Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), later maintained by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters), that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.
|Web of Science|
|Producer||Clarivate Analytics (United States)|
|Disciplines||Science, social science, arts, humanities (supports 256 disciplines)|
|Record depth||Citation indexing, author, topic title, subject keywords, abstract, periodical title, author's address, publication year|
|Format coverage||Full text articles, reviews, editorials, chronologies, abstracts, proceedings (journals and book-based ), technical papers|
|Temporal coverage||1900 to present|
|No. of records||90 million +|
A citation index is built on the fact that citations in science serve as linkages between similar research items, and lead to matching or related scientific literature, such as journal articles, conference proceedings, abstracts, etc. In addition, literature which shows the greatest impact in a particular field, or more than one discipline, can be easily located through a citation index. For example, a paper's influence can be determined by linking to all the papers that have cited it. In this way, current trends, patterns, and emerging fields of research can be assessed. Eugene Garfield, the "father of citation indexing of academic literature," who launched the Science Citation Index (SCI), which in turn led to the Web of Science, wrote:
Citations are the formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common. A citation index is built around these linkages. It lists publications that have been cited and identifies the sources of the citations. Anyone conducting a literature search can find from one to dozens of additional papers on a subject just by knowing one that has been cited. And every paper that is found provides a list of new citations with which to continue the search.
The simplicity of citation indexing is one of its main strengths.
Web of Science is described as a unifying research tool which enables the user to acquire, analyze, and disseminate database information in a timely manner. This is accomplished because of the creation of a common vocabulary, called ontology, for varied search terms and varied data. Moreover, search terms generate related information across categories.
Acceptable content for Web of Science is determined by an evaluation and selection process based on the following criteria: impact, influence, timeliness, peer review, and geographic representation.
Web of Science employs various search and analysis capabilities. First, citation indexing is employed, which is enhanced by the capability to search for results across disciplines. The influence, impact, history, and methodology of an idea can be followed from its first instance, notice, or referral to the present day. This technology points to a deficiency with the keyword-only method of searching.
Second, subtle trends and patterns relevant to the literature or research of interest, become apparent. Broad trends indicate significant topics of the day, as well as the history relevant to both the work at hand, and particular areas of study.
Expanding the coverage of Web of Science, in November 2009 Thomson Reuters introduced Century of Social Sciences. This service contains files which trace social science research back to the beginning of the 20th century, and Web of Science now has indexing coverage from the year 1900 to the present. As of 3 September 2014, the multidisciplinary coverage of the Web of Science encompasses over 50,000 scholarly books, 12,000 journals and 160,000 conference proceedings. The selection is made on the basis of impact evaluations and comprise open-access journals, spanning multiple academic disciplines. The coverage includes: the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities, and goes across disciplines. However, Web of Science does not index all journals.
There is a significant and positive correlation between Impact Factor and CiteScore. However, analysis by Elsevier has identified 216 journals from 70 publishers to be in the top 10 percent of the most-cited journals in their subject category based on the CiteScore while they did not have Impact Factor. It appears that Impact Factor does not provide a comprehensive and an unbiased coverage of high quality journals. Similar results can be observed by comparing Impact Factor with SCImago Journal Rank.
Furthermore, as of September 3, 2014 the total file count of the Web of Science was 90 million records, which included over a billion cited references. This citation service on average indexes around 65 million items per year, and it is described as the largest accessible citation database.
Titles of foreign-language publications are translated into English and so cannot be found by searches in the original language.
Since 2008, the Web of Science hosts a number of regional citation indices. The Chinese Science Citation Database, produced in partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was the first one in a language other than English. It was followed in 2013 by the SciELO Citation Index, covering Brazil, Spain, Portugal, the Caribbean and South Africa, and more 12 countries of Latin America; by the Korea Citation Index (KCI) in 2014, with updates from the South Korean National Research Foundation; and by the Russian Science Citation index in 2015.
The seven citation indices listed above contain references which have been cited by other articles. One may use them to undertake cited reference search, that is, locating articles that cite an earlier, or current publication. One may search citation databases by topic, by author, by source title, and by location. Two chemistry databases, Index Chemicus and Current Chemical Reactions allow for the creation of structure drawings, thus enabling users to locate chemical compounds and reactions.
The following types of literature are indexed: scholarly books, peer reviewed journals, original research articles, reviews, editorials, chronologies, abstracts, as well as other items. Disciplines included in this index are agriculture, biological sciences, engineering, medical and life sciences, physical and chemical sciences, anthropology, law, library sciences, architecture, dance, music, film, and theater. Seven citation databases encompasses coverage of the above disciplines.
As with other scientific approaches, scientometrics and bibliometrics have their own limitations. Recently, a criticism was voiced pointing toward certain deficiencies of the journal impact factor (JIF) calculation process, based on Thomson Reuters Web of Science, such as: journal citation distributions usually are highly skewed towards established journals; journal impact factor properties are field-specific and can be easily manipulated by editors, or even by changing the editorial policies; this makes the entire process essentially non-transparent.
Regarding the more objective journal metrics, there is a growing view that for greater accuracy it must be supplemented with article-level metrics and peer-review. Thomson Reuters replied to criticism in general terms by stating that "no one metric can fully capture the complex contributions scholars make to their disciplines, and many forms of scholarly achievement should be considered."
The Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), also known as Arts & Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural science journals. Part of this database is derived from Current Contents records. Furthermore, the print counterpart is Current Contents.
Subjects covered are the Arts, Humanities, Language (including Linguistics), Poetry, Music, Classical works, History, Oriental Studies, Philosophy, Archaeology, Architecture, Religion, Television, Theater, and Radio.
Available citation (source) coverage includes articles, letters, editorials, meeting abstracts, errata, poems, short stories, plays, music scores, excerpts from books, chronologies, bibliographies and filmographies, as well as citations to reviews of books, films, music, and theatrical performances.
This database can be accessed online through Web of Science. It provides access to current and retrospective bibliographic information and cited references. It also covers individually selected, relevant items from approximately 1,200 titles, mostly arts and humanities journals but with an unspecified number of titles from other disciplines.
According to Thomson Reuters, the Arts & Humanities Search, can be accessed via Dialog, DataStar, and OCLC, with weekly updates and backfiles to 1980.Scholar Rainer Enrique Hamel has criticized the Arts & Humanities Citation Index for its poor reflection of scientific production in languages other than English. Also while analyzing solely content in Spanish of 2006 Hamel found the absurd situation that in the index there were more Spanish-language publications from authors based in the United States than from any other Spanish-language country.BIOSIS Previews
BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.BIOSIS Previews is part of the Life Sciences in Web of Science. Its coverage encompasses the life sciences and biomedical sciences literature, with deep global coverage on a wide range of related subject areas. This is accomplished with access to indexed journal content from Biological Abstracts, and supplemental indexed non-journal content from Biological Abstracts/Reports, Reviews, Meetings (BA/RRM or Biological Abstracts/RRM) and the major publications of BIOSIS. This coverage includes literature in pre-clinical and experimental research, methods and instrumentation, animal studies, environmental and consumer issues, and other areas.The database is also provided by EBSCO Information Services through a partnership with Clarivate Analytics.Biological Abstracts consists of 350,000 references for almost 5,000 primary journal and monograph titles. Biological Abstracts/RRM additionally includes more than 200,000 non-journal citations.
Biological Abstracts/RRM is the former BioResearch Index.Biological Abstracts
Biological Abstracts is a database produced by Clarivate Analytics. It includes abstracts from peer-reviewed academic journal articles in the fields of biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, pre-clinical and experimental medicine, pharmacology, zoology, agriculture, and veterinary medicine published since 1926.It can be accessed through number of services, including EBSCO, Ovid and Web of Science.CWTS Leiden Ranking
The CWTS Leiden Ranking is an annual global university ranking based exclusively on bibliometric indicators. The rankings are compiled by the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (Dutch: Centrum voor Wetenschap en Technologische Studies, CWTS) at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The Thomson Reuters bibliographic database Web of Science is used as the source of the publication and citation data.The Leiden Ranking ranks universities worldwide by number of academic publications according to the volume and citation impact of the publications at those institutions. The rankings take into account differences in language, discipline and institutional size. Multiple ranking lists are released according to various bibliometric normalization and impact indicators, including the number of publications, citations per publication, and field-normalized impact per publication. In addition to citation impact, the Leiding Ranking also ranks universities by scientific collaboration, including collaboration with other institutions and collaboration with an industry partner.The first edition of the Leiden Ranking was produced in 2007. The 2014 rankings include 750 universities worldwide, which were selected based on the number of articles and reviews published by authors affiliated with those institutions in 2009–2012 in so-called "core" journals, a set of English-language journals with international scope and a "sufficiently large" number of references in the Web of Science database.Clarivate Analytics
Clarivate Analytics is a company that owns and operates a collection of subscription-based services focused largely on analytics, including scientific and academic research, patent analytics, regulatory standards, trademark protection, pharmaceutical and biotechnology intelligence, domain brand protection and intellectual property management. The services include Web of Science, Cortellis, Derwent Innovation, Derwent World Patents Index, CompuMark, MarkMonitor, Techstreet, Publons, EndNote and Kopernio.Clarivate Analytics was formerly the "Intellectual Property and Science" business of Thomson Reuters. In 2016 Thomson Reuters struck a $3.55 billion dollar deal in which they spun it off into an independent company and sold it to private-equity firms Onex Corporation and Baring Private Equity Asia.In May 2018, Clarivate Analytics launched Arabic citation index worldwide.Churchill Capital has agreed to merge with Clarivate. The combined company will operate as Clarivate and will be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.Current Science
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal. It was established in 1932 and is published by the Current Science Association along with the Indian Academy of Sciences.
According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 0.883. Current Science is indexed by Web of Science, Current Contents, Geobase, Chemical Abstracts, IndMed and Scopus. The editor-in-chief is S. K. Satheesh of the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.Emerging Sources Citation Index
The Emerging Sources Citation Index is a citation index produced since 2015 by Thomson Reuters, and now by Clarivate Analytics. According to the publisher, the index includes "peer-reviewed publications of regional importance and in emerging scientific fields". It has been observed that among the databases produced by Clarivate Analytics, the Emerging Sources Citation Index is the easiest one to get into and that as a result it contains many predatory journals.Together with Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts and Humanities Citation Index, the Emerging Sources Citation Index is accessible through the Web of Science.Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object. Energy is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton.
Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature.
Mass and energy are closely related. Due to mass–energy equivalence, any object that has mass when stationary (called rest mass) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy, and any additional energy (of any form) acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase the object's total mass just as it increases its total energy. For example, after heating an object, its increase in energy could be measured as a small increase in mass, with a sensitive enough scale.
Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the energy humans get from food. Human civilization requires energy to function, which it gets from energy resources such as fossil fuels, nuclear fuel, or renewable energy. The processes of Earth's climate and ecosystem are driven by the radiant energy Earth receives from the sun and the geothermal energy contained within the earth.Google Scholar
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents. While Google does not publish the size of Google Scholar's database, scientometric researchers estimated it to contain roughly 389 million documents including articles, citations and patents making it the world's largest academic search engine in January 2018. Previously, the size was estimated at 160 million documents as of May 2014. Earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80–90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million. This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the web.
Google Scholar has been criticized for not vetting journals and including predatory journals in its index.H-index
The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a scholarly journal as well as a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested in 2005 by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UC San Diego, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number.Inorganic Chemistry (journal)
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962. It covers research in all areas of inorganic chemistry.
Inorganic Chemistry is abstracted and indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Thomson-Gale, ProQuest, PubMed, Web of Science, and SwetsWise.
The current editor-in-chief is William B. Tolman.Journal Citation Reports
Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collections. It provides information about academic journals in the natural sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. The JCR was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index. Currently, the JCR, as a distinct service, is based on citations compiled from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index.Microsoft Academic
Microsoft Academic is a free public web search engine for academic publications and literature, developed by Microsoft Research. Re-launched in 2016, the tool features an entirely new data structure and search engine using semantic search technologies. It currently indexes over 375 million entities, 170 million of which are academic papers. The Academic Knowledge API offers information retrieval from the underlying database using REST endpoints for advanced research purposes.The service replaces the earlier Microsoft research project, Microsoft Academic Search, which ended development in 2012.Preliminary reviews by bibliometricians suggest the new Microsoft Academic Search is a competitor to Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus for academic research purposes as well as citation analysis.Organic Letters
Organic Letters is a peer-reviewed biweekly scientific journal, published since 1999 by the American Chemical Society. In 2014, the journal moved to a hybrid open access publishing model.
OL is indexed in: Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), EBSCOhost, British Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and SwetsWise.
Organic Letters publishes brief reports a broad range of organic chemistry research. The founding Editor-in-Chief was Amos Smith.
Organic Letters serves as the platform for the communication of research in: organic chemistry (including organometallic and materials chemistry), physical and theoretical organic chemistry, natural products isolation and synthesis, new synthetic methodology, and bioorganic and medicinal chemistry.Prophase
Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage") is the first stage of cell division in both mitosis and meiosis. Beginning after interphase, DNA has already been replicated when the cell enters prophase. The main occurrences in prophase are the condensation of the chromatin and the disappearance of the nucleolus.ResearcherID
ResearcherID is an identifying system for scientific authors. The system was introduced in January 2008 by Thomson Reuters.
This unique identifier aims at solving the problem of author identification. In scientific literature it is common to cite name, surname, and initials of the authors of an article. Sometimes, however, there are authors with the same name, with the same initials, or the journal misspells names, resulting in several spellings for the same authors, and different authors with the same spelling.
On the ResearcherID website, authors are asked to link their ResearcherID to their own articles. In this way, they can also keep their publication list up to date and online. A comprehensive view of an author's total output can thus be given, since not all publications are indexed by Web of Science. This is particularly important for researchers in fields that predominantly use peer-reviewed conference articles (computer science) or in fields that focus on publishing books and chapters in books (humanities and disciplines in the social sciences).
The combined use of the Digital Object Identifier with the ResearcherID allows a unique association of authors and scientific articles. It can be used to link researchers with registered trials or identify colleagues and collaborators in the same field of research.ResearcherID has been criticized for being commercial and proprietary, but also praised as "an initiative addressing the common problem of author misidentification".ResearcherID enables data exchange between its database and ORCID, and vice versa.Science Citation Index
The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and created by Eugene Garfield. It was officially launched in 1964. It is now owned by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters). The larger version (Science Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 8,500 notable and significant journals, across 150 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of science and technology, because of a rigorous selection process.The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the Web of Science and SciSearch. (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals). This database allows a researcher to identify which later articles have cited any particular earlier article, or have cited the articles of any particular author, or have been cited most frequently. Thomson Reuters also markets several subsets of this database, termed "Specialty Citation Indexes", such as the Neuroscience Citation Index and the Chemistry Citation Index.Scopus
Scopus is Elsevier’s abstract and citation database launched in 2004. Scopus covers nearly 36,377 titles (22,794 active titles and 13,583 inactive titles) from approximately 11,678 publishers, of which 34,346 are peer-reviewed journals in top-level subject fields: life sciences, social sciences, physical sciences and health sciences. It covers three types of sources: book series, journals, and trade journals. All journals covered in the Scopus database, regardless of who they are published under, are reviewed each year to ensure high quality standards are maintained. The complete list is on the SCImago Journal Rank website. Searches in Scopus also incorporate searches of patent databases. Scopus gives four types of quality measure for each title; those are h-Index, CiteScore, SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) and SNIP (Source Normalized Impact per Paper).