A waveplate or retarder is an optical device that alters the polarization state of a light wave travelling through it. Two common types of waveplates are the half-wave plate, which shifts the polarization direction of linearly polarized light, and the quarter-wave plate, which converts linearly polarized light into circularly polarized light and vice versa. A quarter-wave plate can be used to produce elliptical polarization as well.
Waveplates are constructed out of a birefringent material (such as quartz or mica), for which the index of refraction is different for light linearly polarized along one or the other of two certain perpendicular crystal axes. The behavior of a waveplate (that is, whether it is a half-wave plate, a quarter-wave plate, etc.) depends on the thickness of the crystal, the wavelength of light, and the variation of the index of refraction. By appropriate choice of the relationship between these parameters, it is possible to introduce a controlled phase shift between the two polarization components of a light wave, thereby altering its polarization.
A common use of waveplates—particularly the sensitive-tint (full-wave) and quarter-wave plates—is in optical mineralogy. Addition of plates between the polarizers of a petrographic microscope makes easier the optical identification of minerals in thin sections of rocks, in particular by allowing deduction of the shape and orientation of the optical indicatrices within the visible crystal sections. This alignment can allow discrimination between minerals which otherwise appear very similar in plane polarized and cross polarized light.
A waveplate works by shifting the phase between two perpendicular polarization components of the light wave. A typical waveplate is simply a birefringent crystal with a carefully chosen orientation and thickness. The crystal is cut into a plate, with the orientation of the cut chosen so that the optic axis of the crystal is parallel to the surfaces of the plate. This results in two axes in the plane of the cut: the ordinary axis, with index of refraction no, and the extraordinary axis, with index of refraction ne. The ordinary axis is perpendicular to the optic axis. The extraordinary axis is parallel to the optic axis. For a light wave normally incident upon the plate, the polarization component along the ordinary axis travels through the crystal with a speed vo = c/no, while the polarization component along the extraordinary axis travels with a speed ve = c/ne. This leads to a phase difference between the two components as they exit the crystal. When ne < no, as in calcite, the extraordinary axis is called the fast axis and the ordinary axis is called the slow axis. For ne > no the situation is reversed.
Depending on the thickness of the crystal, light with polarization components along both axes will emerge in a different polarization state. The waveplate is characterized by the amount of relative phase, Γ, that it imparts on the two components, which is related to the birefringence Δn and the thickness L of the crystal by the formula
where λ0 is the vacuum wavelength of the light.
Waveplates in general as well as polarizers can be described using the Jones matrix formalism, which uses a vector to represent the polarization state of light and a matrix to represent the linear transformation of a waveplate or polarizer.
Although the birefringence Δn may vary slightly due to dispersion, this is negligible compared to the variation in phase difference according to the wavelength of the light due to the fixed path difference (λ0 in the denominator in the above equation). Waveplates are thus manufactured to work for a particular range of wavelengths. The phase variation can be minimized by stacking two waveplates that differ by a tiny amount in thickness back-to-back, with the slow axis of one along the fast axis of the other. With this configuration, the relative phase imparted can be, for the case of a quarter-wave plate, one-fourth a wavelength rather than three-fourths or one-fourth plus an integer. This is called a zero-order waveplate.
For a single waveplate changing the wavelength of the light introduces a linear error in the phase. Tilt of the waveplate enters via a factor of 1/cos θ (where θ is the angle of tilt) into the path length and thus only quadratically into the phase. For the extraordinary polarization the tilt also changes the refractive index to the ordinary via a factor of cos θ, so combined with the path length, the phase shift for the extraordinary light due to tilt is zero.
A polarization-independent phase shift of zero order needs a plate with thickness of one wavelength. For calcite the refractive index changes in the first decimal place, so that a true zero order plate is ten times as thick as one wavelength. For quartz and magnesium fluoride the refractive index changes in the second decimal place and true zero order plates are common for wavelengths above 1 µm.
For a half-wave plate, the relationship between L, Δn, and λ0 is chosen so that the phase shift between polarization components is Γ = π. Now suppose a linearly polarized wave with polarization vector is incident on the crystal. Let θ denote the angle between and , where is the vector along the waveplate's fast axis. Let z denote the propagation axis of the wave. The electric field of the incident wave is
where lies along the waveplate's slow axis. The effect of the half-wave plate is to introduce a phase shift term eiΓ = eiπ = −1 between the f and s components of the wave, so that upon exiting the crystal the wave is now given by
If denotes the polarization vector of the wave exiting the waveplate, then this expression shows that the angle between and is −θ. Evidently, the effect of the half-wave plate is to mirror the wave's polarization vector through the plane formed by the vectors and . For linearly polarized light, this is equivalent to saying that the effect of the half-wave plate is to rotate the polarization vector through an angle 2θ; however, for elliptically polarized light the half-wave plate also has the effect of inverting the light's handedness.
For a quarter-wave plate, the relationship between L, Δn, and λ0 is chosen so that the phase shift between polarization components is Γ = π/2. Now suppose a linearly polarized wave is incident on the crystal. This wave can be written as
where the f and s axes are the quarter-wave plate's fast and slow axes, respectively, the wave propagates along the z axis, and Ef and Es are real. The effect of the quarter-wave plate is to introduce a phase shift term eiΓ =eiπ/2 = i between the f and s components of the wave, so that upon exiting the crystal the wave is now given by
The wave is now elliptically polarized.
If the axis of polarization of the incident wave is chosen so that it makes a 45° with the fast and slow axes of the waveplate, then Ef = Es ≡ E, and the resulting wave upon exiting the waveplate is
and the wave is circularly polarized.
If the axis of polarization of the incident wave is chosen so that it makes a 0° with the fast or slow axes of the waveplate, then the polarization will not change, so remains linear. If the angle is in between 0° and 45° the resulting wave has an elliptical polarization.
A circulating polarization looks strange, but can be easier imagined as the sum of two linear polarizations with a phase difference of 90°. The output depends on the polarization of the input. Suppose polarization axes x and y parallel with the fast and slow axis of the waveplate:
The polarization of the incoming photon (or beam) can be resolved as two polarizations on the x and y axis. If the input polarization is parallel to the fast or slow axis, then there is no polarization of the other axis, so the output polarization is the same as the input (only the phase more or less delayed). If the input polarization is 45° to the fast and slow axis, the polarization on those axes are equal. But the phase of the output of the slow axis will be delayed 90° with the output of the fast axis. If not the amplitude but both sine values are displayed, then x and y combined will describe a circle. With other angles than 0° or 45° the values in fast and slow axis will differ and their resultant output will describe an ellipse.
A full-wave plate introduces a phase difference of exactly one wavelength between the two polarization directions, for one wavelength of light. In optical mineralogy, it is common to use a full-wave plate designed for green light (wavelength = 540 nm). Linearly polarized white light which passes through the plate becomes elliptically polarized, except for 540 nm light which will remain linear. If a linear polarizer oriented perpendicular to the original polarization is added, this green wavelength is fully extinguished but elements of the other colors remain. This means that under these conditions the plate will appear an intense shade of red-violet, sometimes known as "sensitive tint". This gives rise to this plate's alternative names, the sensitive-tint plate or (less commonly) red-tint plate. These plates are widely used in mineralogy to aid in identification of minerals in thin sections of rocks.
The sensitive-tint (full-wave) and quarter-wave plates are widely used in the field of optical mineralogy. Addition of plates between the polarizers of a petrographic microscope makes easier the optical identification of minerals in thin sections of rocks, in particular by allowing deduction of the shape and orientation of the optical indicatrices within the visible crystal sections.
In practical terms, the plate is inserted between the perpendicular polarizers at an angle of 45 degrees. This allows two different procedures to be carried out to investigate the mineral under the crosshairs of the microscope. More simply, in ordinary cross polarized light, the plate can be used to distinguish the orientation of the optical indicatrix relative to crystal elongation – that is, whether the mineral is "length slow" or "length fast" – based on whether the visible interference colors increase or decrease by one order when the plate is added. A slightly more complex procedure allows for a tint plate to be used in conjunction with interference figure techniques to allow measurement of the optic angle of the mineral. The optic angle (often notated as "2V") can both be diagnostic of mineral type, as well as in some cases revealing information about the variation of chemical composition within a single mineral type.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. These optically anisotropic materials are said to be birefringent (or birefractive). The birefringence is often quantified as the maximum difference between refractive indices exhibited by the material. Crystals with non-cubic crystal structures are often birefringent, as are plastics under mechanical stress.
Birefringence is responsible for the phenomenon of double refraction whereby a ray of light, when incident upon a birefringent material, is split by polarization into two rays taking slightly different paths. This effect was first described by the Danish scientist Rasmus Bartholin in 1669, who observed it in calcite, a crystal having one of the strongest birefringences. However it was not until the 19th century that Augustin-Jean Fresnel described the phenomenon in terms of polarization, understanding light as a wave with field components in transverse polarizations (perpendicular to the direction of the wave vector).Circular polarization
In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
In electrodynamics the strength and direction of an electric field is defined by its electric field vector. In the case of a circularly polarized wave, as seen in the accompanying animation, the tip of the electric field vector, at a given point in space, describes a circle as time progresses. At any instant of time, the electric field vector of the wave describes a helix along the direction of propagation. A circularly polarized wave can be in one of two possible states, right circular polarization in which the electric field vector rotates in a right-hand sense with respect to the direction of propagation, and left circular polarization in which the vector rotates in a left-hand sense.
Circular polarization is a limiting case of the more general condition of elliptical polarization. The other special case is the easier-to-understand linear polarization.
The phenomenon of polarization arises as a consequence of the fact that light behaves as a two-dimensional transverse wave.Differential interference contrast microscopy
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, also known as Nomarski interference contrast (NIC) or Nomarski microscopy, is an optical microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained, transparent samples. DIC works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the optical path length of the sample, to see otherwise invisible features. A relatively complex optical system produces an image with the object appearing black to white on a grey background. This image is similar to that obtained by phase contrast microscopy but without the bright diffraction halo. The technique was developed by Polish physicist Georges Nomarski in 1952.DIC works by separating a polarized light source into two orthogonally polarized mutually coherent parts which are spatially displaced (sheared) at the sample plane, and recombined before observation. The interference of the two parts at recombination is sensitive to their optical path difference (i.e. the product of refractive index and geometric path length). Adding an adjustable offset phase determining the interference at zero optical path difference in the sample, the contrast is proportional to the path length gradient along the shear direction, giving the appearance of a three-dimensional physical relief corresponding to the variation of optical density of the sample, emphasising lines and edges though not providing a topographically accurate image.Electro-optic modulator
An electro-optic modulator (EOM) is an optical device in which a signal-controlled element exhibiting the electro-optic effect is used to modulate a beam of light. The modulation may be imposed on the phase, frequency, amplitude, or polarization of the beam. Modulation bandwidths extending into the gigahertz range are possible with the use of laser-controlled modulators.
The electro-optic effect is the change in the refractive index of a material resulting from the application of a DC or low-frequency electric field. This is caused by forces that distort the position, orientation, or shape of the molecules constituting the material. Generally, a nonlinear optical material (organic polymers have the fastest response rates, and thus are best for this application) with an incident static or low frequency optical field will see a modulation of its refractive index.
The simplest kind of EOM consists of a crystal, such as lithium niobate, whose refractive index is a function of the strength of the local electric field. That means that if lithium niobate is exposed to an electric field, light will travel more slowly through it. But the phase of the light leaving the crystal is directly proportional to the length of time it takes that light to pass through it. Therefore, the phase of the laser light exiting an EOM can be controlled by changing the electric field in the crystal.
Note that the electric field can be created by placing a parallel plate capacitor across the crystal. Since the field inside a parallel plate capacitor depends linearly on the potential, the index of refraction depends linearly on the field (for crystals where Pockels effect dominates), and the phase depends linearly on the index of refraction, the phase modulation must depend linearly on the potential applied to the EOM.
The voltage required for inducing a phase change of is called the half-wave voltage (). For a Pockels cell, it is usually hundreds or even thousands of volts, so that a high-voltage amplifier is required. Suitable electronic circuits can switch such large voltages within a few nanoseconds, allowing the use of EOMs as fast optical switches.
Liquid crystal devices are electro-optical phase modulators if no polarizers are used.Index of physics articles (W)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.Kerr effect
The Kerr effect, also called the quadratic electro-optic (QEO) effect, is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field. The Kerr effect is distinct from the Pockels effect in that the induced index change is directly proportional to the square of the electric field instead of varying linearly with it. All materials show a Kerr effect, but certain liquids display it more strongly than others. The Kerr effect was discovered in 1875 by John Kerr, a Scottish physicist.Two special cases of the Kerr effect are normally considered, these being the Kerr electro-optic effect, or DC Kerr effect, and the optical Kerr effect, or AC Kerr effect.NASA Infrared Telescope Facility
The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA IRTF) is a 3-meter (9.8 ft) telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii. It was first built to support the Voyager missions and is now the US national facility for infrared astronomy, providing continued support to planetary, solar neighborhood, and deep space applications. The IRTF is operated by the University of Hawaii under a cooperative agreement with NASA. According to the IRTF's time allocation rules, at least 50% of the observing time is devoted to planetary science.Nanoimprint lithography
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns. It is a simple nanolithography process with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. It creates patterns by mechanical deformation of imprint resist and subsequent processes. The imprint resist is typically a monomer or polymer formulation that is cured by heat or UV light during the imprinting. Adhesion between the resist and the template is controlled to allow proper release.Polarization (waves)
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations. In a transverse wave, the direction of the oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. A simple example of a polarized transverse wave is vibrations traveling along a taut string (see image); for example, in a musical instrument like a guitar string. Depending on how the string is plucked, the vibrations can be in a vertical direction, horizontal direction, or at any angle perpendicular to the string. In contrast, in longitudinal waves, such as sound waves in a liquid or gas, the displacement of the particles in the oscillation is always in the direction of propagation, so these waves do not exhibit polarization. Transverse waves that exhibit polarization include electromagnetic waves such as light and radio waves, gravitational waves, and transverse sound waves (shear waves) in solids. In some types of transverse waves, the wave displacement is limited to a single direction, so these also do not exhibit polarization; for example, in surface waves in liquids (gravity waves), the wave displacement of the particles is always in a vertical plane.
An electromagnetic wave such as light consists of a coupled oscillating electric field and magnetic field which are always perpendicular; by convention, the "polarization" of electromagnetic waves refers to the direction of the electric field. In linear polarization, the fields oscillate in a single direction. In circular or elliptical polarization, the fields rotate at a constant rate in a plane as the wave travels. The rotation can have two possible directions; if the fields rotate in a right hand sense with respect to the direction of wave travel, it is called right circular polarization, or, if the fields rotate in a left hand sense, it is called left circular polarization.
Light or other electromagnetic radiation from many sources, such as the sun, flames, and incandescent lamps, consists of short wave trains with an equal mixture of polarizations; this is called unpolarized light. Polarized light can be produced by passing unpolarized light through a polarizer, which allows waves of only one polarization to pass through. The most common optical materials (such as glass) are isotropic and do not affect the polarization of light passing through them; however, some materials—those that exhibit birefringence, dichroism, or optical activity—can change the polarization of light. Some of these are used to make polarizing filters. Light is also partially polarized when it reflects from a surface.
According to quantum mechanics, electromagnetic waves can also be viewed as streams of particles called photons. When viewed in this way, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave is determined by a quantum mechanical property of photons called their spin. A photon has one of two possible spins: it can either spin in a right hand sense or a left hand sense about its direction of travel. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves are composed of photons with only one type of spin, either right- or left-hand. Linearly polarized waves consist of photons that are in a superposition of right and left circularly polarized states, with equal amplitude and phases synchronized to give oscillation in a plane.Polarization is an important parameter in areas of science dealing with transverse waves, such as optics, seismology, radio, and microwaves. Especially impacted are technologies such as lasers, wireless and optical fiber telecommunications, and radar.Polarization controller
A polarization controller is an optical device which allows one to modify the polarization state of light.Polarization rotator
A polarization rotator is an optical device that rotates the polarization axis of a linearly polarized light beam by an angle of choice. Such devices can be based on the Faraday effect, on birefringence, or on total internal reflection. Rotators of linearly polarized light have found widespread applications in modern optics since laser beams tend to be linearly polarized and it is often necessary to rotate the original polarization to its orthogonal alternative.Rotating-polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
Rotating-polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, (RP-CARS) is a particular implementation of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy (CARS). RP-CARS takes advantage of polarization-dependent selection rules in order to gain information about molecule orientation anisotropy and direction within the optical point spread function.Wavefront coding
In optics and signal processing, wavefront coding refers to the use of a phase modulating element in conjunction with deconvolution to extend the depth of field of a digital imaging system such as a video camera.
Wavefront coding falls under the broad category of computational photography as a technique to enhance the depth of field.