Web page

A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable to act as a web resource on the World Wide Web. In order to graphically display a web page, a web browser is needed. This is a type of software that can retrieve web pages from the Internet. When accessed by a web browser it may be displayed as a web page on a monitor or mobile device. Typical web pages are hypertext documents which contain hyperlinks, often referred to as [1]links, for browsing to other web pages.

The term web page usually refers to what is visible, but may also refer to the contents of the source code itself, which is usually a text file containing hypertext written in HTML or a comparable markup language. Most current web browsers include the ability to view the source code. Web browsers will frequently have to access multiple web resource elements, such as reading style sheets, scripts, and images, while presenting each web page.

Pages are usually found with assistance from a search engine, but they can receive traffic from social and other sources. On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a remote web server. The web server may restrict access to a private network such as a corporate intranet. The web browser uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make such requests to the web server.

A static web page is delivered exactly as stored, as web content in the web server's file system. In contrast, a dynamic web page is generated by a web application, driven by server-side software or running in the web browser (client-side), or both. Dynamic web pages help the browser (the client) to enhance the web page through user input to the server.

Web Page
A screenshot of an older revision of this article, which is a web page.

Color, typography, illustration, and interaction

Web pages usually include information such as the colors of text and backgrounds and very often contain links to images and other types of media to be included in the final view. Layout, typographic and color-scheme information is provided by Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) instructions, which can either be embedded in the HTML or can be provided by a separate file, which is referenced from within the HTML.

The latter case is especially relevant where one lengthy stylesheet is relevant to a whole website: due to the way HTTP works, the browser may only download it once from the web server and use the cached copy for the whole site.

Images are stored on the web server as separate files, but again HTTP allows for the fact that once a web page is downloaded to a browser, it is quite likely that related files such as images and stylesheets will be requested as it is processed. An HTTP 1.1 web server will maintain a connection with the browser until all related resources have been requested and provided. Web browsers usually render images along with the text and other material on the displayed web page.

Browsers

A web browser can have a graphical user interface, like Internet Explorer / Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Safari, and Opera, or can be text-based, like Lynx or Links.

Web users with disabilities often use assistive technologies and adaptive strategies to access web pages.[1] Users may be color-blind, may or may not want to use a mouse perhaps due to repetitive stress injury or motor neurone problems, may be deaf and require audio to be captioned, may be blind and using a screen reader or braille display, may need screen magnification, etc.

Disabled and able-bodied users may disable the download and viewing of images and other media, to save time, network bandwidth or merely to simplify their browsing experience. Users of mobile devices often have restricted displays and bandwidth. Anyone may prefer not to use the fonts, font sizes, styles and color schemes selected by the web page designer and may apply their own CSS styling to the page. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) recommend that web pages are designed with all of these options in mind.

Elements

A web page, as an information set, can contain numerous types of information, which is able to be seen, heard or interacted with by the end user:

Perceived (rendered) information:
  • Textual information: with diverse render variations.
  • Non-textual information:
  • Interactive information: see interactive media.
    • For "on page" interaction:
      • Interactive text: see DHTML.
      • Interactive illustrations: ranging from "click to play" images to games, typically using script orchestration, Flash, Java applets, SVG, or Shockwave.
      • Buttons: forms providing an alternative interface, typically for use with script orchestration and DHTML.
    • For "between pages" interaction:
      • Hyperlinks: standard "change page" reactivity.
      • Forms: providing more interaction with the server and server-side databases.
Internal (hidden) information:
Note: on server-side the web page may also have "Processing Instruction Information Items".

The web page can contain dynamically adapted information elements, dependent upon the rendering browser or end-user location (through the use of IP address tracking and/or "cookie" information).

From a more general/wide point of view, some information (grouped) elements, like a navigation bar, are uniform for all website pages, like a standard. This kind of "website standard information" are supplied by technologies like web template systems.

Rendering

Web pages will often require more screen space than is available for a particular display resolution.

Most modern browsers will place a scrollbar (a sliding tool at the side of the screen that allows the user to move the page up or down, or side-to-side) in the window to allow the user to see all content.

Scrolling horizontally is less prevalent than vertical scrolling, not only because such pages often do not print properly, but because it inconveniences the user more so than vertical scrolling would (because lines are horizontal; scrolling back and forth for every line is more inconvenient than scrolling after reading a whole screen; most computer keyboards have page up and down keys, and almost all computer mice have vertical scroll wheels, the horizontal scrolling equivalents are rare). When web pages are stored in a common directory of a web server, they become a website.

Web pages do not have a fixed length as in a paper page, and they can vary in length.

The width of a web page varies depending on the size of the display so it leads to web pages of different lengths. For long web pages, information flow and presentation is quite critical.

If the web page is longer and the information on the top is undesirable to the user, the probability of reading further down is low. However, both longer and shorter web pages have their own pros and cons.[2]

The initial viewing area of a web page is known as being "above page fold".[3]

The content above the page fold is important as users use it to evaluate if they have come to the right page. It is important to have content above the page fold that keeps the user interested enough that they scroll down. The information foraging theory describes that once a user has deemed the part above the fold of a page valuable they are more likely to deem the rest of the page valuable.

When printing a web page, the ease of printing depends on the length of the page,[4] compared to shorter web pages with pagination. In longer web pages which have infinite scrolling (for example, Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter), it is harder to print all pages as the total number of upcoming pages is unknown. Therefore, users can only print loaded pages in web pages which use infinite scrolling.

Another issue that occurs with long web page printing is the use of ads known as clickbait on websites. Therefore, the printed version of a web page with click baits will contains ads. However, some browsers such as Google Chrome uses an extension where users get the opportunity of formatting web pages and printing without ads.[5]

A website will typically contain a group of web pages that are linked together, or have some other coherent method of navigation. The most important web page on a website is the index page. Depending on the web server settings, the index page can have any name, but the most common names are index.html and index.php.

When a browser visits the homepage of a website or any URL pointing to a directory rather than a specific file, the web server serves the index page. If no index page is defined in the configuration or no such file exists on the server, either an error or directory listing will be served to the browser. A web page can either be a single HTML file or made up of multiple HTML files using frames or Server Side Includes (SSIs).

Frames have been known to cause problems with web accessibility, copyright,[6] navigation, printing and search engine rankings, and are now less often used than they were in the 1990s.[7] Both frames and SSIs allow certain content which appears on many pages, such as page navigation or page headers, to be repeated without duplicating the HTML in all files.

Frames and the W3C recommended an alternative of 2000, the <object> tag,[7] also allow some content to remain in one place while other content can be scrolled using conventional scrollbars. Modern CSS and JavaScript client-side techniques can also achieve all of these goals.

When creating a web page, it is important to ensure it conforms to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards for HTML, CSS, XML and other standards. The W3C standards are in place to ensure all browsers which conform to their standards can display identical content without special consideration for proprietary rendering techniques. A properly coded web page is going to be accessible to many different browsers old and new alike, display resolutions, as well as those users with audio or visual impairments.

The Uniform Resource Locator is also called as URL. Web pages are typically becoming more dynamic. A dynamic web page is one that is created server-side when it is requested and then served to the end-user. These types of web pages typically do not have a permalink, or a static URL, associated with them. This practice is intended to reduce the amount of static pages in lieu of storing the relevant web page information in a database. This can be seen in forums, online shopping websites, and on Wikipedia. Some search engines may have a hard time indexing a web page that is dynamic, so static web pages can be provided in those instances.

Static

Scheme static page en
A static web page is delivered to the user exactly as stored.

A static web page (sometimes called a flat page or a stationary page) is a web page that is delivered to the user's web browser exactly as stored,[8] in contrast to dynamic web pages which are generated by a web application.[9]

Consequently, a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to modern capabilities of a web server to negotiate content-type or language of the document where such versions are available and the server is configured to do so.

Creation

To create a web page, a text editor or a specialized HTML editor is needed. In order to upload the created web page to a web server, traditionally an FTP client is needed.

The design of a web page is highly personal. A design can be made according to one's own preference, or a premade web template can be used. Web templates let web page designers edit the content of a web page without having to worry about the overall aesthetics. Many use all-in-one services for web domain purchases, web hosting service and templates to build customized websites. Web publishing tools such as Tripod and Wordpress offer free page creation and hosting up to a certain size limit. Other ways of making a web page are to download specialized software, like a Wiki, CMS, or forum. These options allow for the quick and easy creation of a web page which is typically dynamic.

Dynamic

A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, parameters determine how the assembly of every new web page proceeds, including the setting up of more client-side processing.

A client-side dynamic web page processes the web page using HTML scripting running in the browser as it loads. JavaScript and other scripting languages determine the way the HTML in the received page is parsed into the Document Object Model, or DOM, that represents the loaded web page. The same client-side techniques can then dynamically update or change the DOM in the same way.

A dynamic web page is then reloaded by the user or by a computer program to change some variable content. The updating information could come from the server, or from changes made to that page's DOM. This may or may not truncate the browsing history or create a saved version to go back to, but a dynamic web page update using Ajax technologies will neither create a page to go back to, nor truncate the web browsing history forward of the displayed page. Using Ajax technologies the end user gets one dynamic page managed as a single page in the web browser while the actual web content rendered on that page can vary. The Ajax engine sits only on the browser requesting parts of its DOM, the DOM, for its client, from an application server.

DHTML is the umbrella term for technologies and methods used to create web pages that are not static web pages, though it has fallen out of common use since the popularization of AJAX, a term which is now itself rarely used. Client-side-scripting, server-side scripting, or a combination of these make for the dynamic web experience in a browser.

Saving

While one is viewing a web page, a copy of it is saved locally; the copy is being viewed.

Depending on the browser settings, the copy may be deleted at any time, or stored indefinitely, sometimes without the user realizing it.

Most GUI browsers provide options for saving a web page more permanently. These may include

save the rendered text without formatting or images, with hyperlinks reduced to plain text;

  • save the HTML as it was served: overall structure is preserved, but some links may be broken;
  • save the HTML with relative links changed to absolute ones so that hyperlinks are preserved;
  • save the entire web page: all images and other resources including stylesheets and scripts are downloaded and saved in a new folder alongside the HTML, with links referring to the local copies: Other relative links are changed to absolute;
  • save the HTML as well as all images and other resources into a single MHTML file. This is supported by Internet Explorer and Opera.[10] Other browsers may support it if a suitable plugin is installed.

In addition to the option to print the currently viewed web page to a printer, most operating systems allow applications such as web browsers to "print to a file" which can be viewed or printed later. Some web pages are designed, for example by use of CSS, so that hyperlinks, menus and other navigation items, which would be useless on paper, are rendered into print with this in mind. Sometimes, the destination addresses of hyperlinks may be shown explicitly, either within the body of the page or listed at the end of the printed version. It can be specified in CSS that non-functional menus, navigational blocks and other items ought to simply be absent from the printed version.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "How People with Disabilities Use the Web". W3C. 5 May 2005. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
  2. ^ Honigman, Brian. "Long vs. Short Landing Page – Which One Works Better?". Inbound Marketing. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  3. ^ Schade, Amy. "The Fold Manifesto: Why the Page Fold Still Matters". Nielsen Norman Group. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  4. ^ Lynch, Patrick. "Page Width and Line Length". Yale University Press. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  5. ^ Broider, Rick (2013). "Print Friendly for Chrome optimizes Web pages for printing". PCWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  6. ^ Tysver, Dan (1996–2008). "Linking and Liability — Problems with Frames". Minneapolis, USA: Beck & Tysver. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
  7. ^ a b "HTML Techniques for Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 - Frames". W3C. 6 November 2000. Retrieved 2009-05-01. In the following sections, we discuss how to make frames more accessible. We also provide an alternative to frames that uses HTML 4.01 and CSS and addresses many of the limitations of today's frame implementations.
  8. ^ Melendez, Steven (10 August 2018). "The Difference Between Dynamic & Static Web Pages". Chron. Archived from the original (html) on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2019. Static by definition means something that does not change. The first pages on the World Wide Web were largely static and unchanged, delivering the same information about a particular topic to anyone who visited. In some cases, sites may evolve slightly over time but are still largely static, meaning that they only change when manually changed by their creators, not on a regular and automated basis.
  9. ^ "Definition of: dynamic Web page". PC Magazine. Archived from the original (html) on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2019. A Web page that provides custom content for the user based on the results of a search or some other request.
  10. ^ Santambrogio, Claudio (10 March 2006). "…and one more weekly!". Opera Software. Retrieved 2009-05-15.

Further reading

  • Castro, Elizabeth (2005). "Creating a Web Page with HTML: Visual quick project guide," San Francisco, CA, USA: Peachpit Press, ISBN 032127847X, see [1], accessed 19 September 2015.
  • Souders, Steve (2007). "High-Performance Web Sites: Essential Knowledge for Front-End Engineers," Sebastopol, CA, USA: O'Reilly Media, ISBN 0596550693, see [2], accessed 19 September 2015.
22nd century

The 22nd (twenty-second) century is the next century in the Anno Domini or Common Era in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It will begin on January 1, 2101 and end on December 31, 2200.

Backlink

A backlink for a given web resource is a link from some other website (the referrer) to that web resource (the referent). A web resource may be (for example) a website, web page, or web directory.A backlink is a reference comparable to a citation. The quantity, quality, and relevance of backlinks for a web page are among the factors that search engines like Google evaluate in order to estimate how important the page is. PageRank calculates the score for each web page based on how all the web pages are connected among themselves, and is one of the variables that Google Search uses to determine how high a web page should go in search results. This weighting of backlinks is analogous to citation analysis of books, scholarly papers, and academic journals. A Topical PageRank has been researched and implemented as well, which gives more weight to backlinks coming from the page of a same topic as a target page. Some other words for backlink are incoming link, inbound link, inlink, inward link, and citation.

Dynamic HTML

Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is an umbrella term for a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated websites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (such as CSS), and the Document Object Model (DOM). The application of DHTML was introduced by Microsoft with the release of Internet Explorer 4 in 1997.

DHTML allows scripting languages to change variables in a web page's definition language, which in turn affects the look and function of otherwise "static" HTML page content, after the page has been fully loaded and during the viewing process. Thus the dynamic characteristic of DHTML is the way it functions while a page is viewed, not in its ability to generate a unique page with each page load.

By contrast, a dynamic web page is a broader concept, covering any web page generated differently for each user, load occurrence, or specific variable values. This includes pages created by client-side scripting, and ones created by server-side scripting (such as PHP, Perl, JSP or ASP.NET) where the web server generates content before sending it to the client.

DHTML is differentiated from Ajax by the fact that a DHTML page is still request/reload-based. With DHTML, there may not be any interaction between the client and server after the page is loaded; all processing happens in JavaScript on the client side. By contrast, an Ajax page uses features of DHTML to initiate a request (or 'subrequest') to the server to perform additional actions. For example, if there are multiple tabs on a page, pure DHTML approach would load the contents of all tabs and then dynamically display only the one that is active, while AJAX could load each tab only when it is really needed.

Dynamic web page

A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripting, parameters determine how the assembly of every new web page proceeds, including the setting up of more client-side processing.

A client-side dynamic web page processes the web page using HTML scripting running in the browser as it loads. JavaScript and other scripting languages determine the way the HTML in the received page is parsed into the Document Object Model, or DOM, that represents the loaded web page. The same client-side techniques can then dynamically update or change the DOM in the same way.

A dynamic web page is then reloaded by the user or by a computer program to change some variable content. The updating information could come from the server, or from changes made to that page's DOM. This may or may not truncate the browsing history or create a saved version to go back to, but a dynamic web page update using Ajax technologies will neither create a page to go back to, nor truncate the web browsing history forward of the displayed page. Using Ajax technologies the end user gets one dynamic page managed as a single page in the web browser while the actual web content rendered on that page can vary. The Ajax engine sits only on the browser requesting parts of its DOM, the DOM, for its client, from an application server.

DHTML is the umbrella term for technologies and methods used to create web pages that are not static web pages, though it has fallen out of common use since the popularization of AJAX, a term which is now itself rarely used. Client-side-scripting, server-side scripting, or a combination of these make for the dynamic web experience in a browser.

Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly. It has daily features, updates and links to news reports from The New York Times and the BBC. The 2010 edition of the Britannica was the last printed version and was sold until stock ran out in 2012.Roughly 60% of Encyclopædia Britannica's revenue comes from online operations, of which around 15% comes from subscriptions to the consumer version of the website. Subscriptions are available on a yearly, monthly or weekly basis. Special subscription plans are offered to schools, colleges and libraries; such institutional subscribers constitute an important part of Britannica's business. Beginning in early 2007, the Britannica makes articles freely available if they are hyperlinked from an external site. Non-subscribers are served pop-ups and advertising.On 3 June 2008, an initiative to facilitate collaboration between online expert and amateur scholarly contributors for Britannica's online content (in the spirit of a wiki), with editorial oversight from Britannica staff, was announced. Approved contributions would be credited, though contributing automatically grants Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. perpetual, irrevocable license to those contributions.On 22 January 2009, Britannica's president, Jorge Cauz, announced that the company would be accepting edits and additions to the online Britannica website from the public. The print edition of the encyclopædia was not affected by the changes. Individuals wishing to edit the Britannica website will have to register under their real name and address prior to editing or submitting their content. All edits submitted will be reviewed and checked and will have to be approved by the encyclopædia's professional staff. Contributions from non-academic users will sit in a separate section from the expert-generated Britannica content, as will content submitted by non-Britannica scholars. Articles written by users, if vetted and approved, will also only be available in a special section of the website, separate from the professional articles. Official Britannica material would carry a "Britannica Checked" stamp, to distinguish it from the user-generated content.

Gamebook

A gamebook is a work of printed fiction that allows the reader to participate in the story by making choices. The narrative branches along various paths, typically through the use of numbered paragraphs or pages. Each narrative typically does not follow paragraphs in a linear or ordered fashion. Gamebooks are sometimes called choose your own adventure books or CYOA after the influential Choose Your Own Adventure series originally published by US company Bantam Books. Gamebooks influenced hypertext fiction.Production of new gamebooks in the West decreased dramatically during the 1990s as choice based stories have moved away from print based media, although the format may be getting a new lease of life on mobile and ebook platforms. Such digital gamebooks are considered interactive fiction.

HTML editor

An HTML editor is a program for editing HTML, the markup of a web page. Although the HTML markup in a web page can be controlled with any text editor, specialized HTML editors can offer convenience and added functionality. For example, many HTML editors handle not only HTML, but also related technologies such as CSS, XML and JavaScript or ECMAScript. In some cases they also manage communication with remote web servers via FTP and WebDAV, and version control systems such as Subversion or Git. Many word processing, graphic design and page layout programs that are not dedicated to web design, such as Microsoft Word or Quark XPress, also have the ability to function as HTML editors.

HTTP 404

The HTTP 404, 404 Not Found, 404, Page Not Found, or Server Not Found error message is a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) standard response code, in computer network communications, to indicate that the browser was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find what was requested.

The website hosting server will typically generate a "404 Not Found" web page when a user attempts to follow a broken or dead link; hence the 404 error is one of the most recognizable errors encountered on the World Wide Web.

Home page

A home page or a start page is the initial or main web page of a website or a browser. The initial page of a website is sometimes called main page as well.

Lego

Lego ( LEG-oh, Danish: [ˈleːɡo]; stylised as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, Lego, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, and various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways to construct objects, including vehicles, buildings, and working robots. Anything constructed can be taken apart again, and the pieces reused to make new things.The Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Movies, games, competitions, and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand. As of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced.In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand".

List of Danish poets

This is a list of Danish poets, including those who are Danish by nationality or who write in the Danish language (years link to the corresponding "[year] in poetry) article):

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Personal web page

Personal web pages are world wide web pages created by an individual to contain content of a personal nature rather than content pertaining to a company, organization or institution. Personal web pages are primarily used for informative or entertainment purposes but can also be used for personal career marketing (by containing a list of the individual's skills, experience and a CV), social networking with other people with shared interests, or as a space for personal expression.

These terms do not usually refer to just a single "page" or HTML file, but to a collection of webpages and related files under a common URL or Web address. In strictly technical terms, a site's actual home page (index page) often only contains sparse content with some catchy introductory material and serves mostly as a pointer or table of contents to the more content-rich pages inside, such as résumés, family, hobbies, family genealogy, a web log/diary ("blog"), opinions, online journals and diaries or other writing, examples of written work, digital audio sound clips, digital video clips, digital photos, or information about a user's other interests. Many personal pages only include information of interest to friends and family of the author. However, some webpages set up by hobbyists or enthusiasts of certain subject areas can be valuable topical web directories.

Square kilometre

Square kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square kilometer (American spelling), symbol km2, is a multiple of the square metre, the SI unit of area or surface area.

1 km2 is equal to:

1,000,000 square metres (m2)

100 hectares (ha)It is also approximately equal to:

0.3861 square miles

247.1 acres Conversely:

1 m2 = 0.000001 (10−6) km2

1 hectare = 0.01 (10−2) km2

1 square mile = 2.5899km2

1 acre = about 0.004047km2 The symbol "km2" means (km)2, square kilometre or kilometre squared and not k(m2), kilo–square metre. For example, 3 km2 is equal to 3×(1,000m)2 = 3,000,000 m2, not 3,000 m2.

Static web page

A static web page (sometimes called a flat page or a stationary page) is a web page that is delivered to the user's web browser exactly as stored, in contrast to dynamic web pages which are generated by a web application.Consequently, a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to modern capabilities of a web server to negotiate content-type or language of the document where such versions are available and the server is configured to do so.

URL

A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.

Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar. A typical URL could have the form http://www.example.com/index.html, which indicates a protocol (http), a hostname (www.example.com), and a file name (index.html).

Web application

In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, and online auction.

Web browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page, image, and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator (URL), enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on a user's device.

The web browser works as follows. First, its rendering engine parses CSS and HTML files. While parsing the HTML file, the rendering engine also produces a DOM tree data construct in which every node refers to an HTML tag, a property, or a section of a text. CSS determines the visual style of the web page based on the style rules, each of which selects single or multiple HTML tags for applying styling properties. During parsing, CSS rules are extracted and a corresponding data structure is built. Based on CSS rules and the DOM tree, the browser's style resolution unit determines the style information for the page (such as font color) by generating a "render tree." Every node of the render tree corresponds to one visual component of the web page. From this, the browser's layout unit computes the precise screen-coordinates of every visual component. Finally, its "painting unit" traverses the render tree and invokes graphics libraries to actually display the page on the screen.

A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are often confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user must have a web browser installed on their device.As of March 2019, more than 4.3 billion people are web browser users, around 55% of the world’s population. The success of browsers is in part due to their flexibility, their Turing-complete execution, and their powerful graphics capabilities.The most popular browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer, and Edge.

Web design

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all. The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a website including writing markup. Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating markup then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as https://www.example.com/), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser.

English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and then to the general public in August 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet.Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources. In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video, audio, and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content.

Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be largely provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, entertainment, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons.

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