Week

A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world, mostly alongside—although not strictly part of—the Gregorian calendar.

In many languages, the days of the week are named after classical planets or gods of a pantheon. In English, the names are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday.

ISO 8601 includes the ISO week date system, a numbering system for weeks within a given year – each week begins on a Monday and is associated with the year that contains that week's Thursday (so that if a year starts in a long weekend Friday–Sunday, week number one of the year will start after that). ISO 8601 assigns numbers to the days of the week, running from 1 to 7 for Monday through to Sunday.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

The term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days, such as the nundinal cycle of the ancient Roman calendar, the "work week", or "school week" referring only to the days spent on those activities.

Italian - Bracelet - Walters 41269
An Italian cameo bracelet representing the days of the week by their eponymous deities (mid-19th century, Walters Art Museum)
CLM 14456 71r detail
Circular diagrams showing the division of the day and of the week, from a Carolingian ms. (Clm 14456 fol. 71r) of St. Emmeram Abbey. The week is divided into seven days, and each day into 96 puncta (quarter-hours), 240 minuta (tenths of an hour) and 960 momenta (40th parts of an hour).

Name

The English word week comes from the Old English wice, ultimately from a Common Germanic *wikōn-, from a root *wik- "turn, move, change". The Germanic word probably had a wider meaning prior to the adoption of the Roman calendar, perhaps "succession series", as suggested by Gothic wikō translating taxis "order" in Luke 1:8.

The seven-day week is named in many languages by a word derived from "seven". The archaism sennight ("seven-night") preserves the old Germanic practice of reckoning time by nights, as in the more common fortnight ("fourteen-night").[1] Hebdomad and hebdomadal week both derive from the Greek hebdomás (ἑβδομάς, "a seven"). The obsolete septimane is cognate with the Romance terms derived from Latin septimana ("a seven").

Slavic has a formation *tъ(žь)dьnь (Serbian тједан, Croatian tjedan, Ukrainian тиждень, Czech týden, Polish tydzień), from *tъ "this" + *dьnь "day". Chinese has 星期, as it were "planetary time unit".

Definition and duration

A week is defined as an interval of exactly seven days,[a] so that technically, except at daylight saving time transitions or leap seconds,

1 week = 7 days = 168 hours = 10,080 minutes = 604,800 seconds.

With respect to the Gregorian calendar:

  • 1 Gregorian calendar year = 52 weeks + 1 day (2 days in a leap year)
  • 1 week = ​16006957 ≈ 22.9984% of an average Gregorian month

In a Gregorian mean year, there are 365.2425 days, and thus exactly ​52 71400 or 52.1775 weeks (unlike the Julian year of 365.25 days or ​52 528 ≈ 52.1786 weeks, which cannot be represented by a finite decimal expansion). There are exactly 20,871 weeks in 400 Gregorian years, so 25 May 1619 was a Saturday just as was 25 May 2019.

Relative to the path of the Moon, a week is 23.659% of an average lunation or 94.637% of an average quarter lunation.

Historically, the system of dominical letters (letters A to G identifying the weekday of the first day of a given year) has been used to facilitate calculation of the day of week. The day of the week can be easily calculated given a date's Julian day number (JD, i.e. the integer value at noon UT): Adding one to the remainder after dividing the Julian day number by seven (JD modulo 7 + 1) yields that date's ISO 8601 day of the week (for example, the Julian day number of 25 May 2019 is 2458629. Calculating (2458629 mod 7 + 1) yields 6, corresponding to Saturday.).[2]

Days of the week

Weekday heptagram.ant
Schematic comparison of the ordering of the classical planets (arranged in a circle) and the sequence of days in the week (forming a {7/3} heptagram within the circle).

The days of the week were originally named for the classical planets. This naming system persisted alongside an "ecclesiastical" tradition of numbering the days, in ecclesiastical Latin beginning with dominica (the Lord's Day) as the first day. The Greco-Roman gods associated with the classical planets were rendered in their interpretatio germanica at some point during the late Roman Empire, yielding the Germanic tradition of names based on indigenous deities.

The ordering of the weekday names is not the classical order of the planets (by distance in the planetary spheres model, nor, equivalently, by their apparent speed of movement in the night sky). Instead, the planetary hours systems resulted in succeeding days being named for planets that are three places apart in their traditional listing. This characteristic was apparently discussed in Plutarch in a treatise written in c. AD 100, which is reported to have addressed the question of Why are the days named after the planets reckoned in a different order from the actual order? (the text of Plutarch's treatise has been lost).[3]

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Planet Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
Greco-Roman deity Selene-Luna Ares-Mars Hermes-Mercury Zeus-Jupiter Aphrodite-Venus Cronus-Saturn Helios-Sol
Greek: ἡμέρα Σελήνης ἡμέρα Ἄρεως ἡμέρα Ἑρμοῦ ἡμέρα Διός ἡμέρα Ἀφροδίτης ἡμέρα Κρόνου ἡμέρα Ἡλίου
Latin: dies Lūnae dies Martis dies Mercuriī dies Iovis dies Veneris dies Saturnī dies Sōlis
interpretatio germanica Moon Tiwaz Wodanaz Þunraz Frige Sun
Old English mōnandæg tiwesdæg wōdnesdæg þunresdæg frīgedæg sæterndæg sunnandæg

An ecclesiastical, non-astrological, system of numbering the days of the week was adopted in Late Antiquity. This model also seems to have influenced (presumably via Gothic) the designation of Wednesday as "mid-week" in Old High German (mittawehha) and Old Church Slavonic (срѣда). Old Church Slavonic may have also modeled the name of Monday, понєдѣльникъ, after the Latin feria secunda.[4] The ecclesiastical system became prevalent in Eastern Christianity, but in the Latin West it remains extant only in modern Icelandic, Galician, and Portuguese.[5]

1. Sunday (Christian Sabbath) 2. Monday 3. Tuesday 4. Wednesday 5. Thursday 6. Friday (Muslim Sabbath) 7. Saturday (Jewish Sabbath)
Greek Κυριακὴ ἡμέρα
/kiriaki iméra/
Δευτέρα ἡμέρα
/devtéra iméra/
Τρίτη ἡμέρα
/tríti iméra/
Τετάρτη ἡμέρα
/tetárti iméra/
Πέμπτη ἡμέρα
/pémpti iméra/
Παρασκευὴ ἡμέρα
/paraskevi iméra/[6]
Σάββατον
/sáb:aton/
Latin [dies] dominica;
rarely feria prima, feria dominica
feria secunda feria tertia feria quarta;
rarely media septimana
feria quinta feria sexta Sabbatum; dies sabbatinus, dies Sabbati;
rarely feria septima, feria Sabbati

History

A continuous seven-day cycle that runs throughout history paying no attention whatsoever to the phases of the moon was first practised in Judaism, dated to the 6th century BC at the latest.[7][8]

There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the biblical seven-day cycle.

Friedrich Delitzsch and others suggested that the seven-day week being approximately a quarter of a lunation is the implicit astronomical origin of the seven-day week,[9] and indeed the Babylonian calendar used intercalary days to synchronize the last week of a month with the new moon.[10] According to this theory, the Jewish week was adopted from the Babylonians while removing the moon-dependency.

However, Niels-Erik Andreasen, Jeffrey H. Tigay, and others claimed that the Biblical Sabbath is mentioned as a day of rest in some of the earliest layers of the Pentateuch dated to the 9th century BC at the latest, centuries before Judea's Babylonian exile. They also find the resemblance between the Biblical Sabbath and the Babylonian system to be weak. Therefore, they suggested that the seven-day week may reflect an independent Israelite tradition.[11][12][13][14] Tigay writes:

It is clear that among neighboring nations that were in position to have an influence over Israel – and in fact which did influence it in various matters – there is no precise parallel to the Israelite Sabbatical week. This leads to the conclusion that the Sabbatical week, which is as unique to Israel as the Sabbath from which it flows, is an independent Israelite creation.[13][15]

The seven-day week seems to have been adopted, at different stages, by the Persian Empire, in Hellenistic astrology, and (via Greek transmission) in Gupta India and Tang China.[b] The Babylonian system was received by the Greeks in the 4th century BC (notably via Eudoxus of Cnidus). However the designation of the seven days of the week to the seven planets is an innovation introduced in the time of Augustus.[17] The astrological concept of planetary hours is rather an original innovation of Hellenistic astrology, probably first conceived in the 2nd century BC.[18]

The seven-day week was widely known throughout the Roman Empire by the 1st century AD,[17] along with references to the Jewish Sabbath by Roman scholars such as Seneca and Ovid.[19] When the seven-day week came into use in Rome during the early imperial period, it did not immediately replace the older eight-day nundinal system.[20] The nundinal system had probably fallen out of use by the time Emperor Constantine adopted the seven-day week for official use in CE 321, making the Day of the Sun (dies Solis) a legal holiday.[21]

Ancient Near East

The earliest evidence of an astrological significance of a seven-day period is connected to Gudea, priest-king of Lagash in Sumer during the Gutian dynasty, who built a seven-room temple, which he dedicated with a seven-day festival. In the flood story of the Assyro-Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh the storm lasts for seven days, the dove is sent out after seven days, and the Noah-like character of Utnapishtim leaves the ark seven days after it reaches firm ground.[c]

It seems likely that the Hebrew seven-day week is based on the Babylonian tradition, although going through certain adaptations. George Aaron Barton speculated that the seven-day creation account of Genesis is connected to the Babylonian creation epic, Enûma Eliš, which is recorded on seven tablets.[25]

Counting from the new moon, the Babylonians celebrated the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th as "holy-days", also called "evil days" (meaning "unsuitable" for prohibited activities). On these days, officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", and at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day".[26] On each of them, offerings were made to a different god and goddess.

In a frequently-quoted suggestion going back to the early 20th century,[27] the Hebrew Sabbath is compared to the Sumerian sa-bat "mid-rest", a term for the full moon. The Sumerian term has been reconstructed as rendered Sapattum or Sabattum in Babylonian, possibly present in the lost fifth tablet of the Enûma Eliš, tentatively reconstructed "[Sa]bbath shalt thou then encounter, mid[month]ly".[26]

Achaemenid period

The Zoroastrian calendar follows the Babylonian in relating the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th of the month to Ahura Mazda.[28] The forerunner of all modern Zoroastrian calendars is the system used to determine dates in the Persian Empire, adopted from the Babylonian calendar by the 4th century BC.

Frank C. Senn in his book Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical points to data suggesting evidence of an early continuous use of a seven-day week; referring to the Jews during the Babylonian captivity in the 6th century BC,[8] after the destruction of the Temple of Solomon. While the seven-day week in Judaism is tied to Creation account in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible (where God creates the heavens and the earth in six days and rests on the seventh; Genesis 1:1–2:3, in the Book of Exodus, the fourth of the Ten Commandments is to rest on the seventh day, Shabbat, which can be seen as implying a socially instituted seven-day week), it is not clear whether the Genesis narrative predates the Babylonian captivity of the Jews in the 6th century BC. At least since the Second Temple period under Persian rule, Judaism relied on the seven-day cycle of recurring Sabbaths.[29]

Tablets from the Achaemenid period indicate that the lunation of 29 or 30 days basically contained three seven-day weeks, and a final week of eight or nine days inclusive, breaking the continuous seven-day cycle.[26] The Babylonians additionally celebrated the 19th as a special "evil day", the "day of anger", because it was roughly the 49th day of the (preceding) month, completing a "week of weeks", also with sacrifices and prohibitions.[26]

Difficulties with Friedrich Delitzsch's origin theory connecting Hebrew Shabbat with the Babylonian lunar cycle[30] include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, and explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Shabbat in any language.[31]

Hellenistic and Roman era

In Jewish sources by the time of the Septuagint, the term "Sabbath" (Greek Sabbaton) by synecdoche also came to refer to an entire seven-day week,[32] the interval between two weekly Sabbaths. Jesus's parable of the Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 18:12) describes the Pharisee as fasting "twice in the week" (Greek δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου dis tou sabbatou).

The ancient Romans traditionally used the eight-day nundinum but, after the Julian calendar had come into effect in 45 BC, the seven-day week came into increasing use. For a while, the week and the nundinal cycle coexisted, but by the time the week was officially adopted by Constantine in AD 321, the nundinal cycle had fallen out of use. The association of the days of the week with the Sun, the Moon and the five planets visible to the naked eye dates to the Roman era (2nd century).[33][34]

The continuous seven-day cycle of the days of the week can be traced back to the reign of Augustus; the first identifiable date cited complete with day of the week is 6 February AD 60, identified as a "Sunday" (as viii idus Februarius dies solis "eighth day before the ides of February, day of the Sun") in a Pompeiian graffito. According to the (contemporary) Julian calendar, 6 February 60 was, however, a Wednesday. This is explained by the existence of two conventions of naming days of the weeks based on the planetary hours system: 6 February was a "Sunday" based on the sunset naming convention, and a "Wednesday" based on the sunrise naming convention.[35]

Adoption in Asia

China and Japan

The earliest known reference in Chinese writings to a seven-day week is attributed to Fan Ning, who lived in the late 4th century in the Jin Dynasty, while diffusions from the Manichaeans are documented with the writings of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yi Jing and the Ceylonese or Central Asian Buddhist monk Bu Kong of the 7th century (Tang Dynasty).

The Chinese variant of the planetary system was brought to Japan by the Japanese monk Kūkai (9th century). Surviving diaries of the Japanese statesman Fujiwara Michinaga show the seven-day system in use in Heian Period Japan as early as 1007. In Japan, the seven-day system was kept in use for astrological purposes until its promotion to a full-fledged Western-style calendrical basis during the Meiji Period.

India

The seven-day week was known in India by the 6th century, referenced in the Pañcasiddhāntikā. Shashi (2000) mentions the Garga Samhita, which he places in the 1st century BC or AD, as a possible earlier reference to a seven-day week in India. He concludes "the above references furnish a terminus ad quem (viz. 1st century) The terminus a quo cannot be stated with certainty".[36][37]

Arabia

In Arabia, a similar seven-week system was adopted, that may be influenced by the Hebrew week (via Christianity).

Christian Europe

The seven-day weekly cycle has remained unbroken in Christendom, and hence in Western history, for almost two millennia, despite changes to the Coptic, Julian, and Gregorian calendars, demonstrated by the date of Easter Sunday having been traced back through numerous computistic tables to an Ethiopic copy of an early Alexandrian table beginning with the Easter of AD 311.[38][39]

A tradition of divinations arranged for the days of the week on which certain feast days occur develops in the Early Medieval period. There are many later variants of this, including the German Bauern-Praktik and the versions of Erra Pater published in 16th to 17th century England, mocked in Samuel Butler's Hudibras. South and East Slavic versions are known as koliadniki (from koliada, a loan of Latin calendae), with Bulgarian copies dating from the 13th century, and Serbian versions from the 14th century.[40]

Medieval Christian traditions associated with the lucky or unlucky nature of certain days of the week survived into the modern period. This concerns primarily Friday, associated with the crucifixion of Jesus. Sunday, sometimes personified as Saint Anastasia, was itself an object of worship in Russia, a practice denounced in a sermon extant in copies going back to the 14th century.[41]

Sunday, in the ecclesiastical numbering system also counted as the feria prima or the first day of the week; yet, at the same time, figures as the "eighth day", and has occasionally been so called in Christian liturgy. [d]

Justin Martyr wrote: "the first day after the Sabbath, remaining the first of all the days, is called, however, the eighth, according to the number of all the days of the cycle, and [yet] remains the first."[42]

A period of eight days, starting and ending on a Sunday, is called an octave, particularly in Roman Catholic liturgy. In German, the phrase in acht Tagen (literally "in eight days") means one week from today. In Italian, the phrase oggi otto (literally "today eight") also means one week from today.

Week numbering

Weeks in a Gregorian calendar year can be numbered for each year. This style of numbering is commonly used (for example, by schools and businesses) in some European and Asian countries, but rare elsewhere.

ISO 8601 includes the ISO week date system, a numbering system for weeks – each week begins on a Monday and is associated with the year that contains that week's Thursday (so that if a year starts in a long weekend Friday–Sunday, week number one of the year will start after that). For example, week 1 of 2004 (2004W01) ran from Monday, 29 December 2003 to Sunday, 4 January 2004, because its Thursday was 1 January 2004, whereas week 1 of 2005 (2005W01) ran from Monday, 3 January 2005 to Sunday, 9 January 2005, because its Thursday was 6 January 2005 and so the first Thursday of 2005. The highest week number in a year is either 52 or 53 (it was 53 in the year 2004). Schematically, this ISO convention translates as follows:

Weekdays and dates
at the start of January
Effect Weekdays and dates at the end
of December (in common years1)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Week no. 01
begins
First week no.
in the year
Last week no.
in the year
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 January 01 01 next year 31
1 2 3 4 5 6 31 December
previous year
01 01 next year 30 31
1 2 3 4 5 30 December
previous year
01 01 next year,
53 when leap year1
29
 
30
 
31
 
1 2 3 4 29 December
previous year
01 53 28 29 30 31
1 2 3 4 January 53 previous year 52 27 28 29 30 31
1 2 3 January 53 when leap year
previous year,
52 when normal year
previous year
52 26 27 28 29 30 31
1 2 January 52 previous year 52 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

1 Use the dates on the next line when leap years.

In some countries, though, the numbering system is different from the ISO standard. At least six numberings are in use:[43][44]

System First day
of week
First week of year contains Can be last week
of previous year
Used by or in
ISO-8601 Monday 4 January 1st Thursday 4–7 days of year yes EU and most of other European countries, most of Asia and Oceania
(Middle Eastern) Saturday 1 January 1st Friday 1–7 days of year yes Much of the Middle East
(North American and Islamic) Sunday 1 January 1st Saturday 1–7 days of year yes Canada, United States, India, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Macau, Israel, Egypt, South Africa, the Philippines, and most of Latin America

The semiconductor package date code is often a 4 digit date code YYWW where the first two digits YY are the last 2 digits of the calendar year and the last two digits WW are the two-digit week number.[45][46]

The tire date code mandated by the US DOT is a 4 digit date code WWYY with two digits of the week number WW followed by the last two digits of the calendar year YY.[47]

"Weeks" in other calendars

The term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days. Such "weeks" of between four and ten days have been used historically in various places.[48] Intervals longer than 10 days are not usually termed "weeks" as they are closer in length to the fortnight or the month than to the seven-day week.

Pre-modern calendars

Calendars unrelated to the Chaldean, Hellenistic, Christian, or Jewish traditions often have time cycles between the day and the month of varying lengths, sometimes also called "weeks".

An eight-day week was used in Ancient Rome and possibly in the pre-Christian Celtic calendar. Traces of a nine-day week are found in Baltic languages and in Welsh. The ancient Chinese calendar had a ten-day week, as did the ancient Egyptian calendar (and, incidentally, the French Republican Calendar, dividing its 30-day months into thirds).

A six-day week is found in the Akan Calendar. Several cultures used a five-day week, including the 10th century Icelandic calendar, the Javanese calendar, and the traditional cycle of market days in Korea. The Igbo have a "market week" of four days. Evidence of a "three-day week" has been derived from the names of the days of the week in Guipuscoan Basque.[49]

The Aztecs and Mayas used the Mesoamerican calendars. The most important of these calendars divided a ritual cycle of 260 days (known as Tonalpohualli in Nahuatl and Tzolk'in in Yucatec Maya) into 20 weeks of 13 days (known in Spanish as trecenas). They also divided the solar year into 18 periods of 20 days and five nameless days, creating a 20-day month divided into four five-day weeks. The end of each five-day week was a market day.[50][51]

The Balinese Pawukon is a 210-day calendar consisting of 10 different simultaneously running weeks of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 days, of which the weeks of 4, 8, and 9 days are interrupted to fit into the 210-day cycle.

Modern calendar reforms

A 10-day week, called décade, was used in France for nine and a half years from October 1793 to April 1802; furthermore, the Paris Commune adopted the Revolutionary Calendar for 18 days in 1871.

The Bahá'í calendar features a 19-day period which some classify as a month and others classify as a week.[52]

The International Fixed Calendar (also known as the "Eastman plan") fixed every date always on the same weekday. This plan kept a 7-day week while defining a year of 13 months with 28 days each. It was the official calendar of the Eastman Kodak Company for decades.

Soviet calendar 1930 color
Soviet calendar, 1930.
Five colors of five-day work week repeat.
Soviet calendar 1933 color
Soviet calendar, 1933.
Rest day of six-day work week in blue.

In the Soviet Union between 1929 and 1940, most factory and enterprise workers, but not collective farm workers, used five- and six-day work weeks while the entire country continued to use the traditional seven-day week.[53][54][55] From 1929 to 1951, five national holidays were days of rest (22 January, 1–2 May, 7–8 November). From autumn 1929 to summer 1931, the remaining 360 days of the year were subdivided into 72 five-day work weeks beginning on 1 January. Workers were assigned any one of the five days as their day off, even if their spouse or friends might be assigned a different day off. Peak usage of the five-day work week occurred on 1 October 1930 at 72% of industrial workers. From summer 1931 until 26 June 1940, each Gregorian month was subdivided into five six-day work weeks, more-or-less, beginning with the first day of each month. The sixth day of each six-day work week was a uniform day of rest. On 1 July 1935 74.2% of industrial workers were on non-continuous schedules, mostly six-day work weeks, while 25.8% were still on continuous schedules, mostly five-day work weeks. The Gregorian calendar with its irregular month lengths and the traditional seven-day week were used in the Soviet Union during its entire existence, including 1929–1940; for example, in the masthead of Pravda, the official Communist newspaper, and in both Soviet calendars displayed here. The traditional names of the seven-day week continued to be used, including "Resurrection" (Воскресенье) for Sunday and "Sabbath" (Суббота) for Saturday, despite the government's official atheism.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In pre-modern times, days were measured either from sunset to sunset, or from sunrise to sunrise, so that the length of the week (and the day) would be subject to slight variations depending upon the time of year and the observer's geographical latitude.
  2. ^ It was transmitted to China in the 8th century by Manichaeans, via the country of Kang (a Central Asian polity near Samarkand). Tang-era adoption is documented in the writings of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yi Jing and the Ceylonese Buddhist monk Bu Kong. According to the Chinese encyclopaedia Cihai (辞海), there is some evidence that the system had been adopted twice, the first time already in the 4th century (Jin dynasty), based on a reference by a Jin era astrologer, Fan Ning (范寧 / 范宁). The Cihai under the entry for "seven luminaries calendar" (七曜曆 / 七曜历, qī yào lì) has: "method of recording days according to the seven luminaries [七曜 qī yào]. China normally observes the following order: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn. Seven days make one week, which is repeated in a cycle. Originated in ancient Babylon (or ancient Egypt according to one theory). Used by the Romans at the time of the 1st century AD, later transmitted to other countries. This method existed in China in the 4th century. It was also transmitted to China by Manichaeans in the 8th century from the country of Kang () in Central Asia."[16]
  3. ^ Copeland (1939) states as the date for Gudea "as early as 2600 BC";[22] the modern estimate according to the short chronology places Gudea in the 22nd century BC. By contrast, Anthony R. Michaelis claims that "the first great empire builder, King Sargon I of Akkad ([ruled] 2335 to 2279 BC [viz., middle chronology]), decreed a seven-day week in his empire. He lived for 56 years, established the first Semitic Dynasty, and defeated the Sumerian City States. Thus the Akkadian language spread, it was adopted by the Babylonians, and the seven-day week was similarly inherited from him."[23] The number seven is significant in Sumerian mythology.[24]
  4. ^ This is just a reflection of the system of ordinal numbers in the Greek and Latin languages, where today is the "first" day, tomorrow the "second" day, etc. Compare the nundinal cycle (literally "nine-days" cycle, describing an eight-day week) of the Roman calendar, or the Resurrection of Jesus (after a period of less than 48 hours) being described (in texts derived from Latin) as happening on the "third day".

References

  1. ^ sennight at worldwidewords.org (retrieved 12 January 2017)
  2. ^ Richards, E. G. (2013). "Calendars". In S. E. Urban & P. K. Seidelmann, eds. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, 3rd ed. (pp. 585–624). Mill Valley, Calif.: University Science Books. 2013, pp. 592, 618. This is equivalent to saying that JD0, i.e. 1 January 4713 BC of the proleptic Julian calendar, was a Monday.
  3. ^ E. G. Richards, Mapping Time, the Calendar and History, Oxford 1999. p. 269.
  4. ^ Max Vasmer, Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, s.v. понедельник; however, the Slavic languages later introduced a secondary numbering system that names Tuesday as the "second day".
  5. ^ the latter specifically due to the influence of Martin of Braga, 6th-century archbishop of Braga. Richard A. Fletcher (1999). The Barbarian Conversion: From Paganism to Christianity. University of California Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-520-21859-8.McKenna, Stephen (1938). "Pagan Survivals in Galicia in the Sixth Century". Paganism and Pagan Survivals in Spain Up to the Fall of the Visigothic Kingdom. Catholic University of America. pp. 93–94. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
  6. ^ "day of preparation", i.e. the day before Sabbath, c.f. Luke 23:54 (καὶ ἡμέρα ἦν Παρασκευῆς, καὶ σάββατον ἐπέφωσκεν.)
  7. ^ Zerubavel (1989), p. 11.
  8. ^ a b Senn, Frank C. (1997). Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-2726-3.
  9. ^ Leland, S. Copeland (April 1939). "Sources of the Seven-Day Week". Popular Astronomy. XLVII (4): 176 ff. Bibcode:1939PA.....47..175C.
  10. ^ A month consisted of three seven-day weeks and a fourth week of eight or nine days, thus breaking the seven-day cycle every month. Consequently, there is no evidence that the days of the week were given individual names in Babylonian tradition. Pinches, T.G. (2003). "Sabbath (Babylonian)". In Hastings, James (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 889–891. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  11. ^ Andreasen, Niels-Erik A. (1972). The Old Testament Sabbath: A Tradition-historical Investigation. Society of Biblical Literature.
  12. ^ Shafer, Byron E. (1974). "Reviewed Work: The Old Testament Sabbath: A Tradition-Historical Investigation by Niels-Erik A. Andreasen". Journal of Biblical Literature. 93 (2): 300–301. doi:10.2307/3263102. JSTOR 3263102.
  13. ^ a b Tigay, Jeffery H. (1998). "Shavua". Mo'adei Yisra'el: Time and Holy Days in the Biblical and Second Commonwealth Periods (Heb.), ed. Jacob S. Licht: 22–23.
  14. ^ Hallo, William W. (1977). "New Moons and Sabbaths: A Case-Study in the Contrastive Approach". Hebrew Union College Annual. 48: 1–18. JSTOR 23506909.
  15. ^ Friedman, Allen (September 2008). "Unnatural Time: Its History and Theological Significance". The Torah U-Madda Journal. 15: 104–105. JSTOR 40914729, Tigay's citation.
  16. ^ "Japanese Days of the Week: the 'Seven Luminaries'". Days of the Week in Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese & Mongolian. cjvlang.
  17. ^ a b Keegan, Peter; Sears, Gareth; Laurence, Ray (12 September 2013). Written Space in the Latin West, 200 BC to AD 300. A&C Black. ISBN 9781441123046.
  18. ^ Zerubavel (1989), p. 14.
  19. ^ So, Ky-Chun (6 April 2017). Jesus in Q: The Sabbath and Theology of the Bible and Extracanonical Texts. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781498282116.
  20. ^ Brind'Amour, Pierre (1983). Le calendrier Romain :Recherches chronologiques (in French). Editions de l'Universitá d'Ottawa. p. 256–275. ISBN 2760347028.
  21. ^ Schaff, Philip (1884). History of the Christian Church Vol. III. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. p. 380. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  22. ^ Copeland, Leland S. (1939). "Sources of the Seven-Day Week". Popular Astronomy. 47 (4): 176. Bibcode:1939PA.....47..175C.
  23. ^ Michaelis, Anthony R. "The Enigmatic Seven" (PDF). Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. 7: 373.
  24. ^ "The power of seven". The Economist. 20 December 2001.
  25. ^ "Each account is arranged in a series of sevens, the Babylonian in seven tablets, the Hebrew in seven days. Each of them places the creation of man in the sixth division of its series." cited after: Albert T. Clay, The Origin of Biblical Traditions: Hebrew Legends in Babylonia and Israel, 1923, p. 74.
  26. ^ a b c d Pinches, T.G. (2003). "Sabbath (Babylonian)". In Hastings, James (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 889–891. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  27. ^ "The Babylonian Sabbath". The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Vol. XXX. 1908. p. 181. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  28. ^ Boyce, Mary (ed. & trans.). Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. University of Chicago Press, 1984, p. 19-20.
  29. ^ Senn, Frank C. (1997). Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-2726-3.
  30. ^ Landau, Judah Leo. The Sabbath. Johannesburg, South Africa: Ivri Publishing Society, Ltd. pp. 2, 12. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  31. ^ Sampey, John Richard (1915). "Sabbath: Critical Theories". In Orr, James (ed.). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Howard-Severance Company. p. 2630.
  32. ^ Strong's Concordance, 4521.
  33. ^ Zerubavel (1989), p. 45.
  34. ^ Senn, Frank C. (1997). Christian Liturgy: Catholic and Evangelical. Fortress Press. ISBN 978-0-8006-2726-3.
  35. ^ Nerone Caesare Augusto Cosso Lentuol Cossil fil. Cos. VIII idus Febr(u)arius dies solis, luna XIIIIX nun(dinae) Cumis, V (idus Februarias) nun(dinae) Pompeis.
    Robert Hannah (2013). "Time in Written Spaces". In Peter Keegan; Gareth Sears; Ray Laurence (eds.). Written Space in the Latin West, 200 BC to AD 300. A&C Black. p. 89.
  36. ^ Shashi, Shyam Singh (2000). Encyclopaedia Indica India, Pakistan, Bangladesh Vol. 76 Major dynasties of ancient Orissa: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7.
  37. ^ Pandurang Vaman Kane (1930–1962). History of Dharmaśāstra.
  38. ^ Neugebauer, Otto (1979). Ethiopic astronomy and computus. Verl. d. Österr. Akad. d. Wiss. ISBN 978-3-7001-0289-2.
  39. ^ Jayne Lutwyche (22 January 2013). "Why are there seven days in a week?". Religion & Ethics. BBC. The Roman context of the spread of Christianity meant that Rome contributed a lot to the structure and calendar of the new faith
  40. ^ William Francis Ryan, The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination in Russia, Penn State Press, 1999 p. 380.
  41. ^ William Francis Ryan, The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination in Russia, Penn State Press, 1999 p. 383.
  42. ^ Peter Kirby. "Saint Justin Martyr: Dialogue with Trypho". Early Christian Writings.
  43. ^ Peter Johann Haas (26 January 2002). "Weeknumber sorted by definition". pjh2.de.
  44. ^ "Calendar Weeks". J. R. Stockton. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  45. ^ "Quality & Lead-free (Pb-free): Marking Convention". Texas Instrument. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.
  46. ^ "Top Mark Convention – 4-Digit Date Code". Fairchild Semiconductor. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  47. ^ "49 CFR 574.5 – Tire identification requirements". Legal Information Institute.
  48. ^ OED s.v. "week n.", entry 1.c.: "Sometimes applied transf. to other artificial cycles of a few days that have been employed various peoples"
  49. ^ Astronomy and Basque Language, Henrike Knörr, Oxford VI and SEAC 99 "Astronomy and Cultural Diversity", La Laguna, June 1999. It references Alessandro Bausani, 1982, The prehistoric Basque week of three days: archaeoastronomical notes, The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy (Maryland), v. 2, 16–22. 1. astelehena ("week-first", Monday), 2. asteartea ("week-between", Tuesday), 3. asteazkena ("week-last", Wednesday).
  50. ^ Zerubavel (1989), pp. 50–54.
  51. ^ "Aztec calendar stone". aztec-history.com.
  52. ^ Zerubavel, Eviatar (1985). The Seven-Day Circle. New York: The Free Press. pp. 48–50. ISBN 0029346800.
  53. ^ Foss, Clive (September 2004). "Stalin's topsy-turvy work week". History Today. 54 (9): 46–47.
  54. ^ "La réforme en Russie: il faudra attendre… plus de trois siècles" [The reform in Russia: it will be necessary to wait… more than three centuries]. iCalendrier (in French).
  55. ^ Zerubavel, Eviatar (1985). "The Soviet five-day Nepreryvka". The Seven Day Circle. New York: Free Press. pp. 35–43. ISBN 0029346800.

Further reading

2018–19 NBA season

The 2018–19 NBA season is the 73rd season of the National Basketball Association (NBA). The regular season began on October 16, 2018 and ended on April 10, 2019. The playoffs began on April 13, 2019, with the NBA Finals concluding in June. The 2019 NBA All-Star Game was played on February 17, 2019, at the Spectrum Center in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Aaron Rodgers

Aaron Charles Rodgers (born December 2, 1983) is an American football quarterback for the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL). Rodgers played college football for the California Golden Bears, where he set several career passing records, including lowest single-season and career interception rates. He was selected in the first round of the 2005 NFL Draft by the Packers.After backing up Brett Favre for the first three years of his NFL career, Rodgers became the Packers' starting quarterback in 2008. In 2010, he led them to a victory in Super Bowl XLV over the Pittsburgh Steelers, earning the Super Bowl MVP. He was named Associated Press Athlete of the Year in 2011, and was voted league MVP by the Associated Press for the 2011 and 2014 NFL seasons.

Rodgers has led the NFL four times in touchdown-to-interception ratio (2011, 2012, 2014, 2018); twice in passer rating (2011, 2012), touchdown passing percentage (2011, 2012), and lowest passing interception percentage (2009, 2014); and once in touchdown passes (2016) and yards per attempt (2011).

Rodgers is the NFL's all-time regular season career passer rating leader and is one of two quarterbacks to have a regular season career passer rating of over 100, the other being Russell Wilson. Rodgers is fifth all-time in postseason career passer rating, has the best touchdown-to-interception ratio in NFL history at 4.23, holds the league's lowest career interception percentage at 1.5 percent and the highest single-season passer rating record of 122.5. Due to the fact that Rodgers is the NFL's all-time regular season career passer rating leader, and his overall high level of play, Rodgers is considered by some sportscasters and players to be one of the greatest quarterbacks of all time.

Billboard (magazine)

Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style, and is also known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres. It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows.

Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson later acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses, fairs, and burlesque shows, and also created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox, phonograph, and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music. After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, and has since been owned by various parties.

Billboard 200

The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart grew from a weekly top 10 list in 1956 to become a top 200 in May 1967, and acquired its present title in March 1992. Its previous names include the Billboard Top LPs (1961–72), Billboard Top LPs & Tape (1972–84), Billboard Top 200 Albums (1984–85) and Billboard Top Pop Albums.

The chart is based mostly on sales (both at retail and digital) of albums in the United States. The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but since July 2015, tracking week begins on Friday (to coincide with the Global Release Date of the music industry) and ends on Thursday. A new chart is published the following Tuesday with an issue post-dated to the Saturday of that week, four days later. The chart's streaming schedule is also tracked from Friday to Thursday.

Example:

Friday January 1 – sales tracking week begins

Thursday January 7 – sales tracking week ends

Tuesday January 12 – new chart published, with issue date of Saturday January 16.New product is released to the American market on Fridays. Digital downloads of albums are also included in Billboard 200 tabulation. Albums that are not licensed for retail sale in the United States (yet purchased in the U.S. as imports) are not eligible to chart. A long-standing policy which made titles that are sold exclusively by specific retail outlets (such as Walmart and Starbucks) ineligible for charting, was reversed on November 7, 2007, and took effect in the issue dated November 17.Beginning with the December 13, 2014 issue, Billboard updated the methodology of their album chart to also include on-demand streaming and digital track sales (as measured by Nielsen SoundScan) by way of a new algorithm, utilizing data from all of the major on-demand audio subscription and online music sales services in the United States.As of the issue dated May 25, 2019, the current number-one album on the Billboard 200 is Confessions of a Dangerous Mind by Logic.

Billboard Hot 100

The Billboard Hot 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for songs, published weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales (physical and digital), radio play, and online streaming in the United States.

The weekly tracking period for sales was initially Monday to Sunday when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. This tracking period also applies to compiling online streaming data. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming, is readily available on a real-time basis, is tracked on a Monday to Sunday cycle (previously Wednesday to Tuesday). A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by Billboard on Tuesdays.

The first number one song of the Hot 100 was "Poor Little Fool" by Ricky Nelson, on August 4, 1958. As of the issue for the week ending on May 25, 2019, the Hot 100 has had 1,086 different number one entries. The chart's current number-one song is "Old Town Road" by Lil Nas X featuring Billy Ray Cyrus.

Bloomberg Businessweek

Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published since 2009 by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek, founded in 1929, aimed to provide information and interpretation about events in the business world. The magazine is headquartered in New York City. Megan Murphy served as editor from November 2016; she stepped down from the role in January 2018 and Joel Weber was appointed by the editorial board in her place.

The magazine is published 47 times a year.

Drew Brees

Drew Christopher Brees (; born January 15, 1979) is an American football quarterback for the New Orleans Saints of the National Football League (NFL). After a successful college football career at Purdue University, he was chosen by the San Diego Chargers with the first pick in the second round of the 2001 NFL Draft. He left college as one of the most decorated players in Purdue and Big Ten Conference history, establishing two NCAA records, 13 Big Ten Conference records, and 19 Purdue University records. As of 2018, he remains the Big Ten record-holder in several passing categories, including completions (1,026), attempts (1,678), and yards (11,792). For his many career accomplishments and records, Brees has been hailed as one of the greatest quarterbacks of all time.Brees earned the starting job with the Chargers in 2002 and made the Pro Bowl in 2004. Nine months after suffering a dislocation in his right shoulder joint and a tear of the labrum and rotator cuff, Brees signed with the Saints as a free agent in 2006. He had immediate success in New Orleans, eventually leading the Saints to their first Super Bowl in Super Bowl XLIV, resulting in a 31–17 victory over the Indianapolis Colts.

Since joining the Saints, he has led all NFL quarterbacks in touchdowns, passing yards, and 300-yard games. Brees holds the NFL records for career pass completions, career completion percentage, career passing yards, is second in career touchdown passes, third in regular season career passer rating, and fourth in postseason career passer rating. In 2012, he broke Johnny Unitas' long-standing record of consecutive games with a touchdown pass. He has passed for over 5,000 yards in a season five times—no other NFL quarterback has done so more than once. He has led the NFL in passing yards a record seven times and in passing touchdowns a record-tying four times. He was the NFL's Comeback Player of the Year in 2004, the Offensive Player of the Year in 2008 and 2011, and the MVP of Super Bowl XLIV. Sports Illustrated named Brees its 2010 Sportsman of the Year.

Eredivisie

The Eredivisie (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈeːrədivizi]; "Honour Division" or "Premier Division") is the highest echelon of professional football in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956, two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. As of the 2018–19 season it is ranked the 11th best league in Europe by UEFA.The top division consists of 18 clubs. Each club meets every other club twice during the season, once at home and once away. At the end of each season, the club at the bottom is automatically relegated to the second level of the Dutch league system, the Eerste Divisie (First Division). At the same time, the champion of the Eerste Divisie will be automatically promoted to the Eredivisie. The next two clubs from the bottom of the Eredivisie go to separate promotion/relegation play-offs with eight high-placed clubs from the Eerste Divisie.

The winner of the Eredivisie claims the Dutch national championship. Ajax has won most titles, 25 (34 national titles). PSV Eindhoven are next with 21 (24), and Feyenoord follow with 10 (15). Since 1965, these three clubs have won all but three Eredivisie titles (the 1981 and 2009 titles went to AZ and FC Twente won the 2010 title). Ajax, PSV and Feyenoord are known as the "Big Three" of Dutch football. They are the only ones in their current forms to have appeared in every edition of the Eredivisie since its formation. A fourth club, FC Utrecht, is the product of a 1970 merger between three of that city's clubs, one of which, VV DOS, had also never been relegated out of the Eredivisie.

From 1990 to 1999, the official name of the league was PTT Telecompetitie (after the sponsor, PTT Telecom), which was changed to KPN Telecompetitie (because PTT Telecom changed its name to KPN Telecom in 1999) and to KPN Eredivisie in 2000. From 2002 to 2005, the league was called the Holland Casino Eredivisie. Since the 2005–06 season, the league has been sponsored by the Sponsorloterij (lottery), but for legal reasons its name could not be attached to the league (the Dutch government was against the name, because the Eredivisie would, after Holland Casino's sponsorship, yet again be sponsored by a company providing games of chance).

On 8 August 2012 it was made public that tycoon Rupert Murdoch had secured the rights to the Eredivisie for 12 years at the expense of 1 billion euros, beginning in the 2013–14 season. Within this deal the five largest Eredivisie clubs should receive 5 million euros per year for the duration of the contract.

ISO 8601

ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times.

In general, ISO 8601 applies to representations and formats of dates in the Gregorian (and potentially proleptic Gregorian) calendar, of times based on the 24-hour timekeeping system (with optional UTC offset), of time intervals, and combinations thereof. The standard does not assign any specific meaning to elements of the date/time to be represented; the meaning will depend on the context of its use. In addition, dates and times to be represented cannot include words with no specified numerical meaning in the standard (e.g., names of years in the Chinese calendar) or that do not use characters (e.g., images, sounds).In representations for interchange, dates and times are arranged so the largest temporal term (the year) is placed to the left and each successively smaller term is placed to the right of the previous term. Representations must be written in a combination of Arabic numerals and certain characters (such as "-", ":", "T", "W", and "Z") that are given specific meanings within the standard; the implication is that some commonplace ways of writing parts of dates, such as "January" or "Thursday", are not allowed in interchange representations.

Jay Cutler

Jay Christopher Cutler (born April 29, 1983) is a former American football quarterback who played in the National Football League for 12 seasons, primarily with the Chicago Bears. He played college football at Vanderbilt and was drafted by the Denver Broncos in the first round of the 2006 NFL Draft, for whom he played for three seasons. In 2009, he was traded to the Bears, where he played for eight seasons. After being released by Chicago in 2017, Cutler initially retired to become a sportscaster for NFL on Fox's television broadcasts, but returned for one more season with the Miami Dolphins when quarterback Ryan Tannehill suffered a season-ending injury. He retired a second time following the 2017 season.

Kumkum Bhagya

Kumkum Bhagya (Vermilion In My Fate) (International Title: Twist of Fate) is an Indian soap opera created and produced by Ekta Kapoor's Balaji Telefilms for Zee TV. It premiered on 15 April 2014. The show stars Sriti Jha and Shabir Ahluwalia. It is loosely based on Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen.The series started as the story of Pragya and Bulbul, and their mother, Sarla's hope to see them married, but as time went by, the show revolved around Abhi and Pragya. The pivotal characters of this show are strong, feisty women, living together in an all-female, matriarchal family.

On 18 March 2019, after Abhi and Pragya's separation in the show, a twenty-year leap was introduced. Post-leap, Pragya and Abhi are shown separated with their twins. Mugdha Chapekar and Naina Singh are introduced as Abhi and Pragya's separated twin daughters. The series now will focus on Abhi, Pragya and their young college-going twin daughters Prachi and Riya.The show is popular due to the chemistry of the leads. Kumkum Bhagya received acclaim throughout its run, becoming one of the most popular television shows. Kumkum Bhagya had won 50 Awards so far in various categories including the Award for "Best Tv Show" 4 times.

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (often abridged as Last Week Tonight) is an American late-night talk and news satire television program hosted by comedian John Oliver. The half-hour-long show premiered on Sunday, April 27, 2014, on HBO. Last Week Tonight shares some similarities with Comedy Central's The Daily Show (where Oliver was previously featured as a correspondent and fill-in host), as it takes a satirical look at news, politics and current events, but on a weekly basis.Oliver has stated that he has "full creative freedom, including free rein to criticize corporations". His initial contract with HBO was for two years with an option for extension. In September 2017, HBO announced that the show had been renewed for three additional seasons of 30 episodes each, keeping the show on the air through 2020. The show's sixth season premiered on February 17, 2019.

May

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

May is a month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, May in the Southern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent of November in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa. Late May typically marks the start of the summer vacation season in the United States and Canada that ends on Labor Day, the first Monday of September.

The month of May (in Latin, Maius) was named for the Greek Goddess Maia, who was identified with the Roman era goddess of fertility, Bona Dea, whose festival was held in May. Conversely, the Roman poet Ovid provides a second etymology, in which he says that the month of May is named for the maiores, Latin for "elders," and that the following month (June) is named for the iuniores, or "young people" (Fasti VI.88).

Mayovka, in the context of the late Russian Empire, was a picnic in the countryside or in a park in the early days of May, hence the name. Eventually, "mayovka" (specifically, "proletarian mayovka") came to mean an illegal celebration of May 1 by revolutionary public, typically presented as an innocent picnic.Special devotions to the Virgin Mary take place in May. See May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Eta Aquariids meteor shower appears in May. It is visible from about April 21 to about May 20 each year with peak activity on or around May 6. The Arietids shower from May 22 – July 2, and peaks on June 7. The Virginids also shower at various dates in May.

Nielsen ratings

Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems operated by Nielsen Media Research that seek to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States using a rating system.

Nielsen Media Research was founded by Arthur C. Nielsen, a market analyst whose started his career in the 1920s with brand advertising analysis and had expanded into radio market analysis during the 1930s, culminating in Nielsen ratings of radio programming, which was meant to provide statistics as to the markets of radio shows. The first Nielsen ratings for radio programs were released the first week of December 1947. They measured the top 20 programs in four areas: total audience, average audience, cumulative audience, and homes per dollar spent for time and talent.In 1950, Nielsen moved to television, developing a ratings system using the methods he and his company had developed for radio. That method became the primary source of audience measurement information in the US television industry.

Russell Wilson

Russell Carrington Wilson (born November 29, 1988) is an American football quarterback for the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League (NFL). Through his first 7 NFL seasons, Wilson has been named to six Pro Bowls and has started in two Super Bowls, winning Super Bowl XLVIII. He holds the record for most wins by an NFL quarterback through 7 seasons (75) and is one of two quarterbacks in NFL history with a career passer rating over 100. On April 15, 2019, Wilson signed a four-year, $140 million contract extension with the Seahawks, making him the highest paid player in the NFL.Wilson was selected by the Seahawks with the 12th pick in the third round (75th overall) of the 2012 NFL Draft. In 2012, he tied Peyton Manning's record for most passing touchdowns by a rookie (26) and was named the Pepsi NFL Rookie of the Year.Wilson played college football for the University of Wisconsin during the 2011 season, in which he set the single-season FBS record for passing efficiency (191.8) and led the team to a Big Ten title and the 2012 Rose Bowl. Wilson also played football and baseball for North Carolina State University from 2008 to 2010 before transferring to Wisconsin. He played minor league baseball for the Tri-City Dust Devils in 2010 and the Asheville Tourists in 2011 as a second baseman, and as of 2019 his professional baseball rights are held by the Trenton Thunder, a Double-A affiliate of the New York Yankees.

Strictly Come Dancing

Strictly Come Dancing (informally known as Strictly) is a British television dance contest in which celebrities partner with professional dancers to compete in mainly ballroom and Latin dance. Each couple is scored out of 10 by a panel of judges. The format has been exported to over 40 other countries, licensed by BBC Worldwide, and has also inspired a modern dance-themed spin-off Strictly Dance Fever. The Guinness Book of Records has named Strictly to be the world’s most successful reality TV format. The show is currently presented by Tess Daly and Claudia Winkleman.

The show has run on BBC One since 15 May 2004, primarily on Saturday evenings with a following Sunday night results show (with certain exceptions) and with its high viewing figures Strictly Come Dancing has become a significant programme in British popular culture. The sixteenth series ended on 15 December 2018. A further eleven stand-alone Christmas specials have also been produced, in consecutive years from 2004 onwards. Nine charity specials have also been produced since 2008. Since the fourth series, the show has also been aired in high definition on BBC HD, and BBC One HD from series 8.

On 7 November 2013, it was announced that Sir Bruce Forsyth would be retiring from presenting the main series. While intending to return as host for each Children in Need and Christmas special, he only did so for the Christmas special in 2014 and the Children in Need special in 2015. He sent a video message for the 2015 Christmas special as he was unable to appear due to illness. Forsyth died on 18 August 2017.

Television film

A television film (also known as a TV movie, TV film, television movie, telefilm, telemovie, motion picture made for television, made-for-television movie, made-for-television film, direct-to-TV movie, direct-to-TV film, movie of the week, feature-length drama, single drama and original movie) is a feature-length motion picture that is produced and originally distributed by or to, a television network, in contrast to theatrical films, which are made explicitly for initial showing in movie theaters.

Tom Brady

Thomas Edward Patrick Brady Jr. (born August 3, 1977) is an American football quarterback for the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL). Brady has played in nine Super Bowls, and been on the winning team in six of them, the most of any football player ever; due to his numerous accomplishments, records, and accolades, he is considered by many sports analysts to be the greatest quarterback of all time.After playing college football for the University of Michigan, Brady was drafted by the Patriots in the sixth round of the 2000 NFL Draft, and went on to become the team's starting quarterback in his second season after a preseason injury to Drew Bledsoe. Due to his late selection, Brady is considered the biggest "steal" in the history of the NFL Draft. In Brady's seventeen seasons as a starter, he has played in a record nine Super Bowls with the Patriots, and is one of only two quarterbacks to win a Super Bowl in their first season as a starter (the other being Kurt Warner). Brady holds most of the postseason quarterback records, leading all players in postseason touchdowns, passing yards, and completions, while owning the corresponding Super Bowl records as well.

Brady has won four Super Bowl MVP awards (Super Bowl XXXVI, XXXVIII, XLIX, and LI), the most ever by a player, as well as three league MVP awards (2007, 2010, 2017); he is the oldest player to have received either award. Brady has also been selected to 14 Pro Bowls, which ties the NFL record for most selections. He has led his team to more division titles (16) than any other quarterback in NFL history. Brady is fourth all-time in career passing yards for regular season play, third in career touchdown passes, first in postseason career passing yards, first in postseason career passing touchdowns, fourth in career passer rating, and fourteenth in postseason career passer rating. For regular season and postseason combined, Brady is first all-time in career passing yards and touchdown passes. He is one of only two players (the other being Brett Favre) in NFL history to amass 70,000 passing yards and 1,000 rushing yards.The only quarterback to reach 200 regular-season wins, Brady is the winningest quarterback in NFL history. With a postseason record of 30–10, he is first all-time in playoff wins and appearances for an NFL player. Brady has led the Patriots to an NFL-record eight consecutive AFC championship games since 2011 (thirteen overall), and has never had a losing season as a starting quarterback. He is tied for the record for the longest touchdown pass at 99 yards to Wes Welker.For his alleged involvement in the highly publicized Deflategate football-tampering scandal, Brady was suspended for the first four games of the 2016 season. Brady and the Patriots won two of the next three Super Bowls, making him the record holder for most Super Bowl wins by a player, and the oldest quarterback to win a Super Bowl, at 41.

UK Singles Chart

The UK Singles Chart (currently entitled Official Singles Chart) is compiled by the Official Charts Company (OCC), on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV (Official UK Top 40), is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, and over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is currently defined by the Official Charts Company (OCC) as either a 'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence. The rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 40 (such as the BBC) or the Top 75 (such as Music Week magazine) of this list. The chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday.The Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on Capital and Heart stations across the United Kingdom. The Big Top 40 is not officially regarded by the industry or wider media. There is also a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00.

The UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952. According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company. The company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart (only from 1952 to 1960) and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts (none official) coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; many songs announced as having reached number one on BBC Radio and Top of the Pops prior to 1969 are not listed as chart-toppers according to the legacy criteria of the Charts Company.

The first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 30 May 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1355 different number-one hits. The current number-one single is "I Don't Care" by Ed Sheeran and Justin Bieber.

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