Wet season

The monsoon season is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs. Generally the season lasts at least a month.[1] The term "green season" is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities.[2] Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the tropics and subtropics.[3]

Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres (2.4 in) or more.[4] In contrast to areas with savanna climates and monsoon regimes, Mediterranean climates have wet winters and dry summers. Dry and rainy months are characteristic of tropical seasonal forests: in contrast to tropical rainforests, which do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed throughout the year.[5] Some areas with pronounced rainy seasons will see a break in rainfall mid-season, when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves to higher latitudes in the middle of the warm season.[6]

When the wet season occurs during a warm season, or summer, precipitation falls mainly during the late afternoon and early evening. In the wet season, air quality improves, fresh water quality improves, and vegetation grows substantially, leading to crop yields late in the season. Rivers overflow their banks, and some animals retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients diminish and erosion increases. The incidence of malaria increases in areas where the rainy season coincides with high temperatures, particularly in tropical areas.[7] Some animals have adaptation and survival strategies for the wet season. Often, the previous dry season leads to food shortages in the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature.

Cairns climate
Rainfall distribution by month in Cairns, Australia.

Character of the rainfall

Darwin 1824
Wet season storm at night in Darwin, Australia.

In areas where the heavy rainfall is associated with a wind shift, the wet season is known as the monsoon.[8] Rainfall in the wet season is mainly due to daytime heating which leads to diurnal thunderstorm activity within a pre-existing moist airmass, so the rain mainly falls in late afternoon and early evening in savannah and monsoon regions. Further, much of the total rainfall each day occurs in the first minutes of the downpour,[6] before the storms mature into their stratiform stage.[9] Most places have only one wet season, but areas of the tropics can have two wet seasons, because the monsoon trough, or Intertropical Convergence Zone, can pass over locations in the tropics twice per year. However, since rain forests have rainfall spread evenly through the year, they do not have a wet season.[5]

It is different for places with a Mediterranean climate. In the western United States, during the cold season from September–May, extratropical cyclones from the Pacific Ocean move inland into the region due to a southward migration of the jet stream during the cold season. This shift in the jet stream brings much of the annual precipitation to the region,[10] and sometimes also brings heavy rain and strong low pressure systems.[11] The peninsula of Italy has weather very similar to the western United States in this regard.[12]

Areas affected

Areas with a savanna climate in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Ghana, Burkina Faso,[13][14] Darfur,[15] Eritrea,[16] Ethiopia,[17] and Botswana have a distinct rainy season.[18] Also within the savanna climate regime, Florida and South Texas have a rainy season.[19] Monsoon regions include the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia (including Indonesia and Philippines),[20] northern sections of Australia's North,[21] Polynesia,[22] Central America,[23] western and southern Mexico,[24] the Desert Southwest of the United States,[10] southern Guyana,[25] portions of northeast Brazil.[26]

Northern Guyana has two wet seasons: one in early spring and the other in early winter.[25] In western Africa, there are two rainy seasons across southern sections, but only one across the north.[27] Within the Mediterranean climate regime, the west coast of the United States and the Mediterranean coastline of Italy, Greece,[28] and Turkey experience a wet season in the winter months.[29] Similarly, the wet season in the Negev desert of Israel extends from October through May.[30] At the boundary between the Mediterranean and monsoon climates lies the Sonoran desert, which receives the two rainy seasons associated with each climate regime.[31]

The wet season is known by many different local names throughout the world. For example, in Mexico it is known as "storm season". Different names are given to the various short "seasons" of the year by the Aboriginal tribes of Northern Australia: the wet season typically experienced there from December to March is called Gudjewg. The precise meaning of the word is disputed, although it is widely accepted to relate to the severe thunderstorms, flooding, and abundant vegetation growth commonly experienced at this time.[32]

Effects

Vindhya
Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India.

In tropical areas, when the monsoon arrives, high daytime high temperatures drop and overnight low temperatures increase, thus reducing diurnal temperature variation.[33] During the wet season, a combination of heavy rainfall and, in some places such as Hong Kong, an onshore wind, improve air quality.[34] In Brazil, the wet season is correlated with weaker trade winds off the ocean.[26] The pH level of water becomes more balanced due to the charging of local aquifers during the wet season.[35] Water also softens, as the concentration of dissolved materials reduces during the rainy season.[36] Erosion is also increased during rainy periods.[6] Arroyos that are dry at other times of the year fill with runoff, in some cases with water as deep as 10 feet (3.0 m).[37] Leaching of soils during periods of heavy rainfall depletes nutrients.[37] The higher runoff from land masses affects nearby ocean areas, which are more stratified, or less mixed, due to stronger surface currents forced by the heavy rainfall runoff.[38]

Floods

High rainfall can cause widespread flooding,[39] which can lead to landslides and mudflows in mountainous areas.[40] Such floods cause rivers to burst their banks and submerge homes.[41] The Ghaggar-Hakra River, which only flows during India's monsoon season, can flood and severely damage local crops.[42] Floods can be exacerbated by fires that occurred during the previous dry season, which cause soils which are sandy or composed of loam to become hydrophobic, or water repellent.[43] In various ways governments may help people deal with wet season floods. Flood plain mapping identifies which areas are more prone to flooding.[44] Instructions on controlling erosion through outreach are also provided by telephone or the internet.[45]

Life adaptations

East - Guinean Savanna 001
Equatorial savanna in the East Province of Cameroon.

Humans

The wet season is the main period of vegetation growth within the Savanna climate regime.[46] However, this also means that wet season is a time for food shortages before crops reach their full maturity.[47] This causes seasonal weight changes for people in developing countries, with a drop occurring during the wet season until the time of the first harvest, when weights rebound.[48] Malaria incidence increases during periods of high temperature and heavy rainfall.[49]

Animals

Cows calve, or give birth, at the beginning of the wet season.[50] The onset of the rainy season signals the departure of the monarch butterfly from Mexico.[51] Tropical species of butterflies show larger dot markings on their wings to fend off possible predators and are more active during the wet season than the dry season.[52] Within the tropics and warmer areas of the subtropics, decreased salinity of near shore wetlands due to the rains causes an increase in crocodile nesting.[53] Other species, such as the arroyo toad, spawn within the couple of months after the seasonal rains.[54] Armadillos and rattlesnakes seek higher ground.[55]

See also

References

  1. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2013). Rainy season. Archived 2009-02-15 at the Wayback Machine American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  2. ^ Costa Rica Guide (2005). When to Travel to Costa Rica. ToucanGuides. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  3. ^ Michael Pidwirny (2008). CHAPTER 9: Introduction to the Biosphere. PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  4. ^ "Updated world Köppen-Geiger climate classification map" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b Elisabeth M. Benders-Hyde (2003). World Climates. Blue Planet Biomes. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  6. ^ a b c J. S. 0guntoyinbo and F. 0. Akintola (1983). Rainstorm characteristics affecting water availability for agriculture. Archived 2009-02-05 at the Wayback Machine IAHS Publication Number 140. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  7. ^ "Malaria Fact Sheet". The World Health Organization. April 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
  8. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). Monsoon. Archived 2008-03-22 at the Wayback Machine American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2009-01-16.
  9. ^ Robert A. Houze Jr (1997). Stratiform Precipitation in Regions of Convection: A Meteorological Paradox? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, pp. 2179. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  10. ^ a b J. Horel (2006). Normal Monthly Precipitation, Inches. Archived 2006-11-13 at the Wayback Machine University of Utah. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  11. ^ Norman W. Junker (2008). West Coast Cold Season Heavy Rainfall Events. Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  12. ^ BBC Weather (2009). Country Guide: Italy. British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  13. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2008): Predicting the regional onset of the rainy season in West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 28 (3), 329–342.
  14. ^ Patrick Laux et al. (2009): Modelling daily precipitation features in the Volta Basin of West Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 29 (7), 937–954.,
  15. ^ David Vandervort (2009). Darfur: getting ready for the rainy season. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  16. ^ Mehari Tesfazgi Mebrhatu, M. Tsubo, and Sue Walker (2004). A Statistical Model for Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting over the Highlands of Eritrea. New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  17. ^ Alex Wynter (2009). Ethiopia: March rainy season "critical" for southern pastoralists. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  18. ^ The Voice (2009). Botswana: Rainy Season Fills Up Dams. allAfrica.com. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  19. ^ Randy Lascody (2008). The Florida Rain Machine. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  20. ^ OCHA Partnership for Humanity (2008). OCHA Field Situation Report: Indonesia – Rainy Season 1 December 2008. Archived 18 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  21. ^ Burarra Gathering (2006). Burarra Gathering. Archived 2012-03-21 at WebCite Burarra Gathering. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  22. ^ Tahiti Sun Travel Network (2007). About Bora Bora Island. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  23. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2006). 2.4 Analysis & Forecasting "Thumb Rules" for the Rainy Season. United States Navy. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  24. ^ Remote Sensing for Migratory Creatures (2002). Phenology and Creature Migration: Dry season and wet season in West Mexico. Arizona Remote Sensing Center. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  25. ^ a b Horace Burton (2006). The climate of Guyana. Archived 2009-01-24 at the Wayback Machine Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology. The Outfield, August 2006, pp. 3. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  26. ^ a b James Brian Elsner (1988). Analysis of Wet Season Rainfall Over the Nordeste of Brazil, South America. University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  27. ^ C. H. Mari, G. Cailley, L. Corre, M. Saunois, J. L. Attie, V. Thouret, and A. Stohl (2007). Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp. 17342. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  28. ^ Greek Embassy London (2008). Welcome to Greece. Government of Greece. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  29. ^ D. Bozkurt, O.L. Sen and M. Karaca (2008). Wet season evaluation of RegCM3 performance for Eastern Mediterranean. EGU General Assembly. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  30. ^ Ron Kahana; Baruch Ziv; Yehouda Enzel & Uri Dayan (2002). "Synoptic Climatology of Major Floods in the Negev Desert, Israel" (PDF). International Journal of Climatology. 22: 869. Bibcode:2002IJCli..22..867K. doi:10.1002/joc.766. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19.
  31. ^ Michael J. Plagens (2009). What and Where is the Sonoran Desert? Arizonensis. Retrieved on 2009-02-07.
  32. ^ "The Six Seasons". Australian Government, Department of the Environment. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  33. ^ Official Web Site of District Sirsa, India (2001). District Sirsa. Archived 2010-12-28 at the Wayback Machine National Informatice Center. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  34. ^ Mei Zheng (2000). The sources and characteristics of atmospheric particulates during the wet and dry seasons in Hong Kong. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  35. ^ S. I. Efe, F. E. Ogban, M. J. Horsfall, E. E. Akporhonor (2005). Seasonal Variations of Physico-chemical Characteristics in Water Resources Quality in Western Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Scientific Environmental Management. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  36. ^ C. D. Haynes, M. G. Ridpath, M. A. J. Williams (1991). Monsoonal Australia. Taylor & Francis, pp. 90. ISBN 978-90-6191-638-3. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  37. ^ a b United States War Department (1909). Road Notes, Cuba. 1909. United States Department of War. Retrieved on 2009-01-16.
  38. ^ K.W. Choi and J.H.W. Lee (2000). Wet Season Tidal Circulation and flushing in Three Fathoms Cove. Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine 4th International Conference on Hydro-Science and Engineering. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  39. ^ Overseas Security Advisory Council (2009). Warden Message: Guyana Rainy Season Flood Hazards. Overseas Security Advisory Council. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  40. ^ National Flood Insurance Program (2009). California's Rainy Season. Archived 2012-12-04 at the Wayback Machine Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  41. ^ AFP (2009). Bali Hit By Wet Season Floods. ABC News. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  42. ^ "Sirsa District Disaster Management Plan, 2015-2016" (PDF). District Sirsa. Government of Haryana Department of Revenue and Disaster Management, Haryana Institute of Public Administration. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-28. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  43. ^ Jack Ainsworth & Troy Alan Doss. Natural History of Fire & Flood Cycles. California Coastal Commission. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  44. ^ FESA (2007). Flood. Archived 2009-05-31 at the Wayback Machine Government of Western Australia. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  45. ^ King County Department of Development and Environmental Services (2009). Erosion and Sediment Control for Construction Sites. King County, Washington Government. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  46. ^ Charles Darwin University (2009). Characteristics of tropical savannas. Archived 2009-02-17 at the Wayback Machine Charles Darwin University. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  47. ^ A. Roberto Frisancho (1993). Human Adaptation and Accommodation. University of Michigan Press, pp. 388. ISBN 978-0-472-09511-7. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  48. ^ Marti J. Van Liere, Eric-Alain D. Ategbo, Jan Hoorweg, Adel P. Den Hartog, and Joseph G. A. J. Hautvast. The significance of socio-economic characteristics for adult seasonal body-weight fluctuations: a study in north-western Benin. British Journal of Nutrition: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  49. ^ African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (2008). Ten Day Climate Bulletin: Dekad of 01 to 10 April, 2008. Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine ACMAD. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  50. ^ John P. McNamara, J. France, D. E. Beever (2000). Modelling Nutrient Utilization in Farm Animals. CABI, pp. 275. ISBN 978-0-85199-449-9. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  51. ^ Dr. Lincoln Brower (2005). Precipitation at the Monarch Overwintering Sites in Mexico. Journey North. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  52. ^ Paul M. Brakefield and Torben B. Larsen (1983). The evolutionary significance of dry and wet season forms in some tropical butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, pp. 1–12. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  53. ^ Phil Hall (1989). Crocodiles, Their Ecology, Management, and Conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Crocodile Specialist Group, pp. 167. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  54. ^ San Diego Natural History Museum (2009). Bufo californicus: Arroyo Toad. San Diego Natural History Museum. Retrieved on 2009-01-16.
  55. ^ Linda Deuver (1978). Dry season, wet season. Archived 2009-01-20 at the Wayback Machine Audubon Magazine, November 1978, pp. 120–130. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.

Template:Watershed

Belenois aurota

Belenois aurota, the pioneer or pioneer white or caper white, is a small to medium-sized butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites, which is found in South Asia and Africa. In Africa, it is also known as the brown-veined white, and is well known during summer and autumn when large numbers migrate north-east over the interior.

Dry season

The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which moves from the northern to the southern tropics and back over the course of the year. The tropical rain belt lies in the southern hemisphere roughly from October to March; during that time the northern tropics have a dry season with sparser precipitation, and days are typically sunny throughout. From April to September, the rain belt lies in the northern hemisphere, and the southern tropics have their dry season. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a dry season month is defined as a month when average precipitation is below 60 millimetres (2.4 in).During the dry season, humidity is very low, causing some watering holes and rivers to dry up. This lack of water (and hence of food) may force many grazing animals to migrate to more fertile spots. Examples of such animals are zebras, elephants, and wildebeest. Because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common.Data shows that in Africa the start of the dry season coincides with a rise in the cases of measles—which researchers believe might be attributed to the higher concentration of people in the dry season, as agricultural operations are all but impossible without irrigation. During this time, some farmers move into cities, creating hubs of higher population density, and allowing the disease to spread more easily.The rain belt reaches roughly as far north as the Tropic of Cancer and as far south as the Tropic of Capricorn. Near these latitudes, there is one wet season and one dry season annually. At the equator there are two wet and two dry seasons, as the rain belt passes over twice a year, once moving north and once moving south. Between the tropics and the equator, locations may experience a short wet and a long wet season; and a short dry and a long dry season. Local geography may substantially modify these climate patterns, however.

New data shows that in the seasonal parts of the South American Amazon forest, foliage growth and coverage varies between the dry and wet seasons—with about 25% more leaves and faster growth in the dry season. Researchers believe that the Amazon itself has an effect in bringing the onset of the wet season: by growing more foliage, it evaporates more water. However, this growth appears only in the undisturbed parts of the Amazon basin, where researchers believe roots can reach deeper and gather more rainwater. It has also been shown that ozone levels are much higher in the dry than in the wet season in the Amazon basin.

Everglades

The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin and part of the neotropic ecozone. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles (97 km) wide and over 100 miles (160 km) long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state. The Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. The Seminole Tribe gave the large body of water the name Okeechobee meaning "River of Grass" to describe the sawgrass marshes, part of a complex system of interdependent ecosystems that include cypress swamps, the estuarine mangrove forests of the Ten Thousand Islands, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rockland, and the marine environment of Florida Bay.

Human habitation in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago. Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Calusa and Tequesta tribes. With Spanish colonization, both tribes declined gradually during the following two centuries. The Seminole, formed from mostly Creek people who had been warring to the North, assimilated other peoples and created a new culture after being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century. After adapting to the region, they were able to resist removal by the United States Army.

Migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882. Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, and spurred the South Florida economy, prompting land development. In 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles (2,300 km) of canals, levees, and water control devices. The Miami metropolitan area grew substantially at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities. Portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland, where the primary crop was sugarcane. Approximately 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas.Following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance. The construction of a large airport 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would severely damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River. However, development and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region. The deterioration of the Everglades, including poor water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Florida's urban areas. In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems. To date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications.

Fitzroy Crossing Airport

Fitzroy Crossing Airport (IATA: FIZ, ICAO: YFTZ) is located 2 nautical miles (3.7 km; 2.3 mi) northwest of Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia. The Airport has basic amenities including an undercover waiting area, water fountain and toilet facility for passengers. The airport has a number of private hangars and helipads for light aircraft and small regional airlines. There is a regular passenger service operated by Skippers Aviation between Halls Creek and Broome that picks passengers up in Fitzroy Crossing.

Fitzroy Crossing Airport is often the only form of transportation between the township of Fitzroy Crossing and the outside world through the wet season.

Geography of Guam

This article describes the geography of the United States territory of Guam.

Location

Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about a quarter of the way from the Philippines to Hawaii, United States

Geographic coordinates

13°26′31″N 144°46′35″E

Map references

Oceania

Area

Total: 544 km²

Land: 544 km²

Water: 0 km²Area (comparative)

Three times the size of Washington, D.C.

Land boundaries

Approximately 30 miles (48 km) long and 9 miles (14 km) wide, narrowing to 4 miles (6.4 km) at the center.Coastline

125.5 km (78.0 mi)

Maritime claims

Territorial sea: 12 nmi (22 km)

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles (370 kilometres)

The southern maritime boundary of Guam forms a border with the Federated States of Micronesia, and the northern maritime boundary forms a border with the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands.Climate

Tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, wet season from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation.

Terrain

Volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most freshwater), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center, mountains in south. Soils are mostly silty clay or clay and may be gray, black, brown or reddish brown; acidity and depth vary.Elevation extremes

Lowest point: Pacific Ocean, 0 metres (0 feet)

Highest points:

Mount Lamlam, 406 meters (1,332 ft)

Mount Jumullong Manglo, 391 meters (1,283 ft)

Mount Bolanos, 368 meters (1,207 ft)Natural resources

Commercial fishing (mostly servicing and unloading of longline fleets and commercial vessels), recreational fishing of Indo-Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira mazara), Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri), Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and deepwater reef fish, tourism (especially from Japan but increasingly from China and South Korea).

Land use

Arable land: 1.85%

Permanent crops: 16.67%

Other: 81.48% (2012 est.)Irrigated land

2 km2

Natural hazards

Frequent squalls during wet season; relatively rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (typhoons are possible in any season but most common from August through December)

Environment - current issues

Extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), an exotic species. Island also supports feral populations of introduced deer, Pigs (Sus scrofa) and Carabao (Bubalus bubalis carabanesis).

Geography - note

Largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean.

Geography of Mozambique

The geography of Mozambique consists mostly coastal lowlands with uplands in it's center and high plateaus in the northwest. There are also mountains in the western portion. The country is located on the east coast of southern Africa, directly west of the island of Madagascar. Mozambique has a tropical climate with two seasons, a wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September.

Limnophila aromatica

Limnophila aromatica, the rice paddy herb, is a tropical flowering plant in the family Plantaginaceae. It is native to Southeast Asia, where it flourishes in hot temperatures and grows most often in watery environments, particularly in flooded rice fields. It is called ngò ôm or ngò om or ngổ in Vietnam and used as an herb and also cultivated for use as an aquarium plant. The plant was introduced to North America in the 1970s due to Vietnamese immigration following the Vietnam War. It is called "ma om" (ម្អម) in Khmer. It is used in traditional Cambodian soup dishes and Southern Vietnamese cuisine. It can grow in flooded rice paddies during wet season but it grows best on drained but still wet sandy soil of harvested rice paddies for a few months after the rainy season ended. It dies out soon after it flowers. Rural Cambodians often harvest them and put them on the roof of their houses to dry for later use.

May River (Australia)

The May River is a river in the Kimberley of Western Australia.

The river is formed when the Lennard River splits into two channels north of Mount Marmion and near the Kimberley Downs Station homestead, the other channel being the Meda River. Continuing to flow west north-westward through Poulton Pool until the river eventually discharges into Stokes Bay, King Sound which is north-east of Derby.

The river was named in 1881 by a pioneer of the area, George Julius Brockman during an expedition in the Kimberley area looking for grazing land north of the Fitzroy River. He named the river after the granddaughter of John Septimus Roe, Mary Matilda (May) Thomson.

The only tributaries of the May and the Lennard and Camiara Creek.

The Northern river shark is known to inhabit the tidal region of the river and has been found further upstream. Barramundi and Cherrabun are also caught in the river pools after the wet season.

Mazowe River

The Mazowe River (previously called Mazoe River; also known as the Luenha River) is a river in Zimbabwe and Mozambique.

The river rises north of Harare, flows north and then northeast, where it forms part of the border with Mozambique, before entering the Zambezi River. In 1920, the Mazowe Dam was constructed on the river forty kilometres north of Harare to irrigate citrus farms.The river and its tributaries is a popular site for gold panners, although in the wet season, the Mazowe becomes a raging torrent, often breaking its banks and causing damage to local communities and farms.

Also the name of a district in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe

Meru (beetle)

Meruidae is a recently described family of aquatic beetles in the suborder Adephaga, with only one genus and species, Meru phyllisae. This beetle species was first found in the early 1980s. At 0.8 mm, it is one of the smallest adephagan beetles in the world. A recent survey of aquatic beetles of Venezuela prove that Meru is most common during the wet season, when larger areas of granitic rock surface are covered with water film, which the adult beetles as well as the larvae inhabit.

Nullagine River

The Nullagine River is a river in the Pilbara of Western Australia.

The headwaters of the river rise South of Bonney Downs and then flow in a northerly direction. The river crosses the Marble Bar road at Nullagine and continues to flow in a north-easterly direction until it merges with the Oakover River to form the De Grey River. The river is bounded by the Chichester Range in the South.The river flows through several permanent pools on its journey including; Garden Pool, Rock Pool, Tumbinna Pool and Cordooin Pool.

The river periodically floods during the wet season and can cut roads in the area as a result.The Nullagine river has 19 tributaries including; Beaton Creek, Bookabunna Creek, Walgunya Creek, Wild Dog Creek and Connabunna Creek.

The name of the river is an Indigenous Australian word that was first recorded as Ngullagine in the 1880s. The meaning of the word is not known.

One Wet Season

One Wet Season is a 1949 book by Ion Idriess about life in the Kimberley region of Western Australia during the wet season of 1934. The book records true stories of the lives of the pioneers and Aboriginals of the Kimberley, centring predominantly on those living in the King Leopold Ranges and spending the wet season in the town of Derby, Western Australia.

Puyupatamarca

Puyupatamarca or Phuyupatamarca is an archaeological site along the Inca Trail in the Urubamba Valley of Peru. Due to its altitude of roughly 3600 meters, it is known as "La Ciudad entre la Niebla" ("The City Above the Clouds"). It contains Inca ruins, with five small stone baths which during the wet season contain constant fresh running water.

Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane, Queensland or Jacksonville, Florida), and dry summer climate or (Mediterranean), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples, Italy or Los Angeles, California).

Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth.

A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, which is when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter. Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, citrus, mango, pistachio, lychee, and avocado are grown within the subtropics.

Summer

Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At the summer solstice, the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition, and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18 °C (64 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Tropical marine climate

A tropical marine climate is a tropical climate that is primarily influenced by the ocean. It is usually experienced by islands and coastal areas 10° to 20° north and south of the equator. There are two main seasons in a tropical marine climate: the wet season and the dry season. The annual rainfall is 1000 to over 1500 mm (39 to 59 inches). The temperature ranges from 20 °C to 35 °C (68 ° to 95 °F). The trade winds blow all year round and are moist, as they pass over warm seas. These climatic conditions are found, for example, across the Caribbean; the eastern coasts of Brazil, Madagascar and Queensland; and many islands in tropical waters.

Tropical savanna climate

Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".

Tropical savanna climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and typically a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having less than 60 mm (2.36 inches) of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical monsoon climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but has more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. In essence, a tropical savanna climate tends to either see less rainfall than a tropical monsoon climate or have more pronounced dry season(s).

In tropical savanna climates, the dry season can become severe, and often drought conditions prevail during the course of the year. Tropical savanna climates often feature tree-studded grasslands, rather than thick jungle. It is this widespread occurrence of tall, coarse grass (called savanna) which has led to Aw and As climates often being referred to as tropical savanna. However, there is some doubt whether tropical grasslands are climatically induced. Additionally, pure savannas, without trees, are the exception rather than the rule.

Tropics

The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn in

the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ (or 23.43678°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone). The tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year (which is a subsolar point) - thus the latitude of the tropics is roughly equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt.

The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone.

The tropics comprise 40% of the Earth's surface area and contain 36% of the Earth's landmass. As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, and this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s.

Temperate seasons
Tropical seasons
Specific

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