The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".
The 1964–65 Women's Handball European Champions Cup was the fifth edition of the international competition for European women's handball national champion clubs, taking place from late 1964 to 16 April 1965. The number of contestants decreased from thirteen to ten due to the absences of Austria, Poland and Romania, so the qualifying stage was reduced from five ties to just two. Unlike the two previous editions, the final was carried out as a two-legged tie.HG Copenhague became the first team from the Western Bloc to win the competition in the third appearance in a row of the Danish representative in the final, while Budapesti Spartacus was the first Hungarian team to reach it. The absence of Romania meant there was no defending champion this year.1970–71 FIBA Women's European Champions Cup
The 1970–71 FIBA Women's European Champions Cup was the twelfth edition of FIBA Europe's competition for women's basketball national champion clubs, running from November 1970 to April 1971.
France's Clermont UC became the first team from the Western Bloc to reach the competition's final, defeating 1970 runner-up Wisła Kraków in the semifinals, but it wasn't able to end the Soviet hegemony, with Daugava Riga winning its eighth title in a row. Turkey withdrew from the competition for sanitary reasons.1985–86 IHF Women's Cup Winners' Cup
The 1985–86 IHF Women's Cup Winners' Cup was the tenth edition of IHF's competition for European women's handball national cup champions. 20 teams entered the competition, three less than in the previous edition.3-times European Cup champion Radnički Belgrade defeated VfL Engelskirchen in its sixth consecutive appearance in a European final, to win the first of its three Cup Winners' Cups to date. It was the last of 5 consecutive trophies won by Yugoslav teams, a competition record which hasn't been matched as of 2013. On the other hand, Engelskirchen was the first club from the Western Bloc to reach the competition's final.1992–93 IHF Women's Cup Winners' Cup
The 1992–93 IHF Women's Cup Winners' Cup was the seventeenth edition of the European competition for women's handball national cup champions, and the last organized by IHF.
TV Lützellinden, the previous European Cup's runner-up, defeated 1990 champion Rostselmash in the final, becoming the first team from the former Western Bloc to win the Cup Winners' Cup. Yugoslavia, whose team Radnički Belgrade had won the two previous editions, was excluded from the competition in implementation of the UNSC Resolution 575, while Slovenia and Ukraine debuted as independent countries.Anthem of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
The "Anthem of the People's Republic of Kampuchea" (Khmer: ចម្រៀងនៃសាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតកម្ពុជា, Bâtchamrieng ney Sathéaranakrâth Pracheameanit Kâmpŭchéa) was the national anthem of the People's Republic of Kampuchea from 1979 to 1989. It was composed by Sok Udom Deth. While Vietnam and most Communist governments recognized the People's Republic of Kampuchea during its existence, the Khmer Rouge, together with the monarchists and Khmer People's National Liberation Front, formed the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea that continued to use the anthem of Democratic Kampuchea. It was this government-in-exile that was recognized by China, North Korea, and most Western Bloc governments and the United Nations; as such, many Western sources continued to list "Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey" as being the Cambodian national anthem until the restoration of the monarchy in 1993.Austria–Poland relations
Austrian–Polish relations refer to the relationship between the Republic of Austria and the Republic of Poland.
The two nations have a very long historical relationship, which was mostly complicated throughout history. At the highest peak of their power, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Austria's Habsburg Monarchy enjoyed a very strong and cordial relationship, as Polish hussars under the banner of John III Sobieski had helped Austrians to fend off the Turks in the Battle of Vienna, and there had been many internal and political exchanges between two states. However, Austria's participation in the partitions of Poland with Prussia and Russia a century later strained the relations. Numerous revolts against Austrian rule occurred in Austria-occupied Poland, including the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 in then-Kingdom of Hungary, which the Poles played a significant part on the revolution. Nonetheless, among all three nations, Austria was the most tolerant towards the Poles. In the 20th century, following the collapse of Austria-Hungary, Austria and Poland re-established relations, only to be interrupted by Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria and later invasion to Poland together with Soviet Union. After World War II, both re-established relations, but this time it was a relationship between the now-modern day Austria and then-Polish People's Republic, a communist satellite of Soviet Union. Austria was under the Western bloc, closely tied to the West and the United States, while Poland was under communist rule. Their relationship once again deteriorated, only to be resumed at 1989 following the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. Since then, the relationship between two nations has undergone significant progress, as Austria supported Poland to join NATO and European Union, which Poland joined, 1999 and 2004, respectively. Currently, the relationship between the two nations is considered excellent.
Austria maintains an embassy in Warsaw while Poland maintains an embassy and a consulate both in Vienna.Beriev A-50
The Beriev A-50 (NATO reporting name: Mainstay) is a Soviet airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft based on the Ilyushin Il-76 transport. The existence of the A-50 was revealed to the Western Bloc in 1980 by Adolf Tolkachev. Developed to replace the Tupolev Tu-126 "Moss", the A-50 first flew in 1978. It entered service in 1984, with about 40 produced by 1992.Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls
The Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) was established by Western bloc powers in the first five years after the end of World War II, during the Cold War, to put an arms embargo on Comecon countries. CoCom ceased to function on March 31, 1994, and the then-current control list of embargoed goods was retained by the member nations until the successor, the Wassenaar Arrangement, was established.Czechoslovakia women's national football team
The Czechoslovakia women's national football team was the national women's association football representing Czechoslovakia. It was established in 1968, in the midst of the Prague Spring, making it one of the pioneering women's football national teams.
Czechoslovakia's first game was played on February 23 that year in Viareggio, Italy against the also debuting Italian team, and resulted in a 2–1 loss. In 1970 Czechoslovakia registered in the first unofficial attempt at a World Cup, and it was scheduled to make its debut on July 7 in Bologna against Denmark. However, the team was not granted a visa to travel to the Western Bloc and had to withdraw. The same happened the following year.Czechoslovakia's first official women's match took place in the Bratislava's Stadium Petržalka in 1985, ending in a 2–2 draw against Hungary. The team then went two years without a victory in its next seven games.From October 1987 to November 1988 Czechoslovakia took part for the first time in the qualifying of the still unofficial European Championship. In the mid-time it took part in June 1988 in the China-based 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament, an essay for the first official World Cup three years later, where it failed to progress to the quarter-finals despite defeating Japan and drawing with impending powerhouse United States. In the European Championship Czechoslovakia was defeated by West Germany in the last qualifying round.
Through 1989 and 1990 Czechoslovakia played the first official European Championship's qualification, which also served as a qualifying for the 1991 World Cup. This time the team didn't make qualify past the first qualifying stage, ranking third in its group behind Germany and Hungary. In 1991–92 it didn't make it either, losing this time to Italy. This was the team's last appearance as Czechoslovakia was dissolved at the end of 1992. The following saw the foundation of the Czech and Slovak national teams, the former serving as the Czechoslovak team's successor.Devín
Devín (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈɟɛʋiːn]; Hungarian: Dévény, German: Theben) is a borough of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, located in the Bratislava IV district. Originally a separate village at the confluence of the Danube and Morava rivers, Devín maintained its rural character and today, it is one of the smallest boroughs of Bratislava by population. It is an important archaeological site, featuring the ruins of Devín Castle.
Geographically, Devín lies on the foothills of Devínska Kobyla next to the Devín Gate, a narrow stretch on the river Danube, which was viewed as the western gateway to the Kingdom of Hungary. It lies near the border between Slovakia and Austria which runs down the middle of the Morava and Danube rivers, and which previously formed part of the Iron Curtain between the Eastern and the Western Bloc.
The word Devín stems from the Slovak word deva, which signifies "a girl".Encounter at the Elbe
Encounter at the Elbe (in Russian: Встреча на Эльбе) is a Soviet movie released in 1949 from Mosfilm, describing the conflict, spying, and collaboration between the Soviet Army advancing from the east and the U.S. Army advancing from the west. The two allied forces met each other for the first time on the River Elbe near the close of the Second World War. This meeting occurred on April 25, 1945, which was usually remembered as “Elbe Day” in Western Bloc nations and as the "Encounter at the Elbe” in Eastern Bloc nations.The movie was directed by Grigori Aleksandrov and Aleksey Utkin, with music by Dmitri Shostakovich, which included “Yearning for the Homeland” (in Russian: Тоска по родине, the words by Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky), that became popular at that time in the Eastern Bloc nations and among the leftists in the Western Bloc nations including Japan.Free World
The Free World is a propaganda term primarily used during the Cold War to refer to the Western Bloc. More broadly, it has also been used to refer to all non-communist countries. It has traditionally primarily been used to refer to the countries allied and aligned with the United States and those affiliated with international organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU). Critics pointed out the contradiction between the use of the term and the fact of its being applied to all NATO members even at times when some of them were ruled by military dictatorships (Turkey, Greece, Portugal) as well as to various anti-Communist dictatorial regimes closely allied to the US.History of computer hardware in Soviet Bloc countries
The history of computing hardware in the Soviet Bloc is somewhat different from that of the Western world. As a result of the CoCom embargo, computers could not be imported on a large scale from Western Bloc.
Soviet Bloc manufacturers created copies of Western designs based on intelligence gathering and reverse engineering. This redevelopment led to some incompatibilities with International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and IEEE standards, such as spacing integrated circuit pins at 1⁄10 of a 25 mm length (colloquially a "metric inch") instead of a standard inch of 25.4 mm. This made Soviet chips unsalable on the world market outside the Comecon, and made test machinery more expensive.Post-communism
Post-communism is the period of political and economic transformation or "transition" in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia in which new governments aimed to create free market-oriented capitalist economies.Three-world model
The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were originally used to divide the world's nations into three categories. The model did not emerge to its end state all at once. The complete overthrow of the post–World War II status quo, known as the Cold War, left two superpowers (the United States and the Soviet Union) vying for ultimate global supremacy. They created two camps, known as blocs. These blocs formed the basis of the concepts of the First and Second Worlds.Western Allies
The Western Allies were a political and geographic grouping among the Allied Powers of the First World War and Second World War. It generally includes the British Empire, the United States, France and various other European and Latin American countries, but excludes China, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, and the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Montenegro and their successor state, Yugoslavia due to different economic, geographic and political circumstances, some of which arose after the wars. Similarly, Poland and Czechoslovakia are often excluded from the term, because of their post-war forced inclusion in the Eastern Bloc, even though Polish and Czechoslovak armed forces fought alongside Western Allies (Poland fought against Germany before any of the Western Allies joined the war). Most African and Asian allies not part of the British Commonwealth or France are often excluded from the term, though irregular Arabian and Ethiopian forces fought along the Western Allies. France is also often counted among the Western Allies, because although the Vichy Regime collaborated with the Axis powers and fought the Allies, the Free French military forces played a major role against the Axis Powers throughout the war, similarly to many nations that endured military occupation and collaboration.
After the Second World War, some of the territory of the defeated Axis powers came under occupation by the Western Allies. Germany and Austria were divided among American, British, French and Soviet control. In 1949 the American, British and French sectors in Germany became the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, while the Soviet sector became the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany. All four of the Austrian occupation sectors became the Republic of Austria, or Second Austrian Republic. Austria became a neutral state but Italy, West Germany and a mix of wartime Western Allies and some formerly neutral states taking in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Iceland, Portugal, Spain and Greece became the Western Bloc. Canada, the United States, and the European countries among this group formed a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, to oppose the Eastern Bloc and their military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, which was composed of the wartime Allies Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union, the ex-Axis powers of Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary and Romania as well as Albania. The conflict between the Eastern and Western Blocs became known as the Cold War. Though initially politically close to the Soviet Union, Albania, China, and Yugoslavia became nonaligned over the course of the Cold War. Cuba, another one of the Allies during World War II, became aligned with the Eastern Bloc after 1959 as did Ethiopia after 1974.Western Bloc of the FARC-EP
The Western Bloc of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia was the smallest of the organization blocs in size, although not in military capability. It was routinely held responsible for attacks that occurred in Cali and its surroundings. The specific divisions of the group are arguable. Some of its divisions or 'fronts', as they were commonly called, are shown below. Many of these fronts sometimes worked together towards a certain mission, while others were further divided into 'columns' and 'companies' with a smaller number of members. For more general information, see FARC-EP Chain of Command.İyi Party
The İyi Party (translated into English as the Good Party) is a nationalist, liberal-conservative, secularist political party in Turkey. Established on 25 October 2017 by its current leader Meral Akşener, the party adheres to the principles and ideals of Turkey's founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Their sister party is the liberal conservative Democrat Party.It follows a centrist political ideology and puts a particular emphasis on the restoration of the parliamentary system and the integrity of the judiciary and other institutions. The party has been widely described as an anti-Erdoğanist alternative for right-leaning voters disillusioned with both the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) and the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP). In addition to meaning 'good', the name İyi is also inspired by the Kayı tribe flag.The party was formed by prominent former members of Turkey's main established parties, most notably the MHP and the main opposition Republican People's Party (CHP). Plans to form a new party emerged amongst prominent MHP defectors after the MHP's support for a 'Yes' vote in the controversial 2017 constitutional referendum, as well as a failed attempt to unseat the party's governing leader. In addition to endorsing a more moderate civic nationalism as opposed to the ardent ethnic nationalism of the MHP, the party runs on an anti-establishment platform criticising both the governing and opposition parties in Turkey for their ineffectiveness. Positioning itself strictly at the centre of political spectrum, the party also advocates for a positive agenda which will bring the European Union and Turkey closer again, and highlights that Turkey must continue being a part of the Western bloc. Meral Akşener is the party's 2018 presidential candidate.The party quickly gained five members of parliament in the Grand National Assembly who were originally elected for other parties, and numerous provincial and municipal council members that also defected from their former parties. On 22 April 2018, in the run-up to general elections, a further 15 MPs from the CHP moved to the İyi Party following a joint agreement between the two parties. This was to allow the İyi Party to form a parliamentary group that would be eligible to field a presidential candidate without the need to collect signatures and compete independently.