West Indies

The West Indies is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagos: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.[1]

The region includes all the islands in or bordering the Caribbean Sea, plus The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean. Depending on the context, some references to the West Indies may include some nations of northern South America that share the history and culture of the West Indian islands.

Caribbean general map
Political map of the West Indies

History

Caribe-Político
Caribbean Basin countries

Indigenous peoples were the first inhabitants of the West Indies. In 1492, Christopher Columbus became the first European to arrive at the islands, where he is believed by historians to have first set foot on land in the Bahamas. After the first of the voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, Europeans began to use the term West Indies to distinguish the region from the East Indies of South Asia and Southeast Asia.

In the late sixteenth century, French, English and Dutch merchants and privateers began their operations in the Caribbean Sea, attacking Spanish and Portuguese shipping and coastal areas. They often took refuge and refitted their ships in the areas the Spanish could not conquer, including the islands of the Lesser Antilles, the northern coast of South America including the mouth of the Orinoco, and the Atlantic Coast of Central America. In the Lesser Antilles they managed to establish a foothold following the colonisation of St Kitts in 1624 and Barbados in 1626, and when the Sugar Revolution took off in the mid-seventeenth century, they brought in thousands of Africans to work the fields and mills as slave labourers. These Africans wrought a demographic revolution, replacing or joining with either the indigenous Caribs or the European settlers who were there as indentured servants.

The struggle between the northern Europeans and the Spanish spread southward in the mid to late seventeenth century, as English, Dutch, French and Spanish colonists, and in many cases their slaves from Africa first entered and then occupied the coast of The Guianas (which fell to the French, English and Dutch) and the Orinoco valley, which fell to the Spanish. The Dutch, allied with the Caribs of the Orinoco, would eventually carry the struggles deep into South America, first along the Orinoco and then along the northern reaches of the Amazon.

Since no European country had occupied much of Central America, gradually the English of Jamaica established alliances with the Miskito Kingdom of modern-day Nicaragua and Honduras, and then began logging on the coast of modern-day Belize. These interconnected commercial and diplomatic relations made up the Western Caribbean Zone which was in place in the early eighteenth century. In the Miskito Kingdom, the rise to power of the Miskito-Zambos, who originated in the survivors of a rebellion aboard a slave ship in the 1640s and the introduction of African slaves by British settlers within the Miskito area and in Belize, also transformed this area into one with a high percentage of persons of African descent as was found in most of the rest of the Caribbean.

From the 17th through the 19th century, the European colonial territories of the West Indies were the French West Indies, British West Indies, the Danish West Indies, the Netherlands Antilles (Dutch West Indies), and the Spanish West Indies.

In 1916, Denmark sold the Danish West Indies to the United States[2] for US$25 million in gold, per the Treaty of the Danish West Indies. The Danish West Indies became an insular area of the U.S., called the United States Virgin Islands.

Between 1958 and 1962, the United Kingdom re-organised all their West Indies island territories (except the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas) into the West Indies Federation. They hoped that the Federation would coalesce into a single, independent nation. However, the Federation had limited powers, numerous practical problems, and a lack of popular support; consequently, it was dissolved by the British in 1963, with nine provinces eventually becoming independent sovereign states and four becoming current British Overseas Territories.

West Indies or West India was the namesake of several companies of the 17th and 18th centuries, including the Danish West India Company, the Dutch West India Company, the French West India Company, and the Swedish West India Company.[3]

West Indian is the official term used by the U.S. government to refer to people of the West Indies.[4]

Use of the term

Tulane University professor Rosanne Adderly says:

[T]he phrase "West Indies" distinguished the territories encountered by Columbus or and claimed by Spain from discovery claims by other powers in [Asia's] "East Indies"... The term "West Indies" was eventually used by all European nations to describe their own acquired territories in the Americas... considering British Caribbean colonies collectively as the "West Indies" had its greatest political importance in the 1950s with the movement to create a federation of those colonies that could ultimately become an independent nation... Despite the collapse of the Federation [in the early 1960s]... the West Indies continues to field a joint cricket team for international competition.[5]

The West Indies cricket team includes participants from Guyana, which is geographically located in South America.

Geology

Karte Karibik Inseln
The West Indies in relation to the continental Americas
Atlantic-trench
The subduction of the South American Plate and part of the North American Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate produces both the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles (bottom left of image, south of the Virgin Islands).

The West Indies is a geologically complex island system consisting of 7,000 islands and islets stretching over 3,000 km from the Florida peninsula of North America south-southeast to the northern coast of Venezuela.[6] These islands include active volcanoes, low-lying atolls, raised limestone islands, and large fragments of continental crust containing tall mountains and insular rivers.[7] Each of the three archipelagos of the West Indies has a unique origin and geologic composition.

Greater Antilles

The Greater Antilles is geologically the oldest of the three archipelagos and includes both the largest islands (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico) and the tallest mountains (Pico Duarte, Blue Mountain, Pic la Selle, Pico Turquino) in the Caribbean.[8] The islands of the Greater Antilles are composed of strata of different geological ages including Precambrian fragmented remains of the North American Plate (older than 541 million years), Jurassic aged limestone (201.3-145 million years ago), as well as island arc deposits and oceanic crust from the Cretaceous (145-66 million years ago).[9]

The Greater Antilles originated near the Isthmian region of present day Central America in the Late Cretaceous (commonly referred to as the Proto-Antilles), then drifted eastward arriving in their current location when colliding with the Bahama Platform of the North American Plate ca. 56 million years ago in the late Paleocene.[10] This collision caused subduction and volcanism in the Proto-Antillean area and likely resulted in continental uplift of the Bahama Platform and changes in sea level.[11] The Greater Antilles have continuously been exposed since the start of the Paleocene or at least since the Middle Eocene (66-40 million years ago), but which areas were above sea level throughout the history of the islands remains unresolved.[12][10]

The oldest rocks in the Greater Antilles are located in Cuba. They consist of metamorphosed graywacke, argillite, tuff, mafic igneous extrusive flows, and carbonate rock.[13] It is estimated that nearly 70% of Cuba consists of karst limestone.[14] The Blue Mountains of Jamaica are a granite outcrop rising over 2,000 meters, while the rest of the island to the west consists mainly of karst limestone.[14] Much of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands were formed by the collision of the Caribbean Plate with the North American Plate and consist of 12 island arch terranes.[15] These terranes consist of oceanic crust, volcanic and plutonic rock.[15]

Lesser Antilles

The Lesser Antilles is a volcanic island arc rising along the leading edge of the Caribbean Plate due to the subduction of the Atlantic seafloor of the North American and South American plates. Major islands of the Lesser Antilles likely emerged less than 20 Ma, during the Miocene.[8] The volcanic activity that formed these islands began in the Paleogene, after a period of volcanism in the Greater Antilles ended, and continues today.[16] The main arc of the Lesser Antilles runs north from the coast of Venezuela to the Anegada Passage, a strait separating them from the Greater Antilles, and includes 19 active volcanoes.[17]

Lucayan Archipelago

The Lucayan Archipelago includes the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands, a chain of barrier reefs and low islands atop the Bahama Platform. The Bahama Platform is a carbonate block formed of marine sediments and fixed to the North American Plate.[7] The emergent islands of the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos likely formed from accumulated deposits of wind-blown sediments during Pleistocene glacial periods of lower sea level.[7]

Countries and territories by archipelago

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

Lucayan Archipelago

See also

References

  1. ^ Caldecott, Alfred (1898). The Church in the West Indies. London: Frank Cass and Co. p. 11. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  2. ^ "Two telegrams about the sale - The Danish West-Indies". The Danish West-Indies. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  3. ^ Garrison, William L.; Levinson, David M. (2014). The Transportation Experience: Policy, Planning, and Deployment. OUP USA. ISBN 9780199862719.
  4. ^ "Info Please U.S. Social Statistics". Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  5. ^ Rosanne Adderly, "West Indies", in Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures, Volume 1: A-D (London and New York: Routledge, 2000): 1584.
  6. ^ "West Indies | History, Maps, Facts, & Geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  7. ^ a b c Ricklefs Robert; Bermingham Eldredge (2008-07-27). "The West Indies as a laboratory of biogeography and evolution". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1502): 2393–2413. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2068. PMC 2606802. PMID 17446164.
  8. ^ a b Biogeography of the West Indies : patterns and perspectives. Woods, Charles A. (Charles Arthur), Sergile, Florence E. (Florence Etienne), 1954- (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2001. ISBN 0849320011. OCLC 46240352.CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ "Flora of the West Indies / Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution". naturalhistory2.si.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  10. ^ a b Graham, Alan (2003). "Geohistory Models and Cenozoic Paleoenvironments of the Caribbean Region". Systematic Botany. 28 (2): 378–386. ISSN 0363-6445.
  11. ^ Santiago–Valentin, Eugenio; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "Historical biogeography of Caribbean plants: introduction to current knowledge and possibilities from a phylogenetic perspective". TAXON. 53 (2): 299–319. doi:10.2307/4135610. ISSN 1996-8175.
  12. ^ Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel A. (2006-09-01). "Meso-Cenozoic Caribbean Paleogeography: Implications for the Historical Biogeography of the Region". International Geology Review. 48 (9): 791–827. doi:10.2747/0020-6814.48.9.791. ISSN 0020-6814.
  13. ^ Khudoley, K. M.; Meyerhoff, A. A. (1971), "Paleogeography and Geological History of Greater Antilles", Geological Society of America Memoirs, Geological Society of America, pp. 1–192, doi:10.1130/mem129-p1, ISBN 0813711290, retrieved 2019-04-14
  14. ^ a b geolounge (2012-01-08). "Caribbean Islands: the Greater Antilles". GeoLounge: All Things Geography. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  15. ^ a b Mann, Paul; Draper, Grenville; Lewis, John F. (1991), "An overview of the geologic and tectonic development of Hispaniola", Geological Society of America Special Papers, Geological Society of America, pp. 1–28, doi:10.1130/spe262-p1, ISBN 0813722624, retrieved 2019-04-14
  16. ^ Santiago-Valentin, Eugenio; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "Historical Biogeography of Caribbean Plants: Introduction to Current Knowledge and Possibilities from a Phylogenetic Perspective". Taxon. 53 (2): 299–319. doi:10.2307/4135610. ISSN 0040-0262.
  17. ^ "The University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre". uwiseismic.com. Retrieved 2019-04-14.

Further reading

  • Cromwell, Jesse. "More than Slaves and Sugar: Recent Historiography of the Trans-imperial Caribbean and Its Sinew Populations." History Compass (2014) 12#10 pp 770–783.
  • Higman, Barry W. A Concise History of the Caribbean. (2011)
  • Jones, Alfred Lewis (1905). "The West Indies" . The Empire and the century. London: John Murray. pp. 877–882.
  • Martin, Tony, Caribbean History: From Pre-colonial Origins to the Present (2011)

Coordinates: 21°59′00″N 79°02′00″W / 21.9833°N 79.0333°W

1975 Cricket World Cup

The 1975 Cricket World Cup (officially called the Prudential Cup '75) was the first edition of the Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Conference (ICC) and was the first major limited overs One Day International (ODI) cricket tournament to be held. It was held from 7 to 21 June 1975 in England.

The tournament was sponsored by Prudential Assurance Company and had eight participating countries: the six Test-playing teams of the time (Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and the West Indies), plus leading Associate nations Sri Lanka and, for the only time, East Africa. The teams were divided into two groups of four, with each team playing the other teams in their group once; the top two from each group qualified for the semi-finals, with the winners of these matches meeting in the final. Each match consisted of 60 overs per team and was played in traditional white clothing and with red balls; all were played during the day and hence started early.

The concept of ODI cricket was still in the early stages and in the years between 1971 and 1975, only 18 such matches between the Test playing nations had been contested.

England, New Zealand, West Indies and Australia were the teams to qualify for the semi-finals, making this the only World Cup thus far in which no team from the Indian subcontinent made this stage. Australia defeated England and the West Indies beat New Zealand, before the West Indies, the pre-tournament favourites, defeated Australia in the final at Lord's by 17 runs to become the first World Cup winners.

The opening match of the tournament featured one of the most bizarre batting efforts in one-day history, by India's Sunil Gavaskar. After England scored 334/4, with Dennis Amiss making 137, Gavaskar batted through the full 60 overs for 36 not out, prompting several pitch invasions from unhappy Indian fans.

1983 Cricket World Cup

The 1983 Cricket World Cup (officially the Prudential Cup '83) was the 3rd edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament. It was held from 9 June to 25 June 1983 in England and Wales and was won by India. Eight countries participated in the event. The 1983 World Cup was full of dramatic cricket all through the tournament. Teams like India and Zimbabwe who were not playing well during those times scored upset victories over the West Indies and Australia respectively. England, Pakistan, India and tournament favourites West Indies qualified for the semi-finals. The preliminary matches were played in two groups of four teams each, and each country played the others in its group twice. The top two teams in each group qualified for the semi-finals.

The matches consisted of 60 overs per innings and were played in traditional white clothing and with red balls. They were all played during the day.

2007 Cricket World Cup

The 2007 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2007) was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sport's One Day International (ODI) format. There were a total of 51 matches played, three fewer than at the 2003 World Cup (despite a field larger by two teams).

The 16 competing teams were initially divided into four groups, with the two best-performing teams from each group moving on to a "Super 8" format. From this, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, and South Africa won through to the semi-finals, with Australia defeating Sri Lanka in the final to win their third consecutive World Cup and their fourth overall. Australia's unbeaten record in the tournament increased their total to 29 consecutive World Cup matches without loss, a streak dating back to 23 May 1999, during the group stage of the 1999 World Cup. The tournament also saw upsets in the first round with tournament favourites India and Pakistan failing to advance past the group stage. The following day police announced that the death of Bob Woolmer was suspicious and ordered a full investigation.Following the tournament the ICC distributed surplus tournament revenues of US$239 million to its members.

Andre Russell

Andre Dwayne Russell (born 29 April 1988) is a Jamaican cricketer. Russell plays for the West Indies internationally and for Jamaica in West Indian domestic cricket, as an all-rounder. He bats predominantly in the middle order for the West Indies. Widely regarded as one of the most powerful strikers of the cricket ball, Russell scored a century in a record 40 balls (6 fours and 13 sixes) in the 2018 Caribbean Premier League against Trinbago Knight Riders. He also took a hat-trick in the same. Thus he became the 2nd player after Joe Denly to take a hat-trick and score a century in the same match.

Barbados

Barbados ( (listen) or ) is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres (21 miles) in length and up to 23 km (14 mi) in width, covering an area of 432 km2 (167 sq mi). It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, Barbados is east of the Windwards, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 13°N of the equator. It is about 168 km (104 mi) east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km (250 mi) north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt. Its capital and largest city is Bridgetown.

Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, and prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown. It first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but later abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625; its men took possession of it in the name of King James I. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an English and later British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833.

On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen. It has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island.

Brian Lara

Brian Charles Lara, (born 2 May 1969) is a Trinidadian former international cricketer, widely acknowledged as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. He topped the Test batting rankings on several occasions and holds several cricketing records, including the record for the highest individual score in first-class cricket, with 501 not out for Warwickshire against Durham at Edgbaston in 1994, which is the only quintuple hundred in first-class cricket history.

Lara also holds the record for the highest individual score in a Test innings after scoring 400 not out against England at Antigua in 2004. Lara also shares the test record of scoring the highest number of runs in a single over in a Test match, when he scored 28 runs off an over by Robin Peterson of South Africa in 2003 (matched in 2013 by Australia's George Bailey).Lara's match-winning performance of 153 not out against Australia in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1999 has been rated by Wisden as the second best batting performance in the history of Test cricket, next only to the 270 runs scored by Sir Donald Bradman in The Ashes Test match of 1937. Muttiah Muralitharan, rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, and the highest wicket-taker in both Test cricket and in One Day Internationals (ODIs), has hailed Lara as his toughest opponent among all batsmen in the world. Lara was awarded the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World awards in 1994 and 1995 and is also one of only three cricketers to receive the prestigious BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year, the other two being Sir Garfield Sobers and Shane Warne.Brian Lara was appointed honorary member of the Order of Australia on 27 November 2009. On 14 September 2012 he was inducted to the ICC's Hall of Fame at the awards ceremony held in Colombo, Sri Lanka as a 2012–13 season inductee along with Australians Glenn McGrath and former England women all-rounder Enid Bakewell. In 2013, Lara received Honorary Life Membership of the MCC becoming the 31st West Indian to receive the honor.Brian Lara is popularly nicknamed as "The Prince of Port of Spain" or simply "The Prince". He has the dubious distinction of playing in the second highest number of test matches (63) in which his team was on the losing side, just behind Shivnarine Chanderpaul (68).

British West Indies

The British West Indies, sometimes abbreviated to the BWI, is a collective term for the British territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Montserrat, the British Virgin Islands, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize (formerly British Honduras), Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis , Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana (formerly British Guiana), Jamaica (formerly Colony of Jamaica), and Trinidad and Tobago. Before the decolonization period in the later 1950's and 1960's it included all British colonies in the region, together with two mainland colonies, as part of the British Empire.In 1912, the British West Indies were divided into different colonies: The Bahamas, Barbados, Guiana, British Honduras, Jamaica (with its dependencies the Turks and Caicos Islands and the Cayman Islands), Trinidad and Tobago, the Windward Islands, and the Leeward Islands.Between 1958 and 1962, all of the island territories except the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas were organised into the West Indies Federation, which did not include the mainland colonies of British Honduras and British Guiana. It was hoped that the Federation would become independent as a single nation, but it had limited powers, many practical problems, and a lack of popular support. Consequently, the West Indies Federation was dissolved in 1962.

Most of the historic British territories, including all of the larger ones, are now independent as separate countries, with membership in various international bodies, such as the Organization of American States, the Association of Caribbean States, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Commonwealth of Nations and the Caribbean Development Bank among others. The remainder are British overseas territories.

Caribbean

The Caribbean (, locally ) is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays. (See the list of Caribbean islands.) These islands generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands). The Lucayans and, less commonly, Bermuda, are also sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries, regions, and territories of Belize, Nicaragua, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amapá in Brazil), are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are usually regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

Chris Gayle

Christopher Henry Gayle, OD (born 21 September 1979) is a Jamaican cricketer who plays international cricket for the West Indies. Gayle captained the West Indies' Test side from 2007 to 2010. Considered as one of the greatest batsmen ever in Twenty20 (T20) cricket, Gayle has set numerous records across all three formats of cricket. He is widely acknowledged as one of the most clinical and destructive batsman in the history of the game, particularly in Twenty20. He is well known for hitting sixes, in 2012 he became the first player to hit a six off the first ball of a Test match. He holds the record for hitting the most sixes(515) in international cricket. He is the first batsman in the world to smash 10,000 runs in T20 cricket. He is the only player in the world to score a hundred in T20I, a double hundred in ODI and a triple hundred in Test Cricket.

He is one of only four players who have scored two triple centuries at Test level: 317 against South Africa in 2005, and 333 against Sri Lanka in 2010. Gayle became the first batsman in World Cup history to score a double century when he reached 200 off 138 balls against Zimbabwe during the 2015 World Cup. He finished on 215 runs, which was the record for highest score in a World Cup until it was broken by Martin Guptill against Gayle's own team. He is one of the six players to score a double century in ODIs. In March 2016, Gayle became only the second player (after Brendon McCullum) to hit two Twenty20 International hundreds, scoring 100 not out against England.

He plays domestic cricket for Jamaica, and also represents the Kings XI Punjab in the Indian Premier League, the Karachi Kings in the Pakistan Super League, the Melbourne Renegades in the Big Bash League, the Rangpur Riders in the Bangladesh Premier League, Jozi Stars in Mzansi Super League, Vancouver Knights in Global T20 Canada and the Balkh Legends in the Afghanistan Premier League. He has also represented Worcestershire, the Western Warriors, Sydney Thunder, Barisal Burners, Rangpur Riders, Dhaka Gladiators, Royal Challengers Bangalore, Kolkata Knight Riders and Somerset in his career.

In February 2019, Gayle announced that he will retire from ODIs after the 2019 Cricket World Cup. Later the same month, in the series against England, Gayle scored his 10,000th run and his 25th century in ODIs.

Cricket West Indies

Cricket West Indies (CWI), formerly known as West Indies Cricket Board (WICB), is the governing body for cricket in the West Indies (a sporting confederation of over a dozen mainly English-speaking Caribbean countries and dependencies that once formed the British West Indies). It was originally formed in the early 1920s as the West Indies Cricket Board of Control, but changed its name to West Indies Cricket Board in 1996. In November 2015, the Board resolved to rename itself as Cricket West Indies as part of a restructuring exercise that would also see the creation of a separate commercial body. This rebranding formally occurred in May 2017.

CWI has been a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) since 1926. It operates the West Indies cricket team and West Indies A cricket team, organising Test tours and one-day internationals with other teams. It also organises domestic cricket in West Indies, including the Regional Four Day Competition and the Regional Super50 domestic one-day (List A) competition. The CWI has also collaborated with Sir Allen Stanford in the organisation of the domestic Stanford 20/20 competition for the Twenty20 format of cricket. Later they created their own Twenty20 league called Caribbean Twenty20 after disbanding Stanford 20/20. In 2013 they Created Caribbean Premier League , a Professional Twenty20 league.

CWI's membership includes the six territorial cricket associations of the various countries and territories which contest the West Indies first-class and limited-overs competition in the Caribbean. Each provides two directors, in addition to a number of non-member directors. Two of these associations are themselves multi-national boards representing a number of countries and dependencies.

The President of CWI is Ricky Skerritt, who replaced Dave Cameron in 2019. Johnny Grave is the Chief Executive Officer.

Since 2005, as per an ICC mandate, the West Indies Women's Cricket Federation (WIWCF) has been integrated with CWI. The President of the WIWCF is Carol Whilby-Maxwell and the Secretary is Michael Seepersaud.

CWI is charged with aiding regional development of cricket in the Americas region, under the ICC's development program.

Dwayne Bravo

Dwayne John Bravo (born 7 October 1983) is a former Trinidadian cricketer, who played all formats of the game and a former captain of West Indies in all formats and plays league cricket for Chennai Super Kings & Quetta Gladiators . A genuine all-rounder, Bravo bats right-handed and bowls right-arm medium-fast pace. He is particularly known for his aggressive batting in the middle order, and for his "at the death" bowling. He is also known for his variety of lengths he can bowl at. He also performs as a singer.He sang the song for Quetta Gladiators in 2019.

Since 2004, Bravo has played 40 Test matches, 164 One Day Internationals and 66 Twenty20 Internationals for the West Indies. He was a key member of the West Indies team that won the 2012 ICC World Twenty20 and 2016 ICC World Twenty20 titles.

In domestic cricket, Bravo has played for his native Trinidad and Tobago since 2002. He has also played for the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League, the Lahore Qalanders in the Pakistan Super League, the Melbourne Renegades in the Big Bash League, the Chittagong Kings in the Bangladesh Premier League, and Kent and Essex in English county cricket. In 2013, he was named as a franchise player at the launch of the Caribbean Premier LeagueOn 31 January 2015, Bravo announced his retirement from Test cricket. He continues to play ODIs and T20Is. He was also a contestant on the dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa. He has also been as a guest in The Kapil Sharma Show on Sony Entertainment Channel. Bravo has also sung and produced the song 'Champion Champion' in March 2016, which became a club anthem in India, in the aftermath of the West Indies cricket teams' victory in the 2016 T20 World Cup.In October 2018, Bravo announced his retirement from international cricket, but he would still play in T20 franchise cricket.

French West Indies

The term French West Indies or French Antilles (French: Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean:

The two overseas departments of:

Guadeloupe, including the islands of Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Les Saintes, Marie-Galante, and La Désirade.

Martinique

The two overseas collectivities of:

Saint Martin

Saint BarthélemyDue to its proximity, French Guiana is often associated with the French West Indies.

Shivnarine Chanderpaul

Shivnarine Chanderpaul (born 16 August 1974) is a Guyanese cricketer of Indian descent and former West Indian international cricketer and captain of the West Indies cricket team. Widely considered as one of the forgotten greats of cricket, Chanderpaul is the first Indo-Caribbean to play 100 Tests for the West Indies, and third player with the international career span over two decades after Sachin Tendulkar and Sanath Jayasuriya.

Chanderpaul captained West Indies in 14 Tests and 16 One Day Internationals. A left-handed batsman, Chanderpaul is well known for his unorthodox batting stance, which has been described as crab-like. He has scored 20,000 runs in international cricket, and in 2008 he was named as one of the five Cricketers of the Year by the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, and awarded Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy (ICC Cricketer of the Year) by the International Cricket Council.

He made his international debut at the age of 19, but did not score a century in international cricket for three years, prompting some criticism. Early in his career, he was plagued by injuries, and was even dubbed a hypochondriac until he had a piece of floating bone removed from his foot in 2000. Since then he has enjoyed consistent form, scoring over 11,000 runs in Test cricket and is currently the 8th highest run scorer of all time in the format.Due to poor performances, Chanderpaul was dropped from the West Indies squad in 2015. After that, he announced his retirement from international cricket in 2016, without a farewell, at the age of 41.

Sunil Narine

Sunil Philip Narine (born 26 May 1988) is a Trinidadian cricketer of Indian descent who plays for the West Indies. Primarily an off-spin bowler, he is also an aggressive left-handed batsman.Narine currently plays for Kolkata Knight Riders in the Indian Premier League (IPL), Dhaka Dynamites in the BPL, Trinbago Knight Riders in the CPL and Quetta Gladiators in the PSL. He made his One Day International (ODI) debut in December 2011 and Test debut in June 2012.

Trinidad

Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies 11 km (6.8 mi) off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America. Though geographically part of the South American continent, from a socio-economic standpoint it is often referred to as the southernmost island in the Caribbean. With an area of 4,768 km2 (1,841 sq mi), it is also the fifth largest in the West Indies.

University of the West Indies

The University of the West Indies (UWI), originally University College of the West Indies, is a public university system established to serve the higher education needs of the residents of 17 English-speaking countries and territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands.

Each country is either a member of the Commonwealth of Nations or a British Overseas Territory. The aim of the university is to help 'unlock the potential for economic and cultural growth' in the West Indies, thus allowing improved regional autonomy. The University was originally instituted as an independent external college of the University of London.The University has produced students who have excelled in a number of disciplines such as the arts and sciences, business, politics, and sports. Notable alumni and faculty include three UWI (Mona) Nobel Laureates, 72 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Gates Cambridge Scholarship winners, 18 current or former Caribbean Heads of Government, and an Olympic medallist. The university's cricket team previously participated in West Indian domestic cricket, but now participates as part of a Combined Campuses and Colleges team.

Viv Richards

Sir Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards, KNH, OBE (born 7 March 1952), known as Viv Richards, is an Antiguan former cricketer, who represented the West Indies at test and international levels. He is regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. Richards was voted one of the five Cricketers of the Century by a 100-member panel of experts in 2000, along with Sir Donald Bradman, Sir Garfield Sobers, Sir Jack Hobbs and Shane Warne. He is also the mentor of T20 team Quetta Gladiators in Pakistan Super League.

In one-day cricket, Richards was judged by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack to have played the best One Day International (ODI) innings of all time. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the greatest ODI batsman of all time, as well as the third greatest Test batsman of all time, after Sir Don Bradman and Sachin Tendulkar. His consistent batting ability is highly regarded; he is the first cricketer in ODI history to achieve 20 Man of the Match awards.

Overall, Richards scored 8,540 runs in 121 Test matches at an average of 50.23, including 24 centuries. As a captain, he won 27 of 50 Test matches and lost only 8. He also scored nearly 7,000 runs in One Day Internationals and more than 36,000 in first-class cricket. Knighted for his contributions to cricket, today Richards is an occasional cricket commentator and team mentor.

West Indies Federation

The West Indies Federation, also known as the West Indies, the Federation of the West Indies or the West Indian Federation, was a short-lived political union that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962. Various islands in the Caribbean that were colonies of the United Kingdom, including Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Jamaica, and those on the Leeward and Windward Islands, came together to form the Federation, with its capital in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state—possibly similar to the Canadian Confederation, Australian Commonwealth, or Central African Federation; however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts over how the Federation itself would be governed or how it would viably function. The territories that would have become part of the Federation eventually became the nine contemporary sovereign states of Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago; with Anguilla, Montserrat, the Cayman Islands, and Turks and Caicos Islands becoming British overseas territories. British Guiana (Guyana) and British Honduras (Belize) held observer status within the West Indies Federation.

West Indies cricket team

The West Indies cricket team, traditionally known as the Windies (a nickname which became official in June 2017), is a multi-national cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies. As of 24 June 2018, the West Indian cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in ODIs and seventh in T20Is in the official ICC rankings.From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice (1975 and 1979), the ICC World Twenty20 twice (2012 and 2016), the ICC Champions Trophy once (2004), the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once (2016), and have also finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup (1983), the Under 19 Cricket World Cup (2004), and the ICC Champions Trophy (2006). The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals (1975, 1979 and 1983), and were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups (1975 and 1979).

The West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20.

Caribbean articles
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Culture
Earth's primary regions

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.