Wayback Machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California, United States.

Wayback Machine
Stylized text saying: "INTERNET ARCHIVE WAYBACK MACHINE". The text is in black, except for "WAYBACK", which is in red.
Screenshot
WaybackMachineHomepageNovember2015
Wayback Machine homepage on November 2015
Type of site
Archive
OwnerInternet Archive
Websiteweb.archive.org
Alexa rankPositive decrease 253 (February 2019)[1]
RegistrationOptional
LaunchedOctober 24, 2001[2][3]
Current statusActive
Written inJava, Python

History

Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down.[4] The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index".[5] Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."[6]

The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine" (pronounced way-back), a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon.[7][8] In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters routinely used the machine to witness, participate in, and, more often than not, alter famous events in history.

The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later.[9] From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database.[10] When the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley.[11] By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it already contained over 10 billion archived pages.[12]

Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes.[6] It revisits and archives new versions of websites on occasion (see technical details below).[13] Sites can also be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data.[9]

Technical details

Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews (Usenet) bulletin board system, and downloadable software.[14] The information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible. To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, and create digital archives.[15]

Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive.[13] For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl.[13] The "Worldwide Web Crawls" have been running since 2010 and capture the global Web.[16][13]

The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website.[13] Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl.[13] A crawl can take months or even years to complete depending on size.[13] For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, and completed on July 11, 2016.[17] However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, and a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how often a site is crawled varies widely.[13]

Storage capacity and growth

As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month. The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became fully operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that.[18][19]

The Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, and hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus.[20] As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month.[21]

A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011.[22] In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, and will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, and no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year."[23] Also in 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes.[24]

In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs.[25] In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature[26] which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries.[27][28]

As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, and was growing at about 20 terabytes a week.[29][12][30]

As of July 2016, the Wayback Machine reportedly contained around 15 petabytes of data.[31]

As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data.[32][33]

Growth

Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163[34] to 208.[35]

Wayback Machine Growth [36] [37]
Wayback Machine by Year Pages Archived (billion)
2005
40
2008
85
2012
150
2013
373
2014
400
2015
452

Website exclusion policy

Historically, Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard (robots.txt) in determining if a website would be crawled or not; or if already crawled, if its archives would be publicly viewable. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots.txt. It applied robots.txt rules retroactively; if a site blocked the Internet Archive, any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well. In addition, the Internet Archive stated that "Sometimes a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests."[38] In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection."[39][40]

Oakland Archive Policy

Wayback's retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests and Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, which gives a website owner the right to block access to the site's archives.[41] Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation.[42]

The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017, when it stopped honoring robots.txt on U.S. government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages. As of April 2017, Wayback is ignoring robots.txt more broadly, not just for U.S. government websites.[43][44][45][46]

Uses

From its public launch in 2001, the Wayback Machine has been studied by scholars both for the ways it stores and collects data as well as for the actual pages contained in its archive. As of 2013, scholars had written about 350 articles on the Wayback Machine, mostly from the information technology, library science, and social science fields. Social science scholars have used the Wayback Machine to analyze how the development of websites from the mid-1990s to the present has affected the company's growth.[12]

When the Wayback Machine archives a page, it usually includes most of the hyperlinks, keeping those links active when they just as easily could have been broken by the Internet's instability. Researchers in India studied the effectiveness of the Wayback Machine's ability to save hyperlinks in online scholarly publications and found that it saved slightly more than half of them.[47]

Journalists use the Wayback Machine to view dead websites, dated news reports, and changes to website contents. Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies.[48] In 2014, an archived social media page of Igor Girkin, a separatist rebel leader in Ukraine, showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet, after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine's military for downing the plane.[48][49] In 2017, the March for Science originated from a discussion on reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive.org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website. In response, a user commented, "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington".[50][51][52]

Furthermore, the site is used heavily for verification, providing access to references and content creation by Wikipedia editors.

Limitations

Despite its capabilities, the Wayback Machine also has some limitations. In 2014 there was a six-month lag time between when a website is crawled and when it is available for viewing in the Wayback Machine.[53] Currently, the lag time is 3 to 10 hours.[54] The Wayback Machine is not "historical Google"; users must know the URL of the websites they want to see.[55] It does have a "Site Search" feature that allows users to find a site based on words describing the site, rather than words found on the web pages themselves.

The Wayback Machine does not include every web page ever made due to the limitations of its web crawler. The Wayback Machine cannot completely archive web pages that contain interactive features like Flash platforms and forms written in JavaScript, because those functions require interaction with the host website. Their web crawler has difficulty extracting anything not coded in HTML (or one of its variants) which often results in broken hyperlinks and missing images. Furthermore, the web crawler cannot archive "orphan pages" that contain no links to other pages.[56][55] Specific rules governing the Wayback Machine's crawler can only follow a predetermined number of hyperlinks based on a preset depth limit, so it cannot archive every hyperlink on every page.[16]

Some owners place a robot.txt file on their website which prevents the Wayback Machine from discovering and archiving it. Furthermore, website owners can also contact the Internet Archive directly and request that their pages be excluded from the archive.[56]

In legal evidence

Civil litigation

In a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc., defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots.txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula's site, pages that Chordiant believed would support its case.[57]

Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula's website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly.[58] An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant's motion, however, stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means "without considerable burden, expense and disruption to its operations."[57]

Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, rejected Netbula's arguments and ordered them to disable the robots.txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought.[57]

In an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No. 02 C 3293, 65 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 673 (N.D. Ill. October 15, 2004), a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska's website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska's assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial.[59][60] At the trial, however, District Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e., the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported web page, printouts were not self-authenticating.

Patent law

Provided some additional requirements are met (e.g., providing an authoritative statement of the archivist), the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public. These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application.[61]

Limitations of utility

There are technical limitations to archiving a website, and as a consequence, it is possible for opposing parties in litigation to misuse the results provided by website archives. This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screenshots of web pages in complaints, answers, or expert witness reports when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore, can contain errors. For example, archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore, do not include the contents of non-RESTful e-commerce databases in their archives.[62]

Legal status

In Europe, the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws. Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated, so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator.[63] The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site.[64]

Archived content legal issues

A number of cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts.

Scientology

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine.[65] An error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner".[66] Later, it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed.[67]

Healthcare Advocates, Inc.

In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid, based on the content of their website from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine, however, some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback.[68] The lawsuit was settled out of court, after Wayback fixed the problem.[69]

Suzanne Shell

Activist Suzanne Shell filed suit in December 2005, demanding Internet Archive pay her US$100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004.[70][71] Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell's copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service.[72] On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract.[71] The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which would also go forward.[73]

On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit.[70] The Internet Archive said it "...has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation." Shell said, "I respect the historical value of Internet Archive's goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm."[74]

Daniel Davydiuk

Between 2013 and 2016, a pornographic actor tried to remove archived images of himself from the Wayback Machine's archive, first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive, and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada.[75][76][77]

Censorship and other threats

Archive.org is currently blocked in China.[78][79] After the site enabled the encrypted HTTPS protocol, the Internet Archive was blocked in its entirety in Russia in 2015.[80][81][48]

Alison Macrina, director of the Library Freedom Project, notes that "while librarians deeply value individual privacy, we also strongly oppose censorship".[48]

There are known rare cases where online access to content which "for nothing" has put people in danger was disabled by the website.[48]

Other threats include natural disasters,[82] destruction (remote or physical), manipulation of the archive's contents (see also: cyberattack, backup), problematic copyright laws[83] and surveillance of the site's users.[84]

Kevin Vaughan suspects that in the long-term of multiple generations "next to nothing" will survive in a useful way besides "if we have continuity in our technological civilization" by which "a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable".[85]

Some find the Internet Archive, which describes itself to be built for the long-term,[86] to be working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long-term infrastructure to speak of.[87]

See also

References

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  71. ^ a b Babcock, Lewis T., Chief Judge (February 13, 2007). "Internet Archive v. Shell Civil Action No. 06cv01726LTBCBS" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on January 25, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 1) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for conversion and civil theft (Second Cause of Action) is GRANTED, 2) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for breach of contract (Third Cause of Action) is DENIED; 3) Internet Archive's motion to dismiss Shell's counterclaim for Racketeering under RICO and COCCA (Fourth Cause of Action) is GRANTED.
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  73. ^ Samson, Martin H., Phillips Nizer LLP (2007). "Internet Archive v. Suzanne Shell". internetlibrary.com. Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions. Archived from the original on August 3, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2015. More importantly, held the court, Internet Archive's mere copying of Shell's site, and display thereof in its database, did not constitute the requisite exercise of dominion and control over defendant's property. Importantly, noted the court, the defendant at all times owned and operated her own site. Said the Court: 'Shell has failed to allege facts showing that Internet Archive exercised dominion or control over her website, since Shell's complaint states explicitly that she continued to own and operate the website while it was archived on the Wayback machine. Shell identifies no authority supporting the notion that copying documents is by itself enough of a deprivation of use to support conversion. Conversely, numerous circuits have determined that it is not.'
  74. ^ brewster (April 25, 2007). "Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell Settle Lawsuit". archive.org. Denver, CO, USA: Internet Archive. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2015. Both parties sincerely regret any turmoil that the lawsuit may have caused for the other. Neither Internet Archive nor Ms Shell condones any conduct which may have caused harm to either party arising out of the public attention to this lawsuit. The parties have not engaged in such conduct and request that the public response to the amicable resolution of this litigation be consistent with their wishes that no further harm or turmoil be caused to either party.
  75. ^ Stobbe, Richard (5 December 2014). "Copyright Implications Of A "Right To Be Forgotten"? Or How To Take-Down The Internet Archive". Mondaq. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  76. ^ McVeigh, Glennys (16 October 2014). Philpott, James; Weissman, Adam; Bucholz, Ren; Kettles, Brent; Pearl, Aaron, eds. "Davydiuk v. Internet Archive Canada, 2014 FC 944". CanLII. Federation of Law Societies of Canada. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  77. ^ Southcott, Richard F. (30 November 2016). Philpott, John; Alton, Alex; Bucholz, Ren, eds. "Davydiuk v. Internet Archive Canada and Internet Archive, 2016 FC 1313 (CanLII)". CanLII. Ottawa, Ontario: Federation of Law Societies of Canada. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  78. ^ Conger, Kate. "Backing up the history of the internet in Canada to save it from Trump". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  79. ^ "Where to find what's disappeared online, and a whole lot more: the Internet Archive". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on March 28, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  80. ^ Chirgwin, Richard. "There's no Wayback in Russia: Putin blocks Archive.org". Archived from the original on October 7, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  81. ^ "Russia won't go Wayback, blocks the Internet Archive". Digital Trends. June 26, 2015. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  82. ^ "Help Us Keep the Archive Free, Accessible, and Reader Private | Internet Archive Blogs". Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  83. ^ "Internet Archive: Proposed Changes To DMCA Would Make Us "Censor The Web"". Consumerist. June 7, 2016. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  84. ^ Herb, Ulrich. "Die Trump-Angst grassiert" (in German). heise online. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  85. ^ LaFrance, Adrienne. "The Internet's Dark Ages". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  86. ^ "The Entire Internet Will Be Archived In Canada to Protect It From Trump". Motherboard. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  87. ^ LaFrance, Adrienne. "The Human Fear of Total Knowledge". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 2, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2017.

External links

Mirrors

Utilities

Boeing C-17 Globemaster III

The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft. It was developed for the United States Air Force (USAF) from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas. The C-17 carries forward the name of two previous piston-engined military cargo aircraft, the Douglas C-74 Globemaster and the Douglas C-124 Globemaster II. The C-17 commonly performs tactical and strategic airlift missions, transporting troops and cargo throughout the world; additional roles include medical evacuation and airdrop duties. It was designed to replace the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, and also fulfill some of the duties of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, freeing the C-5 fleet for outsize cargo.Boeing, which merged with McDonnell Douglas in 1997, continued to manufacture C-17s for export customers following the end of deliveries to the U.S. Air Force. Aside from the United States, the C-17 is in service with the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, NATO Heavy Airlift Wing, India, and Kuwait. The final C-17 was completed at the Long Beach, California plant and flown on 29 November 2015.

Duke University

Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.

Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres (3,500 hectares) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. The main campus—designed largely by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot (64-meter) Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles (2.4 kilometers) away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore (established in 2005) and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China (established in 2013).

As of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university. Further, Duke alumni include 40 Rhodes Scholars and 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015. As of 2018, Duke also holds a top-ten position in several national rankings.

Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of public-domain books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains hundreds of billions of web captures. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

J. K. Rowling

Joanne Rowling , ( "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film producer, television producer and screenwriter, best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 500 million copies, becoming the best-selling book series in history. They have also been the basis for a film series, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and was a producer on the final films in the series.Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990. The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997. There were six sequels, of which the last, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was released in 2007. Since then, Rowling has written five books for adult readers: The Casual Vacancy (2012) and—under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith—the crime fiction novels The Cuckoo's Calling (2013), The Silkworm (2014), Career of Evil (2015), and Lethal White (2018).Rowling has lived a "rags to riches" life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to being the world's first billionaire author. She lost her billionaire status after giving away much of her earnings to charity, but remains one of the wealthiest people in the world. She is the United Kingdom's bestselling living author, with sales in excess of £238M. The 2016 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowling's fortune at £600 million, ranking her as the joint 197th richest person in the UK. Time named her a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fans. In October 2010, Rowling was named the "Most Influential Woman in Britain" by leading magazine editors. She has supported charities, including Comic Relief, One Parent Families and Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain, and launched her own charity, Lumos.

Kathryn Bernardo

Kathryn Chandria Manuel Bernardo (born March 26, 1996) is a Filipino actress, model and recording artist. She became known for her role as Mara in the hit TV series Mara Clara (2010–2011). She has since starred in TV series' Princess and I (2012–2013), Got to Believe (2013–2014), Pangako Sa 'Yo (2015–2016) and La Luna Sangre (2017–2018). She has also starred in different films such as Way Back Home (2011), Must Be... Love (2013), She's Dating the Gangster (2014), Crazy Beautiful You (2015), Barcelona: A Love Untold (2016), Can't Help Falling in Love (2017) and The Hows of Us (2018).

Bernardo has been a contract artist of Star Magic and ABS-CBN since 2003 and 2010, respectively.

List of best-selling books

This page provides lists of best-selling individual books and book series to date and in any language. "Best selling" refers to the estimated number of copies sold of each book, rather than the number of books printed or currently owned. Comics and textbooks are not included in this list. The books are listed according to the highest sales estimate as reported in reliable, independent sources. This list is incomplete because there are many books, such as The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, or A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens, that are commonly cited as "best-selling books" yet have no reliable sales figures. Similarly, many notable book series that sold very widely are poorly documented (Land of Oz) or consist of multiple sub-series (Tom Swift).

According to Guinness World Records as of 1995, the Bible is the best-selling book of all time, with an estimated 5 billion copies sold and distributed. The Qur'an is also widely reported to be one of the most printed and distributed books worldwide. The Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, also known as the Little Red Book, has produced a wide array of sales and distribution figures — with estimates ranging from 800 million to over 6.5 billion printed volumes, with some claiming the distribution ran into the "billions" and some citing "over a billion" official volumes between 1966 and 1969 alone as well as "untold numbers of unofficial local reprints and unofficial translations." Exact print figures for these and other books may also be missing or unreliable since these kinds of books may be produced by many different and unrelated publishers, in some cases over many centuries. All books of a religious, ideological, philosophical or political nature have thus been excluded from the below lists of best-selling books for these reasons.

Having sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling is the best-selling book series in history. The first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, has sold in excess of 120 million copies, making it one of the best-selling books of all time. As of June 2017, the series has been translated into 80 languages, placing Harry Potter among history's most translated literary works. The last four books in the series consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books of all time, where the final installment, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, sold roughly fifteen million copies worldwide within twenty-four hours of its release. With twelve million books printed in the first U.S. run, it also holds the record for the highest initial print run for any book in history.

List of most-viewed YouTube videos

YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Since its establishment in 2005, the website has featured a "most viewed" section, which lists the most-viewed videos on the site. Although the most-viewed videos were initially viral videos, such as "Evolution of Dance" and "Charlie Bit My Finger", the most-viewed videos were increasingly related to music videos. In fact, since Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance", every video that has reached the top of the "most-viewed YouTube videos" list has been a music video. Although some of the previously most-viewed videos are no longer listed on the site, reaching the top of the list is still considered a tremendous feat.

In November 2005, a Nike advertisement featuring Brazilian football star Ronaldinho became the first video to reach one million views.In December 2012, "Gangnam Style" became the first video to reach one billion views. By June 2015, only "Baby" had managed to join this threshold; but, by October 2015, a total of ten videos had done so, and the number reached further to 100 in February 2018. In July 2018, "November Rain" by Guns N' Roses became the first video created before the YouTube era to reach this threshold.In May 2014 "Gangnam Style" became the first video to exceed two billion views. "Despacito" became the first video to reach three billion views in August 2017, and since has surpassed four billion in October 2017, five billion in April 2018, and six billion in February 2019.

As of March 2019, 32 videos have exceeded two billion views; 7 of which exceed three billion views, 3 of which exceed four billion views and 1 of which exceeds six billion views. "See You Again" became the second video to reach three billion views in August 2017, followed by "Gangnam Style" in November 2017. "Shape of You" became the second video to reach four billion views in January 2019, followed by "See You Again" in February 2019.

As of March 2019, the fastest videos to reach the one billion view mark are "Hello" (87 days), "Despacito" (96 days), "Shape of You" (97 days), "Mi Gente" (103 days) and "Échame la Culpa" (111 days). The fastest videos to reach two billion views are "Despacito" (154 days), "Shape of You" (187 days) and "Chantaje" (379 days), and the fastest videos to reach three billion views are "Despacito" (203 days), "Shape of You" (342 days) and "See You Again" (852 days).As of March 2019, Justin Bieber is the only artist to have five videos exceeding one billion views, while Katy Perry, Bruno Mars, Nicky Jam, Shakira, J Balvin and Taylor Swift have four. Only two non-music videos are featured in the top 30 most-viewed. Taylor Swift, Katy Perry, Ed Sheeran, Shakira and Justin Bieber are the only artists to have two videos exceeding two billion views.

List of social networking websites

This is a list of major active social networking websites and excludes dating websites (see Comparison of online dating websites). For defunct social networking websites, see List of defunct social networking websites.

This list is not exhaustive, and is limited to notable, well-known sites. The Alexa website rankings are from various time periods.

Michigan State University

Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States. MSU was founded in 1855 and served as a model for land-grant universities later created under the Morrill Act of 1862. The university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country's first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is one of the largest universities in the United States (in terms of enrollment) and has approximately 563,000 living alumni worldwide.U.S. News & World Report ranks many of its graduate programs among the best in the nation, including African history, criminology, industrial and organizational psychology, educational psychology, elementary and secondary education, osteopathic medicine, human medicine, nuclear physics, rehabilitation counseling, supply chain/logistics, and veterinary medicine. MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and communication sciences. Michigan State is a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of 62 leading research universities in North America. The university's campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, and the country's largest residence hall system.The Michigan State Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, and a total of six national championships. Spartans men's basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four seven times since the 1998–1999 season. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007.

Murder, Inc.

Murder, Inc. (Murder Incorporated) were organized crime groups in the 1930s and '40s that acted as the enforcement arm of the Italian-American Mafia, Jewish mob, and connected organized crime groups in New York and elsewhere. The groups were largely composed of Italian-American and Jewish gangsters from the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Brownsville, East New York, and Ocean Hill. Originally headed by Louis "Lepke" Buchalter, and later by the most feared mob boss Albert "The Mad Hatter" Anastasia, Murder, Inc. was believed to be responsible for between 400 and 1,000 contract killings, until the group was exposed in the early 1940s by former group member Abe "Kid Twist" Reles. In the trials that followed, many members were convicted and executed, and Abe Reles himself died after suspiciously falling from a window. Thomas E. Dewey first came to prominence as a prosecutor of Murder, Inc. and other organized crime cases.

Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (), commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

Rutgers was originally chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766. It is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956.Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, and the Camden campus. The university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students. The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities (2001) as a Public Ivy.

Shoot 'em up

Shoot 'em up (also known as shmup or STG) is a subgenre of the shooter genre of video games. There is no consensus as to which design elements compose a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety of perspectives.

The genre's origins can be traced back to Spacewar!, one of the earliest computer games, developed in 1962. In the late 1970s, games such as Space Invaders and Asteroids popularized the genre. Shoot 'em ups were popular throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, shoot 'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established in the 1980s, and increasingly catered to specialist enthusiasts, particularly in Japan. "Bullet hell" games are a subgenre that features overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles, often in visually impressive formations.

Steve Irwin

Stephen Robert Irwin (22 February 1962 – 4 September 2006), nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter" was an Australian zookeeper, conservationist and television personality. Irwin achieved worldwide fame from the television series The Crocodile Hunter (1996–2007), an internationally broadcast wildlife documentary series which he co-hosted with his wife Terri; the couple also hosted the series Croc Files (1999–2001), The Crocodile Hunter Diaries (2002–2006), and New Breed Vets (2005). They also owned and operated Australia Zoo, founded by Irwin's parents in Beerwah, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of the Queensland state capital city of Brisbane.

Irwin died at 44, after being pierced in the heart by a stingray barb while filming an underwater documentary film titled Ocean's Deadliest.

Steven Van Zandt

Steven Van Zandt (born November 22, 1950) is an American musician and actor, who frequently goes by the stage names Little Steven or Miami Steve. He is a member of Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band, in which he plays guitar and mandolin. He is also known for his roles on television dramas such as Silvio Dante on The Sopranos (1999–2007) and Frank Tagliano / Giovanni "Johnny" Henriksen on Lilyhammer (2012–2014). Van Zandt also has had his own solo band called Little Steven and The Disciples of Soul, active on and off since the 1980s. In 2014, Van Zandt was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the E Street Band.

Sukhoi Su-30MKI

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter.

Development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets. The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was accepted into the Indian Air Force in 2002, while the first indigenously assembled Su-30MKI entered service with the IAF in 2004. The IAF had 240 Su-30MKIs in service as of October 2017. The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond.The aircraft is tailor-made for Indian specifications and integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as French and Israeli sub-systems. It has abilities similar to the Sukhoi Su-35 with which it shares many features and components.

Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi)). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8.5 million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva.

The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation; it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815 and did not join the United Nations until 2002. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties.

Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, and Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz [ˈʃvaɪts] (German); Suisse [sɥis(ə)] (French); Svizzera [ˈzvittsera] (Italian); and Svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ] or [ˈʒviːtsʁːɐ] (Romansh). On coins and stamps, the Latin name – frequently shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.

Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich, Geneva and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018.

Transgender

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex. Some transgender people identify as transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another. Transgender – often shortened as trans – is also an umbrella term: in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex (trans men and trans women), it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine (people who are genderqueer or non-binary, including bigender, pangender, genderfluid, or agender). Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender. Infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers, regardless of their gender identity.

Being transgender is independent of sexual orientation: transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual, or may decline to label their sexual orientation. The term transgender is also distinguished from intersex, a term that describes people born with physical sex characteristics "that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". The opposite of transgender is cisgender, which describes persons whose gender identity or expression matches their assigned sex.

The degree to which individuals feel genuine, authentic, and comfortable within their external appearance and accept their genuine identity has been called transgender congruence. Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria, and some seek medical treatments such as hormone replacement therapy, sex reassignment surgery, or psychotherapy. Not all transgender people desire these treatments, and some cannot undergo them for financial or medical reasons.Many transgender people face discrimination in the workplace and in accessing public accommodations, and healthcare. In many places they are not legally protected from discrimination.

Usain Bolt

Usain St Leo Bolt (; born 21 August 1986) is a Jamaican retired sprinter. He also is a world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay. His reign as Olympic Games champion in all of these events spans three Olympics. Owing to his achievements and dominance in sprint competition, he is widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time.A nine-time Olympic gold medalist, Bolt won the 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 m relay at three consecutive Olympic Games, although he lost the 2008 relay gold medal about nine years after due to a teammate's doping disqualification. He gained worldwide fame for his double sprint victory in world record times at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the first person to hold both records since fully automatic time became mandatory. Bolt is the only sprinter to win Olympic 100 m and 200 m titles at three consecutive Olympics (2008, 2012 and 2016).

An eleven-time World Champion, he won consecutive World Championship 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 metres relay gold medals from 2009 to 2015, with the exception of a 100 m false start in 2011. He is the most successful athlete of the World Championships, was the first athlete to win four World Championship titles in the 200 m and is the joint-most successful in the 100 m with three titles.

Bolt improved upon his second 100 m world record of 9.69 with 9.58 seconds in 2009 – the biggest improvement since the start of electronic timing. He has twice broken the 200 metres world record, setting 19.30 in 2008 and 19.19 in 2009. He has helped Jamaica to three 4 × 100 metres relay world records, with the current record being 36.84 seconds set in 2012. Bolt's most successful event is the 200 m, with three Olympic and four World titles. The 2008 Olympics was his international debut over 100 m; he had earlier won numerous 200 m medals (including 2007 World Championship silver) and holds the world under-20 and world under-18 records for the event.

His achievements as a sprinter have earned him the media nickname "Lightning Bolt", and his awards include the IAAF World Athlete of the Year, Track & Field Athlete of the Year, BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year (three times) and Laureus World Sportsman of the Year (four times). Bolt retired after the 2017 World Championships, when he finished third in his last solo 100 m race, opted out of the 200m, and pulled up in the 4×100m relay final.

Stating that it was his "dream" to play professional association football, in August 2018 Bolt began training with Australian football A-League club the Central Coast Mariners as a left-winger. On 12 October 2018, Bolt scored twice for the team in a friendly match.

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan (US: (listen), UK: ; Uzbek: Ўзбекистон/Oʻzbekiston pronounced [ozbekiˈstɒn]; Russian: Узбекистан [ʊzbʲɪkʲɪˈstan]), officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Ўзбекистон Республикаси/Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi; Russian: Республика Узбекистан), is a landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries (i.e. sharing borders only with other landlocked countries).

What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan. The first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarezm (8th–6th centuries BC), Bactria (8th–6th centuries BC), Sogdia (8th–6th centuries BC), Fergana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD), and Margiana (3rd century BC – 6th century AD). The area was incorporated into the Persian Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Persian Parthian Empire and later by the Sasanian Empire, until the Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century. The Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road. The local Khwarezmian dynasty, and Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples. The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur, also known as one of Genghis Khan's grandchildren, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand. The area was conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, and Emirate of Bukhara. It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.

Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its storied history and strategic location. Its first major official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as a governmental language; it is the most widely taught second language. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%). Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, and 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN, and the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, by 2008 non-governmental human rights organizations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above. He stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour, exit visas, to introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zones, as well as amnestied some political prisoners. The relations with neighboring countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan drastically improved. However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, and restrictions on movements of 'freed' prisoners.The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became fully convertible in the market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. The country also operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia. Renewable energy constitutes more than 23% of the country's energy sector, with hydroelectricity and solar energy having 21.4% and 2% respectively.

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