Western Pennsylvania

Western Pennsylvania refers to the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. Pittsburgh is the region's principal city, with a metropolitan area population of about 2.4 million people, and serves as its economic and cultural center. Erie, Altoona, and Johnstown are its other metropolitan centers. As of the 2010 census, Western Pennsylvania's total population is nearly 4 million.[1]

Although the Commonwealth does not designate Western Pennsylvania as an official region, since colonial times it has retained a distinct identity not only because of its geographical distance from Philadelphia, the beginning of Pennsylvania settlement, but especially because of its topographical separation from the east by virtue of the Appalachian Mountains, which characterize much of the western region. In the 18th century, this separateness caused some to rally for the formation of a 14th state in this region named Westsylvania.[2] The strong cultural identity of Western Pennsylvania is reinforced by the state supreme court holding sessions in Pittsburgh, in addition to Harrisburg and Philadelphia.

Western Pennsylvania
My ountain View.jpeg
West 21st Street Historic District Erie PA Apr 13
Jtowndowntown
Altoona Downtown from Brush Mountain
Clockwise from top left: Pittsburgh, Erie, Altoona, and Johnstown
American Indian villages were located throughout Western Pennsylvania. Kittanning still uses its American Indian name, while the town of Sawcunk lies on the site of present-day Rochester, Pennsylvania.
American Indian villages were located throughout Western Pennsylvania. Kittanning still uses its American Indian name, while the town of Sawcunk lies on the site of present-day Rochester, Pennsylvania.
Coordinates: 41°03′N 79°03′W / 41.05°N 79.05°WCoordinates: 41°03′N 79°03′W / 41.05°N 79.05°W
CountryUnited States
CommonwealthPennsylvania
Largest cityPittsburgh
Other cities
Population
 (2010 Census)
 • Total3,811,026
Time zoneUTC-5 (ET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)

Counties

Since at least the early twentieth century, scholarly books such as Guidebook to Historic Western Pennsylvania, published by the University of Pittsburgh Press (1938), formally define the region as the twenty-six counties west of the Appalachian divide, a meridian from the north at McKean County down and along its eastern border and ending in the south at Bedford County.

In alphabetical order those counties are:

Description

Long recognized as a powerhouse of American industry, Western Pennsylvania is a large geophysical and socio-economic entity. It encompasses that portion of the state to the west of the Appalachian divide and included within the Mississippi drainage system of rivers.

The largest rivers in this area are the Allegheny River, which flows southward from the New York border, and the Monongahela River, which flows northward from West Virginia. These two rivers meet in Downtown Pittsburgh and join to form the Ohio River, which from that point flows an additional 981 miles (1,579 km) southwest to the Mississippi River. The juncture of the Allegheny and Monongahela was historically regarded as strategic and the gateway to the interior of the continent from the east. At various times this juncture has been called the Forks of the Ohio, Fort Duquesne, Fort Pitt, the Golden Triangle, and today, at its apex, Point State Park. Incredibly, after several decades of border war and 150 years of high-rent city-center urbanization, the original 1764 blockhouse from Fort Pitt still stands here and is one of the oldest buildings in the region.

Other notable rivers are the Youghiogheny River, flowing north from West Virginia and western Maryland to join the Monongahela just upriver of Pittsburgh, and which was the early route of penetration into Western Pennsylvania, the Kiskiminetas River, French Creek, a major passageway between Lake Erie and the Allegheny River for the Indians and early French explorers and traders, and the small Oil Creek in Crawford and Venango counties, where slicks gave an indication of petroleum reserves and in whose watershed the first oil well in the United States was drilled.

The highest point in Pennsylvania, Mount Davis, reaches 3,213 feet (979 m), and is located near the southern border of the state in Somerset County, approximately 100 miles (160 km) east of the southwestern corner, where the Appalachian Mountains enter Pennsylvania from the south.[3] To the west and north of this point lies the Allegheny Plateau, a dissected plateau so eroded that it appears to be an interminable series of high hills and steep valleys. The peaks in the area are among the lowest in the East Coast highlands, but what they lack in height they make up in wide extent of land covered, which forms a vast formidable barrier for mile upon mile to overland travel from the coast.

Education

Western Pennsylvania is home to more than two dozen institutions of higher learning, including those listed below. (Seminaries are not listed)

Distinctiveness

Western Pennsylvania is distinctive from the rest of the state due to several important and complex factors:

  • The initial difficulty of transportation access from the east involved many miles of seemingly endless parallel ridges of the Appalachian Mountains, and then the broken hills and valleys of the Allegheny Plateau, all of which were covered in thick forests. The initial method of access from areas east of the Appalachians, was to travel southbound outside of Pennsylvania, then follow the Potomac River northwest through Maryland and Virginia, and then re-enter the state in its southwest corner. Various methods of more direct transport were later tried, including a canal system westbound over the mountains and then, later, the Pennsylvania Railroad which extended the railroad systems of the East Coast west to Pittsburgh and the Ohio Valley. Perhaps the best known transportation innovation to simplify access to this area is the famous Pennsylvania Turnpike, the first modern limited access highway in North America.
  • The initial problem was economic marketing of a limited number of goods that could stand such high freight costs. The insensitivity of the new U.S. Federal Government to the marketing problems in the west led to the Whiskey Rebellion in Western Pennsylvania, an event which seriously challenged the political viability of the new American nation. Later marketing arrangements turned to access via the Ohio River, with Pittsburgh a barge and steamboat center of the mid-continent. Today, Pittsburgh is still strongly oriented to the rivers; the port of Pittsburgh ranks No. 13 by tonnage in the USA and even surpasses the Port of Philadelphia in tonnage, due to the heavy shipping of bulk coal by barge inland on the rivers.[4] Locally, a system of agriculture arose suitable to Western Pennsylvania's rugged terrain, emphasizing animal husbandry and dairying but with few exportable vegetable crops. The search for some sort of exportable agricultural specialty perhaps also encouraged the rise of the sauce industry and its first location at Sharpsburg in what was later to become the large H.J. Heinz Company.
  • The search for exploitable resources first resulted with the development of huge bituminous coal or "soft" coal deposits in the area for use in a growing iron foundry sector. However, it was not until the realization by Andrew Carnegie, that Western Pennsylvania possessed an optimum location for a very large scale American steel sector, that this area, especially Pittsburgh, became known for the industrial specialty that characterizes it today. The region also had large glass, pottery, brickmaking, and ceramic industries, which took advantage of the coal and the sand and clay in local soils. The local glass industry produced 45 percent of the nation's output in glass by the 1860s and more than 80 percent of the output by the 1920s.[5] The rise and subsequent decline of the American steel industry at Pittsburgh introduces a host of complex economic concepts necessary to understand why that particular activity centered in this particular place, including the notions of classical Weberian location analysis for more than one input, the Pittsburgh Plus system for maintaining advantageous freight costs to ship to the market, vertical integration and supply innovations such as the development of the Mesabi Range, the ore freighter as a transport vehicle, and the construction of the Soo Locks. Other necessary economic concepts for description could well include economies of scale, diseconomies of scale, monopoly (or cartel) price equilibrium, and "dumping". Labor relations problems historically were frequent in the earlier steel sector, and mention should be made of the United Steel Workers of America, as well as the contemporary issue of "legacy costs" arising from heavy entitlements to a large retired labor force after sharply downsizing to today's level of employment.
  • Other exploitable resources in Western Pennsylvania were also distinct. One was the drilling of the first oil well in the world at Titusville and the rise of the US petroleum industry. Another was widespread deforestation of the outlying areas and their subsequent reforestation under Gifford Pinchot, who instituted the first large scale government sponsored timber management effort in the USA. During this time of intensive exploitation of forests a whole new sector, the wood chemistry industry, appeared and then later vanished. Finally, mention should also be made of management in the forested areas of a large animal population which supports the famous "Pennsylvania deer-hunting" cultural ethos. The first day of deer-hunting season is a de facto unofficial holiday in much of the central and northern regions of the state, when absence from work or school is generally tolerated with no explanation necessary.
  • Since the early 1950s, a renaissance occurred in the development of cultural institutions and abatement of pollution in Pittsburgh and its surrounding area. The effects of this increase in livability are particularly apparent in the Golden Triangle district of Downtown Pittsburgh, which at one point had been plagued with so much industrial haze that drivers used their headlights in mid-day. However, this social improvement has not always been accompanied by a serious plan of regional economic development to assess what, precisely, should fill the income void after the departure of steel. In addition, the city of Pittsburgh continues to become de-populated and has recently been put under state supervision of its finances.
  • Culturally, the distinctiveness of Western Pennsylvania is underlined by the existence of a unique local dialect called "Pittsburghese" or Pittsburgh English, sometimes affectionately termed the "yinzer" dialect, due to its use of the term "yins" (also spelled "yunz, "yinz", "youns", etc.) as the plural form of "you". This is probably a legacy of Ulster-Scots settlement in the area. Western Pennsylvanians also refer to soft drinks as "pop" while in the eastern half of the state it is referred to as "soda."[6]
  • The Erie Triangle and the city of Erie give Pennsylvania a port along the Great Lakes. This region in unique within western Pennsylvania in that it maintains stronger geographic and cultural connections with western New York than it does with western Pennsylvania, due in large part to its identification with the eastern Great Lakes region, rather than Appalachia. This is reflected in the city and county of Erie sharing far more similarities with Buffalo and southwestern New York than it does with Pittsburgh and western Pennsylvania. The Erie region is also known for its distinct agriculture, centered on grapes and other fruit, due to the moderating climatic influence, in both summer and fall, of Lake Erie. (In winter, the area is often inundated with "lake-effect" snow.) There are also small commercial fresh-water fisheries and many streams and smaller lakes with a variety of fish to catch, including yellow perch and walleye.
  • In Stonycreek Township is the memorial and crash site of United Airlines Flight 93, the "Let's Roll" flight which occurred on 9/11/2001 after passengers attempted to overpower the plane's hijackers. The site is an informal patriotic shrine with many hand-made mementos voluntarily gracing the area. There is a movement to add the site to the National Park System. It is a startling coincidence that the Stoneycreek site is comparatively close to the other centuries-earlier locations of military engagements in Western Pennsylvania, such as Fort Duquesne and the area of the Whiskey Rebellion. This can in part be explained by the fact that all these locations were on a strategic route from eastern settlements in Pennsylvania and Virginia (and, later, Washington, D.C.) to the West.

Sports

Pittsburgh boasts three major league sports teams: the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League, the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, and the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. Meanwhile, the Pittsburgh Panthers is a NCAA Division I college team. Erie and Johnstown both have junior ice hockey teams as well. The Erie Otters play in the Ontario Hockey League and the Johnstown Tomahawks play in the North American Hockey League.

See also

References

  1. ^ County Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016 - Census Bureau
  2. ^ Cranmer, History of the Upper Ohio, 1:59–63.
  3. ^ "Mount Davis". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  4. ^ US Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce by Tonnage, 2002
  5. ^ "Chapter 7: Glass: Shattering Notions" (PDF). Senator John Heinz History Center. Senator John Heinz History Center. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  6. ^ Generic Names for Soft Drinks, by county

Sources

  • Smith, Helene and George Swetnam (1991). Guidebook to Historic Western Pennsylvania, Revised and Enlarged Edition. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-3630-5.
2013 Pittsburgh Metro Area SMALL
Map of the Pittsburgh Tri-State with green counties in the metropolitan area and yellow counties in the combined area.
1898 Western Pennsylvania All-Star football team

The 1898 Western Pennsylvania All-Star football team was a collection of early football players, from several teams in the area, to form an all-star team. The team was formed by Dave Berry, the manager of the Latrobe Athletic Association, for the purpose of playing the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, which fielded a team composed of many of the game's stars from the era. The game between the two clubs ended in a 16-0 Duquesne victory and is considered to be the very first all-star game for professional football. Contrary to popular belief, while the game was held at Exposition Park, which would be currently located inside of the city limits of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the 1898 location of the game was Allegheny, Pennsylvania which was not incorporated into the city of Pittsburgh until 1907.

American football in Western Pennsylvania

American football in Western Pennsylvania, featuring the city of Pittsburgh and surrounding areas, has had a long and storied history, dating back to the early days of the sport. All levels of football, including high school football and college football, are followed passionately, and the area's National Football League (NFL) team, the Pittsburgh Steelers, is consistently one of the sport's most popular teams. Many of the NFL's top stars have come from the region as well, especially those that play quarterback, earning Western Pennsylvania the nickname "Cradle of Quarterbacks".

Heinz History Center

The Senator John Heinz History Center, an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution, is the largest history museum in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States. Named after U.S. Senator H. John Heinz III (1938–1991) from Pennsylvania, it is located in the Strip District of Pittsburgh.

The Heinz History Center is a 275,000-square-foot (25,500 m2) educational institution "that engages and inspires a diverse audience with links to the past, understanding in the present, and guidance for the future by preserving regional history and presenting the American experience with a Western Pennsylvania connection."

Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania

The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania (HSWP) is a cultural organization in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. After several attempts during the early and mid-century to establish a historical society, an organization called Old Residents of Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania was formed on January 10, 1859. Five years later the group changed its name to Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania.

Now the region's oldest cultural organization, HSWP does business as and operates both the Senator John Heinz History Center and the Meadowcroft Rockshelter.

The History Center includes the Library & Archives, which preserves hundreds of thousands of books, manuscripts, photographs, maps, atlases, newspapers, films and recordings documenting over 250 years of life in the region; and the Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum, a museum-within-a-museum documenting Pittsburgh's extensive sports legacy.

The History Center opened in 1996 in Pittsburgh's Strip District and receives funding from various private, foundation and governmental sources as well as public sources including the Allegheny Regional Asset District.

The Detre Library and Archives on the sixth floor are free and open to the public to use.

Western Pennsylvania importance to the North in the Civil War

Western Pennsylvania was one of the industrial strengths that helped the North win the Civil War. One of the most crucial moments that Pennsylvania saved the North from losing was the Rodman guns cast at the Fort Pitts Works. They supplied the north with 1.193 cannons. This was nearly 15% of the total manufactured. Other than guns, Pennsylvania also created many kinds of boats and used in Mississippi.Steam ram boats were one of the most famous kinds, they helped smash the confederate ships in Memphis. While having a variety of boats, their docks were very busy and the city became a popular area because of the railroad that were supplying the troops. A popular spot for soldiers to stop for a little was Pittsburg. Having many soldiers in the city, a myriad amount of money went into supplying them.

List of hospitals in Pittsburgh

This is a list of hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Allegheny Cancer Center

Children's Home of Pittsburgh - Homepage

Children's Institute of Pittsburgh - Homepage

HealthSouth Harmarville Rehabilitation Hospital - Homepage

Jefferson Regional Medical Center - Homepage

LifeCare Hospitals of Pittsburgh - Homepage

Pittsburgh's Ohio Valley Hospital - http://www.ohiovalleyhospital.org

Pittsburgh Specialty Hospital

Saint Clair Memorial Hospital - Homepage

Southwood Psychiatric Hospital

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) - Homepage

UPMC Cancer Centers - Homepage

UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh - Homepage

UPMC Eye & Ear Institute - Homepage

UPMC Magee-Womens Hospital - Homepage

UPMC Mercy - Homepage

UPMC Mercy South Side Outpatient Center - Homepage

UPMC Montefiore - Homepage

UPMC Passavant - Homepage

UPMC Passavant Cranberry - Homepage

UPMC Presbyterian - Homepage

UPMC Shadyside - Homepage

UPMC St. Margaret - Home Page

UPMC Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic - - Homepage

Veterans Administration Pittsburgh Health System - Homepage

West Penn Allegheny Health System - Homepage

Allegheny General Hospital - Homepage

Allegheny General Hospital Suburban Campus - Homepage

Western Pennsylvania Hospital - Homepage

Western Pennsylvania Hospital Forbes Regional Campus - Homepage

Mahoning Valley (geographic)

The Mahoning Valley is a geographic valley encompassing the area of northeast Ohio and a small portion of western Pennsylvania that drains into the Mahoning River. According to information at the bottom of Page 321 in a publication by the Ohio Secretary of State's Office, the river name comes from an Indian word meaning “at the licks.”

Mosquito Creek (Pennsylvania)

Mosquito Creek is a 21.8-mile-long (35.1 km) tributary of the West Branch Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania in the United States.Mosquito Creek joins the West Branch Susquehanna River at the township of Karthaus.

Pittsburgh Athletic Club

The Pittsburgh Athletic Club or Pittsburgh PAC was one of the earliest professional ice hockey teams. It was based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from around 1895 until 1904 and again from 1907 to 1909. The team was a member of the Pittsburgh Hockey League, which was formed in 1896 and became known as the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League by 1900.

Pittsburgh Duquesne

The Duquesne Country and Athletic Club hockey team or Pittsburgh Duquesne were an amateur, and later professional, ice hockey club based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and were members of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League (WPHL).

Pittsburgh Keystones (ice hockey)

The Pittsburgh Keystones were a semi-professional ice hockey club, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and was a member of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League, the first league to openly hire hockey players from 1900-1904. The team played all of its games at the Duquesne Gardens, and was involved in allowing Harry Peel become the first admitted professional hockey player in 1902.

Pittsburgh Lyceum

The Pittsburgh Lyceum Club, or Pittsburgh Lyceum, were a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The team was a member of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League from 1907 to 1908, and played all of their games at the Duquesne Gardens.

Pittsburgh Pirates (WPHL)

The Pittsburgh Pirates were an early professional ice hockey club based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and were members of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League for the 1908 WPHL season. The team, and the league, played all of their games at the Duquesne Gardens. The Pirates are best known for being involved in the first known trade of professional hockey players.

Pittsburgh Victorias

The Pittsburgh Victorias were one of the earliest professional ice hockey teams. The club was based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and were members of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League, the first league to openly hire hockey players, from 1902–1904. The team folded in 1904, when the WPHL disbanded its teams to form the Pittsburgh Professionals and compete in the International Professional Hockey League.

Stuttering Center of Western Pennsylvania

The Stuttering Center of Western Pennsylvania is a partnership between the Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (Communication Disorders) at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and the Department of Communication Science and Disorders in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh.

The co-directors of the Stuttering Center are J. Scott Yaruss and Craig Coleman.

Western Pennsylvania English

Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native primarily to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but potentially appearing as far north as Erie County and Limestone, New York (north of Bradford), as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as Youngstown, Ohio, and as far south as Clarksburg, West Virginia. Commonly associated with the white working class of Pittsburgh, users of the dialect are colloquially known as "Yinzers".

Western Pennsylvania Hockey League

The Western Pennsylvania Hockey League (WPHL), was a semi-professional ice hockey league founded in 1896 and existing through the 1910s. Based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the league was the pre-eminent ice hockey league at the time in the United States. It was the first league to openly hire and trade players.

Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League

The Western Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic League (WPIAL) is an interscholastic athletic association in Western Pennsylvania. It is District 7 of the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association.

Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit

The Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit was a loose association of American football clubs that operated from 1890 to approximately 1940. Originally amateur, professionalism was introduced to the circuit in 1892; cost pressures pushed the circuit to semi-professional status from about 1920 through the rest of its existence. Existing in some form for 48 years, it was one of the longest-lived paying football loops to operate outside the auspices of the National Football League.

The football clubs of the 1880s and 1890s were amateur teams. They were under the membership of an athletic club, which provided both sports and the ability to wager money on the sports. However, the prestige and increased membership that could come from a successful team, led these clubs to begin secretly hiring talented players. The amateur athletics that these clubs engaged in were policed by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). By the mid-1890s allegations of professionalism became known to the AAU. The Allegheny Athletic Association was found guilty of paying cash to players and was permanently barred from any kind of competition with other AAU members. This punishment would end a team, because their opponents, whether other pros, amateur associations, or colleges, would have simply stopped playing them. Allegheny then defied the AAU in 1896 and created an entirely open professional team. A year later, the Latrobe Athletic Association, went entirely professional. The misconception that these were amateur athletic club were held to in public, even when newspapers wrote openly of players being under contract. To get around this, the circuit teams played for local or regional championships, with the only generally recognized national champion being the best college football team. However, the winner of the circuit was usually able to lay claim to a national, but professional, football title from 1890-1903.By 1904, the exodus of pro football talent to the "Ohio League", diminished the region's level of play and the national professional champions, were usually then claimed by the teams from Ohio. Though a champion was declared by the media, fans and clubs throughout this period, a formal league was not founded until 1920, when several teams from the "Ohio League" and the New York Pro Football League formed the American Professional Football Association. In 1922 the APFA became the National Football League.The circuit did not immediately die out and in fact experienced a slight renaissance in the 1920s as the Western Pennsylvania Senior Independent Football Conference. 1920s era blue laws in the state of Pennsylvania meant that while the NFL played its games on Sunday, Pennsylvania teams would have to play on Saturday; while this prevented the state's teams from joining the NFL until 1924, Pennsylvania teams could thus schedule exhibition games against NFL teams on either one's day off (other circuits such as the eastern Pennsylvania circuit and the Eastern/Anthracite Leagues also thrived in the 1920s) The J.P. Rooneys were founded in 1921; it later joined the NFL in 1933 as the Pittsburgh Pirates (now the Pittsburgh Steelers). Records of the Pirates playing other Western Pennsylvania teams (including the McKeesport Olympics) continue up to at least 1940, after which point most teams dissolved due to World War II; the Pirates (by now renamed the Steelers) then shifted its exhibition schedule to other minor league teams.

Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government. It became law in 1791, and was intended to generate revenue for the war debt incurred during the Revolutionary War. The tax applied to all distilled spirits, but American whiskey was by far the country's most popular distilled beverage in the 18th century, so the excise became widely known as a "whiskey tax". Farmers of the western frontier were accustomed to distilling their surplus rye, barley, wheat, corn, or fermented grain mixtures to make whiskey. These farmers resisted the tax. In these regions, whiskey often served as a medium of exchange. Many of the resisters were war veterans who believed that they were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation, while the federal government maintained that the taxes were the legal expression of Congressional taxation powers.

Throughout Western Pennsylvania counties, protesters used violence and intimidation to prevent federal officials from collecting the tax. Resistance came to a climax in July 1794, when a U.S. marshal arrived in western Pennsylvania to serve writs to distillers who had not paid the excise. The alarm was raised, and more than 500 armed men attacked the fortified home of tax inspector General John Neville. Washington responded by sending peace commissioners to western Pennsylvania to negotiate with the rebels, while at the same time calling on governors to send a militia force to enforce the tax. Washington himself rode at the head of an army to suppress the insurgency, with 13,000 militiamen provided by the governors of Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The rebels all went home before the arrival of the army, and there was no confrontation. About 20 men were arrested, but all were later acquitted or pardoned. Most distillers in nearby Kentucky were found to be all but impossible to tax—in the next six years, over 175 distillers from Kentucky were convicted of violating the tax law. Numerous examples of resistance are recorded in court documents and newspaper accounts.The Whiskey Rebellion demonstrated that the new national government had the will and ability to suppress violent resistance to its laws, though the whiskey excise remained difficult to collect. The events contributed to the formation of political parties in the United States, a process already under way. The whiskey tax was repealed in the early 1800s during the Jefferson administration. Historian Carol Berkin argues that the episode in the long run strengthened American nationalism because the people appreciated how well Washington handled the rebels without resorting to tyranny.

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