West Indian Americans or Caribbean Americans are Americans who can trace their recent ancestry to the Caribbean, unless they are of native descent. As of 2016, about 3,019,686 people residing in the United States — 0.934% of the total US population — have West Indian ancestry.
The Caribbean is the source of the United States' earliest and largest Black immigrant group and the primary source of growth of the Black population in the U.S. The region has exported more of its people than any other region of the world since the abolition of slavery in 1834. While the largest Caribbean immigrant sources to the U.S. are Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Haiti, U.S. citizen migrants also come from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
|West Indian Americans|
0.9% of the total U.S. population (2016)
|Regions with significant populations|
|New York City, Florida, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Georgia, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, California, Illinois, Maryland, Washington D.C.|
|Mainly: English-based creole languages (Jamaican Creole, Jamaican Patois, Trinidadian Creole, Tobagonian Creole, Bajan Creole, Sranan Tongo, Virgin Islands Creole, etc.), French, French-based creole languages (Haitian Creole, Antillean Creole), English, Trinidadian English, Spanish, Papiamento|
Minority: Dutch, Caribbean Hindustani
|Predominantly: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Yoruba, Amerindian Religion, Rastafari, Traditional African Religion, Afro-American religions Minority: Buddhism, Judaism, Jainism, Bahá'í|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Taíno, Arawak, African Americans, Indo-Caribbean American, English, French, Dutch, German, Asian, Caribbean Canadians|
The history of African-Caribbean immigration in the United States can be traced back to slavery when the British colonies in the Americas shifted enslaved Africans to different territories, as the demands of capital and plantation economy dictated.
First Africans from the West Indies who arrived in the United States were slaves brought to South Carolina in the 17th century. These slaves, many of whom were born in Africa, number among the first people of African origin imported to the British colonies of North America. Over time, Barbadian slaves would make up a significant part of the Black population in Virginia, mainly in the Virginia tidewater region of the Chesapeake Bay. The number of enslaved Africans bought from the Caribbean increased in the 18th century, as the Thirteen Colonies (the future continental U.S.) broadened its trade relations with other Caribbean islands.
The number of enslaved Africans imported from the Caribbean decreased after the New York Slave Revolt of 1712, as many white colonists blamed the incident on slaves recently arrived from the Caribbean. Nevertheless, between 1715 and 1741 most of the slaves of the colony remained from the West Antilles (hailing from Jamaica, Barbados and Antigua). However, after the New York slave revolt of 1741, slaves imported from the Caribbean were severely curtailed, and most enslaved Africans were brought directly from Africa.
Although Caribbean immigration to the United States was relatively small in the first years of 19th century, it grew significantly after the end of the American Civil War in 1865, which brought about the abolition of slavery. In the 19th century, the U.S. attracted many Caribbeans who excelled in various professions such as craftsmen, scholars, teachers, preachers, doctors, inventors, religious (the Barbadian Joseph Sandiford Atwell was the first black man after the Civil War to be ordained in the Episcopal Church), comedians (as the Bahamian Bert Williams), politics (as Robert Brown Elliott, U.S Congressman and Attorney General of South Carolina), poets, songwriters, and activists (as the brothers James Weldon and John Rosamond Johnson). From the end of the 19th century up to 1905, most West Indian people emigrated to South Florida, New York and Massachusetts. However, shortly after, New York would become the main destination for the West Indian immigrants.
Immigration from the region to the U.S. gained momentum during World War II when 50,000 black and white Caribbeans arrived in the 1940s, taking advantage of the rapidly expanding war economy and post-war economic growth. Thousands came as legal migrant workers brought to work in agriculture, primarily on Florida's sugar plantations. By the end of the war, thousands of contract workers from the Caribbean were employed as W2 workers 
Most of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America historically have had little tradition of immigration to America, before the 1960s. Post 1965 saw a tremendous influx of rural working-class migrants. Proximity to the U.S., fluency in English and Civil Rights legislation were reasons for the disproportionate numbers of Caribbean outflows. The collapse of agriculture in many islands had devastated their economies, the growing replacement of agriculture by tourism in the Eastern Caribbean had greatly increased the urban population and led to neglect of rural communities as well as greater migration to the U.S. from the Caribbean countryside.
The influx of direct, capital-intensive and labor-intensive foreign investment has accelerated the push to migrate out of the region, to the extent that these investments overwhelmed small-scale agriculture and manufacturing and displace workers who sought jobs elsewhere.
The vast majority of West Indian Americans are of African Afro-Caribbean descent, with the remaining portion mainly made up of multi-racials and Indo-Caribbean people, especially in the Guyanese and Trinidadian communities, where people of Indo-Caribbean descent make up a significant portion of the populations. Over 70 percent of non-Latino Caribbean immigrants were from Jamaica and Haiti, as of 2010. Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, the Bahamas, Barbados, and Grenada, among others, also have significant immigrant populations within the United States. Though sometimes divided by language, West Indian Americans share a common Caribbean culture. Of the Latino population, the Puerto Rican, Dominican, Nicaraguan, Honduran, Panamanian, Cuban, and Costa Rican populations are the most culturally similar to the non-Latino West Indian community.
|Country/region of ancestry||Caribbean|
|Trinidadian and Tobagonian||300,523|
|British West Indies||103,244|
|Dutch West Indian||42,808|
|Antiguan and Barbudan||15,199|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||6,368|
|French West Indies||1,915|
|Other West Indians||7,031|
In Florida 549,722 West Indians(excluding Hispanic origin groups) were foreign born as of 2016. Florida had the largest number of resident West Indian(excluding Hispanic origin groups) immigrants in 2016, followed by New York with 490,826 according to the US census.
As of 2016, 9.8% (4,286,266) of the total foreign born residence in the United States was born in the Caribbean.
In 2016, 18%(3,750,000) of Florida's population reported ancestry from the Caribbean.
|State/territory||Non-Latino West Indian-American
population (2010 Census)
|District of Columbia||7,785||1.2|
More than half of Caribbean immigrants either spoke only English or spoke English "very well." In 2009, 33.0 percent of Caribbean immigrants reported speaking only English and 23.9 percent reported speaking English "very well." In contrast, 42.8 percent of Caribbean immigrants were limited English proficient (LEP), meaning they reported speaking English less than "very well." Within this group, 9.7 percent reported that they did not speak English at all, 16.5 percent reported speaking English "well," and 16.7 percent reported speaking English "but not well."
According to the US census for 2016. West Indian Americans of the civilian employed population 16 years and over were 1,549,890. 32.6% were employed in Management, business, science, and arts occupations, 28.5% in Service occupations, 22.2% in Sales and office occupations, 6.1% in Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, and 10.5% in Production, transportation, and material moving occupations.
As of 2017 West Indian Americans are estimated to have a median household income of $54,033. West Indians also have a median family income of $62,867. Married-couple family: $80,626, Male householder, no spouse present, family: $53,101, Female householder, no husband present, family: $43,929. Their Individual per capita income(dollars) was $26,033.
As of 2017, 27.1 percent of West Indian Americans 25 years and over have a bachelor's degree or higher. Male, bachelor's degree or higher was 23.1% and Female, bachelor's degree or higher was 30.3%.
There are close to 50 Caribbean carnivals throughout North America that attest to the permanence of the Caribbean immigration experience. West Indians brought music, such as soca, chutney, chutney-soca, filmi, calypso, reggae, compas (kompa) and now reggaeton, which has a profound impact on U.S. popular culture. Cultural expressions, and the prominence of first-and second-generation Caribbean figures in U.S. labor and grassroots politics for many decades also testify to the long tradition and established presence.
National Caribbean American Heritage Month is celebrated in June. The heritage month was first officially observed in 2006, after being unanimously adopted by the House of Representatives on June 27, 2005 in H. Con. Res. 71, sponsored by Congresswoman Barbara Lee, recognizing the significance of Caribbean people and their descendants in the history and culture of the United States. The Senate adopted the resolution on February 14, 2006, which was introduced by Senator Chuck Schumer of New York. On June 5, 2006, George W. Bush issued a presidential proclamation declaring than June be annually recognized as National Caribbean American Heritage Month to celebrate the contributions of Caribbean Americans (both naturalized and US citizens by birth) in the United States. Since the declaration, the White House has issued an annual proclamation recognizing June as National Caribbean-American Heritage Month.
The Institute of Caribbean Studies based in Washington DC is the lead organization behind the Campaign which led to the establishment of Caribbean American Heritage Month.
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African-American Californians or Black Californians are residents of the state of California who are of African ancestry. According to U.S. Census Bureau, those identified as African American or black constituted 5.9% or 2,265,387 residents in California in 2015.African Americans in Florida
African Americans in Florida are residents of the state of Florida who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 16.6% of the state's population. The African-American presence in the peninsula extends as far back as the early 18th century, when African-American slaves escaped from slavery in Georgia into the swamps of the peninsula.African Americans in Georgia (U.S. state)
African-American Georgians are residents of the U.S. state of Georgia who are of African American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 31.2% of the state's population.African Americans in Louisiana
African Americans in Louisiana are residents of the state of Louisiana who are of African-American ancestry.African Americans in Mississippi
African Americans in Mississippi are residents of the state of Mississippi who are of African-American ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 37.4% of the state's population.African Americans in North Carolina
African-American North Carolinians are residents of the state of North Carolina who are of African ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, African Americans were 22% of the state's population.African Americans in South Carolina
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Australian Americans are Americans who have Australian ancestry.Bahamian Americans
Bahamian Americans are Americans of Bahamian ancestry. There are an estimated 56,498 people of Bahamian ancestry living in the US as of 2015.Belizean Americans
Belizean Americans are Americans who are of Belizean ancestry. These ancestors might be from Belize or of its diaspora.Caribbean Brazilians
Caribbean Brazilians (Portuguese: Caraíba-brasileiro, Caribenho brasileiro) refers to Brazilians of full, partial, or predominantly Caribbean ancestry, or Caribbean-born people residing in Brazil. Many Caribbean Brazilians are of Barbadian descent.Dutch West Indian Americans
Dutch West Indian Americans or Dutch Antillean Americans are Americans of Dutch Antillean descent. According to the 2010 Census Bureau figures there 54,377 Americans under the category of "Dutch West Indian".
In the 2000 US Census, the number of Americans reported whose origins are in the Dutch West Indian was of 35,359. In this Census (and to difference of the 2010 US Census whose Dutch West Indian ethnics were not mentioned of individual way) a total of 1,970 people affirmed just be of Aruban descent, while only 352 people claimed descent from people of St. Maarten.German Nebraskan
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Guyanese Americans are Americans who can trace their ancestry back to Guyana.Haitian Americans
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There are basically two Oceanian American groups, that well represent the racial and cultural population of Oceania: Euro Oceanic Americans (Australian Americans and New Zealand Americans) and the indigenous peoples of Oceania in the United States or Pacific Islands Americans (Chamorro Americans, Samoan Americans, etc.) Most of the Euro-Oceanians are descended from the European settlers in Oceania; while Pacific Islanders are of indigenous Oceanic descent.