WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it. The preservation service enables verifiability of claims supported by the cited sources even when the original web pages are being revised, removed, or disappear for other reasons, an effect known as link rot.
|Owner||University of Toronto|
|Created by||Gunther Eysenbach|
|Alexa rank||107,988 (December 2018)|
The service differs from the short time Google Cache copies by having indefinite archiving and by offering on-the-fly archiving. The Internet Archive, since 2013, also offers immediate archiving, however WebCite has some advantages:
WebCite is a non-profit consortium supported by publishers and editors, and it can be used by individuals without charge. Rather than relying on a web crawler which archives pages in a "random" fashion, authors who want to cite web pages in a scholarly article can initiate the archiving process. They then cite – instead of or in addition to the original URL – the snapshot address archived by WebCite, with an identifier that specifies the cited source. (However, note that the Internet Archive does both a crawler-based archiving and on-demand archiving.)
Conceived in 1997 by Gunther Eysenbach, WebCite was publicly described the following year when an article on Internet quality control declared that such a service could also measure the citation impact of web pages. In the next year, a pilot service was set up at the address webcite.net. Although it seemed that the need for WebCite decreased when Google's short term copies of web pages began to be offered by Google Cache and the Internet Archive expanded their crawling (which started in 1996), WebCite was the only one allowing "on-demand" archiving by users. WebCite also offered interfaces to scholarly journals and publishers to automate the archiving of cited links. By 2008, over 200 journals had begun routinely using WebCite.
WebCite used to be, but is no longer, a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium. In a 2012 message on Twitter, Eysenbach commented that "WebCite has no funding, and IIPC charges €4000 per year in annual membership fees."
WebCite "feeds its content" to other digital preservation projects, including the Internet Archive. Lawrence Lessig, an American academic who writes extensively on copyright and technology, used WebCite in his amicus brief in the Supreme Court of the United States case of MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.
WebCite ran a fund-raising campaign using FundRazr from January 2013 with a target of $22,500, a sum which its operators stated was needed to maintain and modernize the service beyond the end of 2013. This includes relocating the service to Amazon EC2 cloud hosting and legal support. As of 2013 it remained undecided whether WebCite would continue as a non-profit or as a for-profit entity.
WebCite allows on-demand prospective archiving. It is not crawler-based; pages are only archived if the citing author or publisher requests it. No cached copy will appear in a WebCite search unless the author or another person has specifically cached it beforehand.
To initiate the caching and archiving of a page, an author may use WebCite's "archive" menu option or use a WebCite bookmarklet that will allow web surfers to cache pages just by clicking a button in their bookmarks folder.
One can retrieve or cite archived pages through a transparent format such as
URL is the URL that was archived, and
DATE indicates the caching date. For example,
or the alternate short form
retrieves an archived copy of the URL
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page that is closest to the date of March 4, 2008. The ID (5W56XTY5h) is the UNIX time in base 62.
It is important to note that WebCite does not work for pages which contain a no-cache tag. WebCite respects the author's request to not have their web page cached.
One can archive a page by simply navigating in their browser to a link formatted like this:
Compared to Wayback Machine
Once archived on WebCite, users can try to create an independent second-level backup copy of the starting URL, saving a second time the new WebCite's domain URL on web.archive.org, and on archive.is. Users can more conveniently do this using a browser add-on for archiving.
The term "WebCite" is a registered trademark. WebCite does not charge individual users, journal editors and publishers any fee to use their service. WebCite earns revenue from publishers who want to "have their publications analyzed and cited webreferences archived", and accepts donations. Early support was from the University of Toronto.
WebCite maintains the legal position that its archiving activities are allowed by the copyright doctrines of fair use and implied license. To support the fair use argument, WebCite notes that its archived copies are transformative, socially valuable for academic research, and not harmful to the market value of any copyrighted work. WebCite argues that caching and archiving web pages is not considered a copyright infringement when the archiver offers the copyright owner an opportunity to "opt-out" of the archive system, thus creating an implied license. To that end, WebCite will not archive in violation of Web site "do-not-cache" and "no-archive" metadata, as well as robot exclusion standards, the absence of which creates an "implied license" for web archive services to preserve the content.
In a similar case involving Google's web caching activities, on January 19, 2006, the United States District Court for the District of Nevada agreed with that argument in the case of Field v. Google (CV-S-04-0413-RCJ-LRL), holding that fair use and an "implied license" meant that Google's caching of Web pages did not constitute copyright violation. The "implied license" referred to general Internet standards.
According to their policy, after receiving legitimate DMCA requests from the copyright holders, WebCite removes saved pages from public access, as the archived pages are still under the safe harbor of being citations. The pages are removed to a "dark archive" and in cases of legal controversies or evidence requests there is pay-per-view access of "$200 (up to 5 snapshots) plus $100 for each further 10 snapshots" to the copyrighted content.
Dr. Eysenbach is trying to decide whether Webcite should continue as a non-profit project or a business with revenue streams built into the system.
Besides Perma, there are many other preserving systems. WebCite is another one[...].
Membership is currently free
1974 railway strike in India was a major strike by the workers of Indian Railways in 1974. The strike lasted from 8 to 27 May 1974. The 20 day strike by 1.7 million (17 lakh) workers is the largest recorded industrial action in the world.2004 Moroccan census
The 2004 Moroccan census was held in Morocco in 2004, officially referred to as the 2004 Moroccan census or unofficially as the Michael Ngovement. The census was conducted by the High Planning Commission.2009 in India
Events in the year 2009 in the Republic of India.2 Girls 1 Cup
2 Girls 1 Cup is the unofficial nickname of the trailer for Hungry Bitches, a 2007 Brazilian scat-fetish pornographic film produced by MFX Media. The trailer features two women defecating into a cup, taking turns in what appears to be consuming the excrement, and vomiting into each other's mouths. "Lovers Theme" by Hervé Roy plays throughout the video.The video went viral and became one of the best known shock videos in itself and for the reactions its graphic content elicited from viewers who had not seen it before. Around mid-October 2007, video-sharing sites including YouTube were flooded with videos of the reactions of first-time viewers.Alexa Ray Joel
Alexa Ray Joel (born December 29, 1985) is an American singer, songwriter, and pianist. Her parents are singer-songwriter Billy Joel and model Christie Brinkley. Joel released an EP Sketches (2006) and several singles on independent record labels. She has performed at numerous charity events and New York City fashion events, and in 2010 was chosen to be the spokesmodel for Prell shampoo.Back River (Buzzards Bay)
The Back River is a small tidal estuary in Bourne, Massachusetts on the eastern shore of Buzzards Bay. It lies just south of the Cape Cod Canal near the village of Monument Beach. It is separated from Buzzards Bay by Phinneys Harbor. The river's length is 2.1 miles (3.4 km).Since 1989 the Back River has been listed as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.Doppelgänger
A doppelgänger (; German: [ˈdɔpl̩ˌɡɛŋɐ] (listen), literally "double-goer") is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and usually seen as a harbinger of bad luck. Other traditions and stories equate a doppelgänger with an evil twin. In modern times, the term twin stranger is occasionally used. The word "doppelgänger" is often used in a more general and neutral sense, and in slang, to describe any person who physically resembles another person.Feldspar
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.Feldspars crystallize from magma as veins in both intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and are also present in many types of metamorphic rock. Rock formed almost entirely of calcic plagioclase feldspar is known as anorthosite. Feldspars are also found in many types of sedimentary rocks.Finance
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can also be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.Global city
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.
The most complex node is the "global city", with links binding it to other cities having a direct and tangible effect on global socio-economic affairs. The term "global city", rather than "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. "World city", meaning a city heavily involved in global trade, appeared in the May 1886 description of Liverpool, by The Illustrated London News. Patrick Geddes later used the term "world city" in 1915. More recently, the term has focused on a city's financial power and high technology infrastructure, with other factors becoming less relevant.Gram
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre [1 cm3], and at the temperature of melting ice" (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water). However, in a reversal of reference and defined units, a gram is now defined as one thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg, which itself is now defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, not in terms of grams, but by "the amount of electricity needed to counteract its force"Heisei period
The Heisei period (Japanese: 平成時代, Hepburn: Heisei jidai) is the current era in Japan. The Heisei period started on 8 January 1989, the day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito, when his son, Akihito, acceded to the throne as the 125th Emperor. In accordance with Japanese customs, Hirohito was posthumously renamed "Emperor Shōwa" on 31 January 1989. Thus, 1989 corresponds to Shōwa 64 until 7 January, and Heisei 1 (平成元年, Heisei gannen, gannen means "first year") from 8 January. The Heisei period will likely end on 30 April 2019 (Heisei 31), the date on which Emperor Akihito is expected to abdicate the Chrysanthemum Throne.Mitchell River (Massachusetts)
The Mitchell River is a 1.5-mile-long (2.4 km) river in Chatham, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. It is an estuary connecting Mill Pond to Stage Harbor.Moth
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Most lepidopterans are moths, and there are thought to be approximately 160,000 species of moth, many of which have yet to be described. Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are also crepuscular and diurnal species.NASDAQ
The Nasdaq Stock Market ( (listen), also known as Nasdaq) is an American stock exchange. It is the second-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, behind only the New York Stock Exchange located in the same city. The exchange platform is owned by Nasdaq, Inc., which also owns the Nasdaq Nordic (formerly known as OMX) and Nasdaq Baltic stock market network and several U.S. stock and options exchanges.Vienne
Vienne (French pronunciation: [vjɛn]) is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It takes its name from the river Vienne.Watchmen
Watchmen is a science fiction American comic book limited series by the British creative team of writer Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons and colorist John Higgins. It was published by DC Comics in 1986 and 1987, and collected in a single volume edition in 1987. Watchmen originated from a story proposal Moore submitted to DC featuring superhero characters that the company had acquired from Charlton Comics. As Moore's proposed story would have left many of the characters unusable for future stories, managing editor Dick Giordano convinced Moore to create original characters instead.
Moore used the story as a means to reflect contemporary anxieties and to deconstruct and satirize the superhero concept. Watchmen depicts an alternate history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1960s and their presence changed history so that the United States won the Vietnam War and the Watergate break-in was never exposed. In 1985, the country is edging toward World War III with the Soviet Union, freelance costumed vigilantes have been outlawed and most former superheroes are in retirement or working for the government. The story focuses on the personal development and moral struggles of the protagonists as an investigation into the murder of a government-sponsored superhero pulls them out of retirement.
Creatively, the focus of Watchmen is on its structure. Gibbons used a nine-panel grid layout throughout the series and added recurring symbols such as a blood-stained smiley face. All but the last issue feature supplemental fictional documents that add to the series' backstory, and the narrative is intertwined with that of another story, an in-story pirate comic titled Tales of the Black Freighter, which one of the characters reads. Structured at times as a nonlinear narrative, the story skips through space, time and plot. In the same manner, entire scenes and dialogue have parallels with others through synchronicity, coincidence and repeated imagery.
A commercial success, Watchmen has received critical acclaim both in the comics and mainstream press. Watchmen was recognized in Time's List of the 100 Best Novels as one of the best English language novels published since 1923. In a retrospective review, the BBC's Nicholas Barber described it as "the moment comic books grew up".After a number of attempts to adapt the series into a feature film, director Zack Snyder's Watchmen was released in 2009. A video game series, Watchmen: The End Is Nigh, was released in the same year to coincide with the film's release.
DC Comics published Before Watchmen, a series of nine prequel miniseries in 2012, and Doomsday Clock, a 12-issue limited series, a sequel to the original series that premiered in 2017, both without Moore's or Gibbons' involvement.Yanni
Yiannis Chryssomallis (Greek: Γιάννης Χρυσομάλλης, born November 14, 1954), known professionally as Yanni ( YAH-nee), is a Greek composer, keyboardist, pianist, and music producer who has resided in the United States during his adult life.
Yanni continues to use the musical shorthand that he developed as a child, blending jazz, classical, soft rock, and world music to create predominantly instrumental works. Although this genre of music was not well suited for commercial pop radio and music television, Yanni received international recognition by producing concerts at historic monuments and by producing videos that were broadcast on public television. His breakthrough concert, Live at the Acropolis, yielded the second best-selling music concert video of all time. Additional historic sites for Yanni's concerts have included India's Taj Mahal, China's Forbidden City, the United Arab Emirates' Burj Khalifa, Russia's Kremlin, Puerto Rico's El Morro castle, Lebanon's ancient city of Byblos, Tunisia's Roman Theatre of Carthage, India's Laxmi Vilas Palace, the Egyptian pyramids and Great Sphinx of Giza, and the Amman Citadel.At least sixteen of Yanni's albums have peaked at No. 1 in Billboard's "Top New Age Album" category, and two albums (Dare to Dream and In My Time) received Grammy Award nominations. Yanni has performed in more than 30 countries on five continents, and through late 2015 Yanni had performed live in concert before more than 5 million people and had accumulated more than 40 platinum and gold albums globally, with sales totaling over 25 million copies. A longtime fundraiser for public television, Yanni's compositions have been used on commercial television programs, especially for sporting events. He has written film scores and the music for an award-winning British Airways television commercial.Yanni popularized the combination of electronic music synthesizers with a full scale symphony orchestra. He has employed musicians of various nationalities and has incorporated a variety of exotic instruments to create music that has been called an eclectic fusion of ethnic sounds. Influenced by his encounters with cultures around the world, Yanni has been called a "true global artist" and his music is said to reflect his "one world, one people" philosophy.Yolanda Saldívar
Yolanda Saldívar (Spanish pronunciation: [ɟʝoˈlanda salˈdiβaɾ]; born September 19, 1960) is a former nurse and fan club president who was convicted of the murder of Tejano singer Selena Quintanilla-Pérez on March 31, 1995 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Saldívar will be eligible for parole on March 30, 2025.