenous Noongar people located north of Perth.

Peoples
History

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.