Colonel Sir Ernest Edward "Weary" Dunlop, AC, CMG, OBE (12 July 1907 – 2 July 1993) was an Australian surgeon who was renowned for his leadership while being held prisoner by the Japanese during World War II.
Brass relief of Dunlop in uniform
|Born||12 July 1907|
Major Plains, Victoria
|Died||2 July 1993 (aged 85)|
|Years of service||1935–1946|
|Unit||Royal Australian Army Medical Corps|
2/2nd Casualty Clearing Station
|Commands held||No.1 Allied General Hospital|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Companion of the Order of Australia|
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Knight of the Venerable Order of Saint John
Mentioned in Despatches
Dunlop was born in Major Plains, Victoria, the second of two children of parents James and Alice. He attended Benalla High School for two years of his education. He started an apprenticeship in pharmacy when he finished school, and moved to Melbourne in 1927. There, he studied at the Victorian College of Pharmacy and then the University of Melbourne, where he obtained a scholarship in medicine. Dunlop graduated from the University of Melbourne in 1934 with first class honours in pharmacy and in medicine, and excelled as a sportsman at Melbourne University and Ormond College. The nickname "Weary" was a reference to his last name—"tired" like a Dunlop tyre.
Although brought up playing Australian Rules football, when at university — and although still playing "Aussie Rules", as a ruckman for Ormond College — Dunlop took up rugby union; commencing as a fourth grade player with the Melbourne University Rugby Club in 1931. He rapidly progressed through the grades, to state, and then to the national representative level, becoming the first Victorian-born player to represent the Wallabies.
In the first Test of 1934 he again appeared for Australia, this time as a lock Australia won the match 25–11. Dunlop had broken his nose in a head clash in the Melbourne University boxing championships on 3 August 1934, and it was broken again in the first five minutes of the match.
Two weeks later the second and final match of that year's Bledisloe Cup series finished in a draw; and, although Dunlop missed that match — he was one of a number of players from both teams who were victims of influenza — he stands as a member of the first Wallaby squad to have won the Bledisloe Cup away from New Zealand.
Dunlop had been a school cadet, and he continued his part-time army service until 1929, when his service ceased under pressure from his pharmacy studies. He re-enlisted in 1935 and was commissioned into the Australian Army Medical Corps on 1 July with the rank of Captain. In May 1938 Dunlop left Australia for London on a ship, where he served as her medical officer. In London he attended St Bartholomew's Medical School and in 1938 became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. The distinguished medical mentors Dunlop met in London, Professor Grey-Turner and Sir Thomas Dunhill, impressed him with their dedication to their job and he resolved to emulate their example.
During World War II, Dunlop was appointed to medical headquarters in the Middle East, where he developed the mobile surgical unit. In Greece he liaised with forward medical units and Allied headquarters, and at Tobruk he was a surgeon until the Australian Divisions were withdrawn for home defence. His troopship was diverted to Java in an ill-planned attempt to bolster the defences there. On 26 February 1942, he was promoted to temporary lieutenant-colonel. Dunlop became a Japanese prisoner of war in 1942 when he was captured in Bandung, Java, together with the hospital he was commanding.
Because of his leadership skills, he was placed in charge of prisoner-of-war camps in Java, and was later transferred briefly to Changi, and in January 1943 commanded the first Australians sent to work on the Thai segment of the Burma-Thailand railway where prisoners of the Japanese were being used as forced labourers to construct a strategically important supply route between Bangkok and Rangoon. Conditions in the railway camps were primitive and horrific—food was totally inadequate, beatings were frequent and severe, there were no medical supplies, tropical diseases were rampant, and the Japanese required a level of productivity that would have been difficult for fully fit and properly equipped men to achieve.
Along with a number of other Commonwealth Medical Officers, Dunlop's dedication and heroism became a legend among prisoners.
A courageous leader and compassionate doctor, he restored morale in those terrible prison camps and jungle hospitals. Dunlop defied his captors, gave hope to the sick and eased the anguish of the dying. He became, in the words of one of his men, "a lighthouse of sanity in a universe of madness and suffering". His example was one of the reasons why Australian survival rates were the highest.
After 1945, with the darkness of the war years behind him, Dunlop forgave his captors and turned his energies to the task of healing and building. He was to state later that " in suffering we are all equal". He devoted himself to the health and welfare of former prisoners-of-war and their families, and worked to promote better relations between Australia and Asia.
He was active in many spheres of endeavour. He became closely involved with a wide range of health and educational organisations, and served as President of the Australian Drug Foundation for 13 years, and also on the board of Cancer Council Victoria. He was the first Australian Patron of St. Andrew's Ambulance Association (now St. Andrew's First Aid). His tireless community work had a profound influence on Australians and on the people of Asia. As well as numerous tributes and distinctions bestowed upon him in his own country, he received honours from Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and the United Kingdom.
'Weary' Dunlop received many honours and awards throughout his life, including:
In 1988 'Weary' Dunlop was named one of '200 Great Australians'. In June 2008, he was honoured in the third set of inductees into the Australian Rugby Union Hall of Fame.
He received the posthumous honour of having the Canberra suburb of Dunlop named after him shortly after his death in 1993. His image is on the 1995 issue Australian fifty cent piece with the words "They Served Their Country in World War II, 1939 – 1945". The fifty cent piece is part of a set including the one dollar coin and the twenty cent piece. He has a platoon named after him in the Army Recruit Training Centre, Blamey Barracks, Kapooka. Weary Dunlop Platoon is a holding platoon to recruits that want to leave recruit training.
He was on one of 1995 Australia Remembers 45c stamps.
He was a Freemason.
The following lists events that happened during 1907 in Australia.
See also: 1906 in Australia, other events of 1907, 1908 in Australia, Timeline of Australian history.Benalla College
Benalla P-12 College is a state college located in the regional town of Benalla which is located on the Hume Highway in central Victoria, on the Melbourne to Sydney Highway, 180 km north-north-east of Melbourne. It was one of the first high schools established in Victoria by the government.Cyril Burke
Cyril Thomas Burke BEM (7 November 1925 – 18 January 2010) was an Australian rugby union player, a state and national representative scrum-half who made twenty-six Test appearances for the Wallabies between 1946 and 1956.Dunlop, Australian Capital Territory
Dunlop is a suburb of the Belconnen district of Canberra, located within the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Dunlop is at the far north-west edge of Canberra, near the border with the state of New South Wales. Approximately 11.6 kilometres (7.2 mi) north-west of the city, Dunlop is next to the suburbs of Fraser, Charnwood and Macgregor. At the edge and within Dunlop lies the Canberra Nature Park called Dunlop Grasslands Nature Reserve, West Belconnen Ponds, Jarramlee Pond and Fassifern Pond which are part of the Ginninderra Catchment.Dunlop is named after Lieutenant Colonel Sir Ernest Edward 'Weary' Dunlop who was an Australian surgeon and was renowned for his leadership whilst being held prisoner of war by the Japanese during World War II. He was born in Wangaratta, Victoria, Australia. Streets in Dunlop are named after inventors, inventions and artists.Dunlop (surname)
Dunlop is a surname, originating in Ayrshire, Scotland. Notable people with the surname include:
Andrew Dunlop, Baron Dunlop (born 1959), British politician
Andy Dunlop (born 1972), Scottish guitarist
Beveridge C. Dunlop (1879–1961), New York politician
Bill Dunlop (born 1963), Canadian boxer
Blake Dunlop (born 1953), Canadian ice-hockey player
Bob Dunlop (1945-2000), Australian boxer of the 1960s
Bob Dunlop (footballer) (born 1935), Australian rules footballer
Boyd Lee Dunlop (1926–2013), American jazz pianist
Brian Dunlop (born 1938), Australian artist
Charles Dunlop (1870–1911), Scottish cricketer who played for Somerset
Daniel Nicol Dunlop (1868–1935), British anthroposophist and electrical industry executive
David Colin Dunlop (1897–1968), Dean of Lincoln, Bishop of Jarrow
Sir Derrick Dunlop (1902-1980), Scottish physician and founder of the "Dunlop Committee" on drug abuse
Douglas Dunlop, Scottish teacher and missionary; consultant (1880s–1919) to the Egyptian minister of education
Douglas Morton Dunlop (1909–1987), Scottish-American professor of history and orientalist
Ed Dunlop (born 1968), British thoroughbred racehorse trainer
Edward Arunah Dunlop (1876–1934), Canadian politician
Prof Ernest Dunlop (1893-1969) Scottish bacteriologist
Fuchsia Dunlop, English writer and chef, granddaughter of David Colin Dunlop
Garfield Dunlop, Canadian politician (currently opposition chief whip)
Graham Dunlop (born 1976), Scottish field hockey player
Henry Dunlop of Craigton (1799-1867) Lord Provost of Glasgow 1837-1840
James Dunlop (disambiguation), several people
Joan Dunlop, (1934-2012), British and American women's health advocate
Joey Dunlop (1952–2000), Northern Ireland motorcycle racer
John Dunlop (disambiguation), several persons, including:
John Boyd Dunlop (1840–1921), Scottish/Irish inventor, inventor of the pneumatic tyre and founder of the Dunlop rubber company
Juliet Dunlop, British television journalist
Lesley Dunlop (born 1956), British actress
Marion Wallace Dunlop (1864–1942), British suffragette
Michael Dunlop (born 1988), Northern Ireland motorcycle racer
Sir Nathaniel Dunlop (1830-1919) Glasgow shipowner and philanthropist
Nicholas Dunlop (born 1956), climate activist from New Zealand
Penelope Jane Dunlop (born 1960), South African entertainer also known as PJ Powers
Robert Dunlop (1960–2008), Northern Ireland motorcycle racer
Ronald Ossory Dunlop (1894–1973), Irish artist
Robert Graham Dunlop (1790–1841), Scottish-born ship's captain and political figure in Upper Canada
Sibyl Dunlop (1889-1968), British jewellery designer, best known for her Arts and Crafts work of the 1920s and 1930s
Sir Thomas Dunlop, 1st Baronet (1855–1938), Scottish businessman
Weary Dunlop (Sir Ernest Edward Dunlop, 1907–1993), Australian surgeon and prisoner of war hero
William Dunlop (disambiguation), several people named William and BillyGreg Cornelsen
Greg Cornelsen (born 29 August 1952 in Sydney) is a former Australian rugby union footballer, who was capped 25 times for the national team, the Wallabies from 1974 to 1982. His usual position was as flanker.Jock Blackwood
John Garven "Jock" Blackwood (26 August 1899 – c. 1979) was a rugby union player who represented Australia.
Blackwood, a hooker, was born in Mona Vale, New South Wales and claimed a total of 21 international rugby caps for Australia. He was inducted into the Australian Rugby Union's Hall of Fame in 2015.Kevin Fagan (doctor)
Dr Kevin James Fagan AO (5 February 1909 - 1992) was an Australian doctor and World War II hero.
After attending St Ignatius' College, Riverview on a bursary, Fagan was Dux of the School in both 1925 and 1926, enabling him to study Medicine at the University of Sydney. He lived on campus at St John's College, University of Sydney from 1927-32.After graduation, he returned to Tasmania and became Superintendent of Hobart General Hospital in 1937. Shortly after the outbreak of World War II he joined the Army Medical Corps and was posted to Singapore in 1942 with the 8th Division. He was soon a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese, first in Changi and later on the infamous Thai-Burma Railway.An outstanding surgeon, he was every bit as influential in his care of the sick and injured soldiers as the high-profile Sir Weary Dunlop. One of many testimonies from the Australian War Memorial reads:
'To many an unfortunate digger and others who rolled and tossed and cried out with the well nigh insufferable agony of those….. ulcers came a man who ceased suffering and pain and taking limbs off in many cases he put them on the road to home again. Yes Major Fagan, the diggers’ children will hear your name spoken with feelings of gratitude for many a long day to come. For the noble work you did, your name will be memorable'.Kings Domain
Kings Domain is an area of parklands in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It surrounds Government House Reserve, the home of the Governors of Victoria, the Sidney Myer Music Bowl, and the Shrine Reserve incorporating the Shrine of Remembrance.
The park was established in 1854, extending the Domain Parklands further north-west, it covers an area of 36 hectares of lawns and pathways set among non-native and native Australian mature trees, a mixture of deciduous and evergreens. In the 19th century the Kings Domain was managed by the Director of the Botanic Gardens, so many of the trees were planted by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller and later by William Guilfoyle. Around the Domain are scattered memorial statues and sculptures, each with their own story.
Kings Domain is part of a larger group of parklands directly south-east of the city, between St. Kilda Road and the Yarra River known as the Domain Parklands, which includes;
The Royal Botanic Gardens
Queen Victoria GardensMelbourne Rebels
The Melbourne Rebels (formerly known as the RaboDirect Melbourne Rebels for sponsorship reasons) are a professional rugby union team based in Melbourne. They made their debut in SANZAR's Super Rugby tournament in 2011. They were the first privately owned professional rugby union team in Australia, until 2017 when shares in the franchise were returned to the Victorian Rugby Union. The club shares its name with a former Australian Rugby Championship team, but is unrelated.Melbourne Rising
The Melbourne Rising is an Australian rugby union team based in Melbourne that competes in the National Rugby Championship (NRC). The team represents the rugby community in Victoria and is organised and managed by Rugby Victoria with the coaching and training programs used by the Melbourne Rebels being extended to players joining the team from the Rebels, the local Dewar Shield competition, and local Victorian juniors.
The NRC was launched in 2014, reinstating the national competition after an absence of six years. The previous competition was the Australian Rugby Championship (ARC), which was discontinued in 2007 after only one season. The team representing Victoria in the ARC was the Melbourne Rebels, organised and managed by the VRU. That Rebels team was the predecessor of the Melbourne Rebels team in Super Rugby and the Melbourne Rising team in the NRC.Peter Corlett
Peter Corlett (born 1944) is an Australian sculptor, known for his full-figure sculptures cast in bronze, especially his memorial works.
Corlett studied sculpture at RMIT University, Melbourne, from 1961 to 1964. In 1975, he was awarded a special projects grant from the Visual Arts Board of the Australia Council. Between 1977 and 1980, he was artist in residence at Exeter University and Exeter College of Art in the United Kingdom.Richard Woolcott
Richard Arthur Woolcott (born 11 June 1927) is a retired Australian public servant, diplomat, author and commentator.Sam Prince (humanitarian)
Sam Prince (27 November 1983) is an Australian entrepreneur and aid worker. He is the CEO of Sam Prince Group.
Dr. Prince is the founder of Mexican franchise chain, Zambrero – recognised as one of Australia's fastest growing businesses with a mission to end world hunger through its Plate4Plate initiative, having donated over 28 million meals to those in need to date.
He is chairman and Founder of One Disease – a non-profit organisation that aims to eliminate Crusted scabies from remote Indigenous communities in Australia by 2022.Prince was named EY National and Regional Social Entrepreneur of the Year in 2018 and "The Australian of the Year" for the ACT in 2012 for his Zambrero-funded philanthropy. In 2012 he was also awarded the 2012 Monash University Distinguished Alumni Award. 2008 saw Prince named "Outstanding Young Person of the World'’ in the Junior Chambers International, and in 2009 he was awarded the 'Weary Dunlop Fellowship.'He is one of 14 members in the InnovationXchange program, headed by The Hon Julie Bishop MP which discusses novel approaches in business, civil society, philanthropy and academia to drive innovation across Australia's aid program.Sohe District
Sohe District is a district of the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. Its capital is Kokoda. The population was 86,547 at the 2011 census.In 2017, St. Andrew's First Aid Australia commenced first aid support to the villages along the Kokoda track. They presented their highest citation to Havala Laula, the last of the WWII Fuzzy_Wuzzy_Angels at a ceremony in Melbourne's Heroes Club in March of that same year. His trip was supported by renowned tour company Kokoda Historical. Later the Governor General of Australia General Sir Peter Cosgrove, AK, MC presented Havala with the Governor General of Australia's Medallion on ANZAC Day in PNG as part of the 75th Anniversary Commemorations of the Battle of Milne Bay.In 2018, St. Andrew's First Aid Australia in conjunction with The Weary Dunlop Foundation have joined together to raise funds to send trained first aid instructors to go to the Kokoda Track and teach the locals first aid. The Member for Sohe District Mr Henry Amuli, MP has thrown his support behind the project by supporting the inbound team. He wil also be a special guest as a fundraising dinner at the Kelvin Club on October 27.The Greatest of All - Our 50 Top Australians
The Greatest of All - Our 50 Top Australians was a newspaper article published in The Australian on 27 January 2013, coinciding with that year's Australia Day. Compiled by News Limited journalist Billy Rule, the article listed what he considered were the top 50 individuals (including one horse) who "have helped define who we are as a people and how Australia is perceived as a country", including 'trailblazers', those who left a legacy for others to admire or benefit from, and those that engendered inspiration.
Sir Donald Bradman: Cricketer (born 1908, New South Wales; died 2001, South Australia)
Banjo Paterson: Poet and author
Howard Florey: Microbiologist, Nobel Prize laureate and one of the discoverers of penicillin (born 1898, South Australia; died 1968, England)
John Curtin: Australian Prime Minister during the Second World War (born 1885, Victoria; died 1945, Australian Capital Territory)
St Mary of the Cross MacKillop: Saint, nun and co-founder of rural education order Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart (born 1842, New South Wales; died 1929, New South Wales)
Eddie Mabo: Torres Strait Islander and advocate for indigenous land rights (born 1936, Queensland; died 1992, Queensland)
Sir John Monash: Australian Army general and victor of the Battle of Hamel in the First World War (born 1865, Victoria; died 1931, Victoria)
Sir Douglas Mawson: Antarctic explorer (born 1882, England; died 1958, South Australia)
Edith Cowan: Social campaigner and the first woman elected to an Australian parliament (born 1861, Western Australia; died 1932, Western Australia)
Albert Jacka: Soldier in the Gallipoli campaign and recipient of the Victoria Cross (born 1893, Victoria; died 1932, Victoria)
Sir Marcus Oliphant: Physicist who assisted in the development of radar and the atomic bomb (born 1901, South Australia; died 2000, Australian Capital Territory)
Dawn Fraser: Swimmer, first woman to swim 100 metres in under one minute (born 1937, New South Wales)
Sir Ernest Edward 'Weary' Dunlop: Army doctor (born 1907, Victoria; died 1993, Victoria)
Nancy Wake: Special Operations Executive agent (born 1912, New Zealand; died 2011, England)
Rod Laver: Tennis player (all time men's record of 200 Singles titles) (born 1938, Queensland)
The Rev John Flynn: Founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service (born 1880, Victoria; died 1951, New South Wales)
Phar Lap: Racehorse (foaled 1926, New Zealand; died 1932, United States)
Dame Enid Lyons: First woman to be appointed to the Cabinet of Australia (born 1897, Tasmania; died 1981, Tasmania)
Bob Hawke: Prime Minister (born 1929, South Australia; died May 16, 2019 in Sydney, Australia)
Sir Charles Kingsford Smith: Aviator (born 1897, Queensland; died 1935, Andaman Sea off the coast of Burma)
Rupert Murdoch: Founder and CEO of News Corporation (born 1931, Victoria)
Bruce Kingsbury: Soldier in the Kokoda Track Campaign and Victoria Cross recipient (born 1918, Victoria; died 1942, New Guinea)
Barry Marshall: Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology (born 1951, Western Australia)
Margaret Court: Tennis player (all time women's record of 192 Singles titles) (born 1942, New South Wales)
Norman Lindsay: Illustrator and sculptor (born 1879, Victoria; died 1969, New South Wales)
Betty Cuthbert: Track athlete (four time Olympic champion) (born 1938, New South Wales; died 2017, Western Australia)
Lawrence Hargrave: Aeronautical engineer (born 1850, England; died 1915, New South Wales)
AC/DC: Rock band (established 1973, New South Wales)
Sir Robert Menzies: Australia's longest serving Prime Minister (born 1894, Victoria; died 1978, Victoria)
Dame Nellie Melba: Operatic soprano (born 1861, Victoria; died 1931, Victoria)
Lionel Rose: Boxer (first Indigenous Australian to win a world title) (born 1948, Victoria; died 2011, Victoria)
Dennis Lillee: Cricketer (born 1949, Western Australia)
Albert Namatjira: Artist (born 1902, Northern Territory (then South Australia); died 1959, Northern Territory)
Elizabeth Kenny: Nurse, advocate of physiotherapy for polio sufferers (born 1880, New South Wales; died 1952, Queensland)
Vincent Lingiari: Aboriginal land rights advocate (born 1908, Northern Territory (then South Australia); died 1988, Northern Territory)
Bart Cummings: Racehorse trainer (born 1927, South Australia; died 2015, New South Wales)
Michael Hutchence: Founding member of rock band INXS (born 1960, New South Wales; died 1997, New South Wales)
John Howard: Prime Minister (born 1939, New South Wales)
Caroline Chisholm: Philanthropist (born 1808, England; died 1877, England)
Cyril Callister: Food technologist and inventor of Vegemite (born 1893, Victoria; died 1949, Victoria)
Barry Humphries: Actor and writer (born 1934, Victoria)
Edward Hargraves: Discoverer of gold in Australia (born 1816, England; died 1891, New South Wales)
Errol Flynn: Actor (born 1909, Tasmania; died 1959, Canada)
Slim Dusty: Country singer (born 1927, New South Wales; died 2003, New South Wales)
Sir Henry Parkes: New South Wales Premier who advocated for the Federation of Australia (born 1815, England; died 1896, New South Wales)
Greg Norman: Golfer (born 1955, Queensland)
Reg Grundy: Television entrepreneur (born 1923, New South Wales; died 2016, Bermuda)
Fred Hollows: Ophthalmologist and humanitarian (born 1929, New Zealand; died 1993, New South Wales)
Richie Benaud: Cricketer (born 1930, New South Wales; died 2015, New South Wales)
"Honorary Australians": Billy Rule included a category for all non-citizens whose contributions had been integral to shaping Australia, including English and Dutch explorers James Cook, Matthew Flinders, William Dampier and Dirk Hartog, botanist Joseph Banks, US General Douglas MacArthur, Dutch soccer coach Guus Hiddink, Irish Australian Rules Footballer Jim Stynes and (incorrectly identified as a non-Australian citizen) Russian boxer Kostya Tszyu.Tim Gavin
Bryant Timothy "Tim" Gavin (born Sydney 20 November 1963) is an Australian former state and national representative rugby union player who played Number 8 for the Wallabies in 47 Test matches in between 1988 and 1996.Gavin played 83 times for New South Wales between 1988 and 1996 and captained them 30 times. He also played for Milan in Italy in the Australian off seasons between 1992 and 1995. He missed the 1991 Rugby World Cup victory as he suffered a knee injury just before the tournament but played in the 1995 tournament and the inaugural Tri-Nations SeriesWally Meagher
Francis Wallace Meagher (1903 – 14 December 1966) was a rugby union player who represented Australia.
Meagher, a scrum-half, was born in Sydney, New South Wales and claimed a total of 8 international rugby caps for Australia. He was inducted into the Wallaby Hall of Fame in 2012.Wylie Breckenridge
John Wylie P. Breckenridge (22 April 1903 – c. 1991) was a rugby union player who represented Australia.
Breckenridge, a flanker, was born in Failford, New South Wales and claimed a total of 11 international rugby caps for Australia. In October 2014 Breckenridge was inducted into Australia Rugby's Hall of Fame.