Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.[1] The following countries and regions use WET in winter months:

All the above countries except Iceland[14] implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET.[15] WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is officially known as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but the WET zone does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain which use Central European Time (CET), although these are mostly (France) or completely (the rest) west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland are included although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to WET.[16][17][18]

Time zones of Europe
Time in Europe:
light blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
golden Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
light green Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.

Historical uses

A slight variation of this time zone, based until 1911 on the Paris Meridian, was used in:

Until the Second World War, France used WET. However, the German occupation switched France to German time, and it has remained in CET since then.[32] Two other occupied territories, Belgium and the Netherlands, did the same, and Spain also switched to CET in solidarity with Germany under the orders of General Franco.[33]

In the United Kingdom, from 1940 to 1945 British Summer Time (BST=CET) was used in winters, and from 1941 to 1945 and again in 1947, British Double Summer Time (BDST=CEST) was used in summers. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, BST was used all year round.[34][35]

In Ireland, from 1940 to 1946 Irish Summer Time (IST=CET) was used all year round, with no 'double' summer time akin to that in the United Kingdom. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, Irish Standard Time was used all year round.[36][37]

In Portugal, CET was used in the mainland from 1966 to 1976 and from 1992 to 1996. The autonomous region of the Azores used WET from 1992 to 1993.[38][39][40]

Anomalies

Tzdiff-Europe-winter
Difference between legal time and local mean time in Europe during the winter
Colour Legal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead

Regions located outside UTC longitudes using Western European Time

Located west of 22°30′ W ("physical UTC-2)

Located west of 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC-1)

Areas located within UTC+00:00 longitudes using other time zones

These areas are located between 7°30′ W and 22°30′ W ("physical" UTC)

Areas using UTC+01:00 See Central European Time

References

  1. ^ "WET – Western European Time (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  2. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  3. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  4. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Danmarkshavn, Greenland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  5. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Reykjavik, Iceland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  6. ^ "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  7. ^ "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  8. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  9. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  10. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  11. ^ "Lighter nights would keep youngsters fitter and safer, say doctors". Western Mail. Cardiff. 27 June 2005.
  12. ^ David Ennals "British Standard Times Bill [Lords",] Hansard, House of Commons Debate, 23 January 1968, vol 757 cc290-366, 290–92
  13. ^ "British Standard Time", Hansard (HC), 2 December 1970, vol 807 cc1331-422
  14. ^ "Countries that do not observe DST | GreenwichMeanTime.com". greenwichmeantime.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  15. ^ "What Countries Do Daylight Savings?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  16. ^ "Spain considers time zone change to boost productivity". BBC News. 27 September 2013.
  17. ^ Hamilos, Paul (26 September 2013). "Adiós, siesta? Spain considers ending Franco's change to working hours". The Guardian (London).
  18. ^ Dewey, Caitlin (26 September 2013). "Spaniards are less productive, constantly tired because Spain is in the wrong time zone". The Washington Post.
  19. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Andorra La Vella, Andorra". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  20. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Andorra La Vella, Andorra". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  21. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  22. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  23. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  24. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  25. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  26. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1850-1899 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  27. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1950-1959 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  28. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  29. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  30. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Monaco, Monaco". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  31. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Monaco, Monaco". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  32. ^ Poulle, Yvonne (1999). "La France à l'heure allemande" (PDF). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 157 (2): 493–502. doi:10.3406/bec.1999.450989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  33. ^ "Spain Has Been In The 'Wrong' Time Zone For 7 Decades". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  34. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in London, England, United Kingdom". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  35. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in London, England, United Kingdom". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  36. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  37. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  38. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 29/92/A (23-12-1992) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 295, p. 5932-(2), 23 December 1992. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  39. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 8/93/A (26-03-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 72, p. 1496-(272), 23 March 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  40. ^ Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 9/93/A (15-07-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 164, p. 3845–3846, 15 July 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014
Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.

Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.

Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.

Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

A number of African countries use UTC+02:00 all year long, where it is called Central Africa Time (CAT), although Egypt and Libya also use the term Eastern European Time.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Kaliningrad Time

Kaliningrad Time is the time zone two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and 1 hour behind Moscow Time (MSK−1). It is used in Kaliningrad Oblast.

Until 2011, Kaliningrad Time was identical to Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00; UTC+03:00 with daylight saving time). On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to permanent DST, so that clocks would remain on what had been the summer time all year round, making Kaliningrad time permanently set to UTC+03:00. On 26 October 2014, this law was reversed, but daylight saving time was not reintroduced, so Kaliningrad is now permanently set to UTC+02:00.Main cities:

Kaliningrad

Sovetsk

Chernyakhovsk

Time in Denmark

Denmark, including the dependencies Faroe Islands and Greenland, uses six different time zones.

Time in Europe

Europe spans seven primary time zones (from UTC−01:00 to UTC+05:00), excluding summer time offsets (four of them can be seen on the map to the right, with one further-western zone containing the Azores, and two further-eastern zones spanning Georgia, Azerbaijan, eastern territories of European Russia, and the European part of Kazakhstan). Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.

The time zones actually in use in Europe differ significantly from uniform zoning based purely on longitude, as used for example under the nautical time system. The world could in theory be divided into 24 time zones, each of 15 degrees of longitude. However, due to geographical and cultural factors it is not practical to divide the world so evenly, and actual time zones may differ significantly from those based purely on longitude. In Europe, the widespread use of Central European Time (CET) causes major variations in some areas from solar time. Based on solar time, CET would range from 7.5 to 22.5°E. However, for example Spain (almost entirely in the Western hemisphere) and France (almost entirely west of 7.5°E, as illustrated in the map below) should theoretically use UTC, as they did before the Second World War. The general result is a solar noon which is much later than clock noon, and later sunrises and sunsets than should theoretically happen. The Benelux countries should also theoretically use GMT.

Russia and Belarus observed "permanent summer time" between March 2011 and October 2014. Since October 2014 Russia has observed "permanent winter time". Iceland can be considered to be on "de facto" permanent summer time because, since 1968, it uses UTC time all year, despite being located more than 15° west of the prime meridian. It should therefore be located in UTC−01:00, but chooses to remain closer to continental European time, resulting in legal times significantly in advance of local solar time; this is of little practical significance owing to the wide variations in daylight hours in that country.

The European Commission has proposed ending the observance of summer time in the EU after the autumn of 2019. However, the decision lies with the EU's Member States as a group; however, many member states see the timetable as "unrealistic" and implementation is likely to be pushed back to 2021.

Time in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in October (01:00 GMT) throughout Spain.

Spain used Greenwich Mean Time (UTC±00:00) before the Second World War (except for the Canary Islands which used GMT−01:00 before this date). However, the time zone was changed to Central European Time in 1940 and has remained so since then, meaning that Spain does not use its "natural" time zone under the coordinated time zone system. Some observers believe that this time zone shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule (late meals and sleep times).

Time in Turkey

Time in Turkey is given by UTC+03:00 year-round. This time is also called Turkey Time (TRT) or Türkiye Saati İle (TSİ). The time is currently same as in the Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time and Moscow Time zone. Turkey Time was adopted by the Turkish government on September 8, 2016. It was also in use in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus until it reverted to EET in October 2017.

Time in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

the Canary Islands

Portugal (including Madeira but not the Azores)

Ireland

the United Kingdom

the British Crown dependencies

the Faroe IslandsWestern European Summer Time is known in the countries concerned as:

British Summer Time (BST) in the United Kingdom.

Irish Standard Time (IST) (Am Caighdeánach na hÉireann (ACÉ)) in Ireland. Also sometimes erroneously referred to as "Irish Summer Time" (Am Samhraidh na hÉireann).The scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01:00 UTC+00:00. During the winter, Western European Time (WET, GMT+0 or UTC±00:00) is used.

The start and end dates of the scheme are asymmetrical in terms of daylight hours: the vernal time of year with a similar amount of daylight to late October is mid-February, well before the start of summer time. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight.

Ireland observes Irish Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC±00:00 in winter. As Ireland's winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time.

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