Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Western European Summer Time is known in the countries concerned as:

The scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01:00 UTC+00:00. During the winter, Western European Time (WET, GMT+0 or UTC±00:00) is used.

The start and end dates of the scheme are asymmetrical in terms of daylight hours: the vernal time of year with a similar amount of daylight to late October is mid-February, well before the start of summer time. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight.

Ireland observes Irish Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC±00:00 in winter.[1] As Ireland's winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time.

Time zones of Europe
Time in Europe:
light blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
golden Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
light green Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.

Usage

The following countries and territories use Western European Summer Time during the summer, between 1:00 UTC on the last Sunday of March and 1:00 UTC on the last Sunday of October.

  • Spain
  • Kingdom of Denmark
  • Ireland
    • 1916–1939 summers IST
    • 1940–1946 all year IST
    • 1947–1968 summers IST
    • 1968–1971 all year IST
    • 1972– summers IST
  • Portugal
    • Continental Portugal[5]
      • 1916–1921 summers WEST
      • 1924 summer WEST
      • 1926–1929 summers WEST
      • 1931–1932 summers WEST
      • 1934–1941 summers WEST
      • 1942–1945 summers WEST (1942–1945 midsummers Western European Midsummer Time|WEMT[6][7]=WEST+1)
      • 1946–1966 summers WEST
      • 1966–1976 all year WEST/CET
      • 1977–1992 summers WEST
      • 1992–1996 winters WEST/CET (1993–1995 summers CEST)
      • 1996– summers WEST
    • Madeira, regularly since 1982[8]
  • The United Kingdom
    • 1916–1939 summers BST
    • 1940–1945 all year BST (1941–1945 summers BDST=BST+1)
    • 1946 summer BST
    • 1947 summer BST (1947 midsummer BDST=BST+1)
    • 1948–1968 summers BST
    • 1968–1971 all year BST
    • 1972– summers BST

Ireland

In Ireland, since the Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971, Ireland has used UTC+1 in summer (officially "standard time",[9] Irish: am caighdeánach,[10] though usually called "summer time") and UTC+0 in winter (officially "winter time").[11]

Portugal

Portugal moved to Central European Time and Central European Summer Time in 1992, but reverted to Western European Time in 1996 after concluding that energy savings were small, it had a disturbing effect on children's sleeping habits as it would not get dark until 22:00 or 22:30 in summer evenings, during winter mornings the sun was still rising at 9:00, with repercussions on standards of learning and school performance, and insurance companies reported a rise in the number of accidents.[12]

United Kingdom

Starting in 1916, the dates for the beginning and end of BST each year were mandated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In February 2002, the Summer Time Order 2002[13] changed the dates and times to match European rules for moving to and from daylight saving time.

Start and end dates of British Summer Time and Irish Standard Time

Summer Begins (BST) Ends (GMT) UK Notes Ireland Notes
2017 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00
2016 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00
2015 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
2014 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00
2013 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00
2012 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00
2011 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00
2010 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00
2009 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
2008 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00
2007 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00
2006 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00
2005 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00
2004 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00
2003 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00
2002 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00 UK adopts EU practice[13][14] Ireland adopts EU Practice [14][15]
2001 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00
2000 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00
1999 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00
1998 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
1997 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00
1996 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00
1995 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 22 October 01:00
1994 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00
1993 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 24 October 01:00
1992 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
1991 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00
1990 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00
1989 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00
1988 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00
1987 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
1986 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00
1985 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00
1984 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00
1983 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00
1982 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 24 October 01:00
1981 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00
1980 Sun 16 March 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00
1979 Sun 18 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00
1978 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00
1977 Sun 20 March 02:00 Sun 23 October 02:00
1976 Sun 21 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00
1975 Sun 16 March 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00
1974 Sun 17 March 02:00 Sun 27 October 02:00
1973 Sun 18 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00
1972 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00
1971 Sun 31 October 02:00 BST all year ends IST all year ends
1970 BST all year IST all year
1969 BST all year IST all year
1968 Sun 18 February 01:00 BST all year begins IST all year begins
1967 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00
1966 Sun 20 March 02:00 Sun 23 October 02:00
1965 Sun 21 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00
1964 Sun 22 March 02:00 Sun 25 October 02:00
1963 Sun 31 March 02:00 Sun 27 October 02:00
1962 Sun 25 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00
1961 Sun 26 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00
1960 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1959 Sun 12 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00
1958 Sun 20 April 02:00 Sun 5 October 02:00
1957 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00
1956 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00
1955 Sun 17 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1954 Sun 11 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00
1953 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00
1952 Sun 20 April 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00
1951 Sun 15 April 02:00 Sun 21 October 02:00
1950 Sun 16 April 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00
1949 Sun 3 April 02:00 Sun 30 October 02:00
1948 Sun 14 March 02:00 Sun 31 October 02:00
1947 Sun 2 November 02:00 Back to GMT Back to GMT
1947 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 10 August 02:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1947 Sun 16 March 02:00 BST begins IST begins
1946 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00 Back to GMT (Oct) Back to GMT (Oct)
1945 Sun 7 October 02:00 Back to GMT IST
1945 Mon 2 April 01:00 Sun 15 July 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1944 Sun 2 April 01:00 Sun 17 September 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1943 Sun 4 April 01:00 Sun 15 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1942 Sun 5 April 01:00 Sun 9 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1941 Sun 4 May 01:00 Sun 10 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST
1940 Sun 25 February 02:00 BST 1940–1945 IST 1940–1946
1939 Sun 16 April 02:00 Sun 19 November 02:00
1938 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1937 Sun 18 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00
1936 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00
1935 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00
1934 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00
1933 Sun 9 April 02:00 Sun 8 October 02:00
1932 Sun 17 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1930 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 5 October 02:00
1929 Sun 21 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00
1928 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00
1927 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1926 Sun 18 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00
1925 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00
1924 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 21 September 02:00
1923 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 16 September 02:00
1922 Sun 26 March 02:00 Sun 8 October 02:00
1921 Sun 3 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00
1920 Sun 28 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00
1919 Sun 30 March 02:00 Sun 28 September 02:00
1918 Sun 24 March 02:00 Sun 29 September 02:00
1917 Sun 8 April 02:00 Sun 16 September 02:00
1916 Sun 21 May 02:00 Sun 1 October 02:00 Abolition of DMT

Note: Until 1 October 1916 time in all of Ireland was based on Dublin Mean Time, GMT − 25 minutes.

References

  1. ^ a b "STANDARD TIME ACT, 1968".
  2. ^ "AN tACHT UM AM CAIGHDEÁNACH, 1968".
  3. ^ "timeanddate.com webpage erroneously referring to IST as "Irish Summer Time"". Retrieved 2009-08-27.
  4. ^ "Example of Trinity College, Dublin using the term "Irish Summer Time"". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
  5. ^ "Hora Legal em Portugal Continental [Standard and Summer Time in Continental Portugal]" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  6. ^ "Time Changes in Lisbon over the years (1925–1949); Time Zone in Lisbon, Portugal". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  7. ^ Law, Gwillim (30 May 2001). "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Decreto Regional n.º 5/82/M, de 3 de Abril [Regional Decree 5/82/M, 3 April 1982]" (PDF). Diário da República, I Série, n.º 78, 7 de Abril de 1982 (in Portuguese). 7 April 1982. pp. 777–778. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  9. ^ "Standard Time Act, 1968". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 15 July 1968.
  10. ^ "Standard time". Focal. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  11. ^ "Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 20 July 1971.
  12. ^ "Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill [HL]".
  13. ^ a b "Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 262—The Summer Time Order 2002".
  14. ^ a b "Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements".
  15. ^ "Winter Time Order, 2001".

Further reading

  • Prerau, David. Saving the Daylight: Why We Put the Clocks Forward (ISBN 1-86207-796-7) — The Story of Summer Time/Daylight Saving Time with a focus on the UK

External links

Central Africa Time

Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Central Africa Time is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00), which is the same as the adjacent South Africa Standard Time and Eastern European Time (although the latter area uses Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3) most of the year)

As this time zone is in the equatorial and tropical regions, there is little change in day length throughout the year, and so daylight saving time is not observed.

Central Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Burundi

Botswana

Egypt (observes Eastern European Time)

Democratic Republic of the Congo (eastern)

Libya

Malawi

Mozambique

Namibia

Rwanda

Sudan

Zambia

ZimbabweThe following countries use South African Standard Time instead of Central Africa Time:

Lesotho

South Africa

Eswatini

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.

East Africa Time

East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. The time zone is three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00), which is the same as Arabia Standard Time, Further-eastern European Time, Moscow Time and Eastern European Summer Time.As this Time Zone is predominantly in the equatorial region, there is no significant change in day length throughout the year and so daylight saving time is not observed.East Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Comoros

Djibouti

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Kenya

Madagascar

Somalia

South Sudan

Tanzania

Uganda

Eastern European Summer Time

Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+03:00 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used as a summer daylight saving time in some European and Middle Eastern countries, which makes it the same as Arabia Standard Time, East Africa Time and Moscow Time. During the winter periods, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) is used.

Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.

Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

A number of African countries use UTC+02:00 all year long, where it is called Central Africa Time (CAT), although Egypt and Libya also use the term Eastern European Time.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

October Holiday

In Ireland, the October Holiday (sometimes called the October Bank Holiday) is observed on the last Monday of October. Usually, but not always, this is the day after the end of Western European Summer Time. It was introduced in 1977.

Seychelles Time

Seychelles Time, or SCT, is a time zone used by the Seychelles. The zone is four hours ahead of UTC (UTC+04:00).

Daylight saving time is not observed in this time zone.

Time in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in October (01:00 GMT) throughout Spain.

Spain used Greenwich Mean Time (UTC±00:00) before the Second World War (except for the Canary Islands which used GMT−01:00 before this date). However, the time zone was changed to Central European Time in 1940 and has remained so since then, meaning that Spain does not use its "natural" time zone under the coordinated time zone system. Some observers believe that this time zone shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule (late meals and sleep times).

Time in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).

West Africa Time

West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset). West Africa Time is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01), which makes it the same as Central European Time (CET) during winter, or Western European Summer Time (WEST) and British Summer Time (BST) during the summer.

As most of this time zone is in the tropical region, there is little change in day length throughout the year, so daylight saving time is not observed.

West Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Algeria (as Central European Time)

Angola

Benin

Chad

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Democratic Republic of the Congo (western side only)

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Morocco (as Greenwich Mean Time + 1 hour)

Niger

Nigeria

Republic of the Congo

Tunisia (as Central European Time)

Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe. The following countries and regions use WET in winter months:

Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, UTC+01:00)

Faroe Islands, since 1908

North Eastern Greenland (Danmarkshavn and surrounding area)

Iceland, since 1968, without summer time changes

Portugal, since 1912 with pauses (except Azores, UTC−01:00)

Madeira islands, since 1912 with pauses

Ireland (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1916, except between 1968 and 1971

United Kingdom and Crown dependencies (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1847 in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, and since 1916 in Northern Ireland, with pausesAll the above countries except Iceland implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET. WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is officially known as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but the WET zone does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain which use Central European Time (CET), although these are mostly (France) or completely (the rest) west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland are included although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to WET.

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