Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e.g. due to water-borne diseases.[1][2]

Water pollution can be grouped into surface water pollution. Marine pollution and nutrient pollution are subsets of water pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources and non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause of the pollution, such as a storm drain, wastewater treatment plant or stream. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff.[3] Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted. The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of.

The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Elevated temperatures can also lead to polluted water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species.[4][5]:375

Water pollution is measured by analysing water samples. Physical, chemical and biological tests can be done. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants. Sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from untreated wastewater. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control from construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Nature-based solutions are another approach to prevent water pollution.[6] Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow. In the United States, best management practices for water pollution include approaches to reduce the quantity of water and improve water quality.[7]

Nrborderborderentrythreecolorsmay05-1-
Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali (Mexico) to Calexico, California

Introduction

Canal-pollution
Pollution in the Lachine Canal, Canada

Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants. Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Water pollution is a major global problem. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases.[2][1] Water pollution accounted for the deaths of 1.8 million people in 2015.[8]

India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution: An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day.[9] About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted.[10] As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.[11]

In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. For example, in a report on water quality in the United States in 2009, 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted.[12]

Types

Surface water pollution

Surface water pollution includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans. A subset of surface water pollution is marine pollution.

Marine pollution

AngleseyCopperStream
A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey

One common path of entry by contaminants to the sea are rivers. An example is directly discharging sewage and industrial waste into the ocean. Pollution such as this occurs particularly in developing nations. In fact, the 10 largest emitters of oceanic plastic pollution worldwide are, from the most to the least, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, and Bangladesh,[13] largely through the rivers Yangtze, Indus, Yellow, Hai, Nile, Ganges, Pearl, Amur, Niger, and the Mekong, and accounting for "90 percent of all the plastic that reaches the world's oceans."[14][15]

Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it.[16] Many of these long-lasting pieces end up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation.

There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt-bearing surface runoff, which can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.

Groundwater pollution

Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also referred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily classified as surface water pollution.[17] By its very nature, groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contamination from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies. The distinction of point vs. non-point source may be irrelevant.

Analysis of groundwater contamination may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants. Causes of groundwater pollution include: naturally-occurring (geogenic), on-site sanitation systems, sewage, fertilizers and pesticide, commercial and industrial leaks, hydraulic fracturing, landfill leachate.

Categories of pollution sources

Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources even though they are interrelated.[17] Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin.

Point sources

Jacuecanga Angra dos Reis Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brasfels
Point source pollution at a shipyard in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.

The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes.[18] The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites.[19]

Non-point sources

Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. This type of pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands.[3] Nutrient runoff in storm water from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of non-point source pollution.

Yellow Fish
Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contaminating surface drainage

Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoff, is sometimes included under the category of non-point sources. However, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, it becomes a point source.

Contaminants and their sources

The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration usually determines what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna.

Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species.[20]

Alteration of water's physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH), electrical conductivity, temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental effects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reductions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.

Pathogens

South Asia Poster 03
Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities leading to the pollution of water sources
Sewer overflow RI EPA
A manhole cover unable to contain a sanitary sewer overflow.
Dumping of faecal sludge into the river
Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts.[21] Coliform bacteria, which are not an actual cause of disease, are commonly used as a bacterial indicator of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in contaminated surface waters that have caused human health problems include:

High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems (septic tanks, pit latrines) or inadequately treated sewage discharges.[24] Older cities with ageing infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows. Some cities also have combined sewers, which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms.[25] Silt (sediment) from sewage discharges also pollutes water bodies.

Muddy USGS
Muddy river polluted by sediment.

Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly managed livestock operations.

Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants

Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Many of the chemical substances are toxic.[5]:229

Garbage Collector In Oakley Creek
A garbage collection boom in an urban-area stream in Auckland, New Zealand.

Organic water pollutants include:

Macroscopic Pollution in Parks Milwaukee, WI

Inorganic water pollutants include:

Macroscopic pollution – large visible items polluting the water – may be termed "floatables" in an urban storm water context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as:

  • Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with accidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters.
  • Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets. See plastic pollution and microplastic pollution.
  • Shipwrecks, large derelict ships.
Brayton Point Power Station
The Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay.

Change in temperature

Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species.[4][29][5]:375 Urban runoff may also elevate temperature in surface waters.[30]

Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers.

Measurement

Research- water sampling equipment
Environmental scientists preparing water autosamplers.

Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature. Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facilitate the comparability of results from disparate testing events.[31]

Sampling

Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason "grab" samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals.

Sampling for biological testing involves collection of plants and animals from the surface water body. Depending on the type of assessment, the organisms may be identified for biosurveys (population counts) and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected for bioassays to determine toxicity.

Physical testing

Common physical tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS)) and turbidity.

Chemical testing

Water samples may be examined using the principles of analytical chemistry. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used methods include pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),[32]:102 chemical oxygen demand (COD),[32]:104 nutrients (nitrate and phosphorus compounds), metals (including copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and pesticides.

Biological testing

Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present.[33] One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.

Control of pollution

Municipal wastewater treatment

Deer Island MA
Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant serving Boston, Massachusetts and vicinity.

In urban areas of developed countries, municipal wastewater (or sewage) is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., with secondary treatment steps or more advanced treatment) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage.[34] Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens, but these more advanced treatment steps get progressively more expensive.

Nature-based solutions are also being used instead of (or in combination with) centralized treatment plants.[6]

Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage, including:

  • utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve storm water management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant[35]
  • repair and replacement of leaking and malfunctioning equipment[25]
  • increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system (often a very expensive option).

On-site sanitation and safely managed sanitation

Households or businesses not served by a municipal treatment plant may have an individual septic tank, which pre-treats the wastewater on site and infiltrates it into the soil. This can lead to groundwater pollution if not properly done.

Globally, about 4.5 billion people currently (in 2017) do not have safely managed sanitation, according to an estimate by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.[36] Lack of access to sanitation often leads to water pollution, e.g. via the practice of open defecation: during rain events or floods, the human feces are moved from the ground where they were deposited into surface waters. Simple pit latrines may also get flooded during rain events. The use of safely managed sanitation services would prevent this type of water pollution.[36]

Industrial wastewater treatment

REDOX DAF unit 225 m3-h-1000 GPM
Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater.

Some industrial facilities generate wastewater that is similar to domestic sewage and can be treated by sewage treatment plants. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or nutrients such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems.[37]:Ch. 16 Some industries install a pre-treatment system to remove some pollutants (e.g., toxic compounds), and then discharge the partially treated wastewater to the municipal sewer system.[38][39]:Ch. 1 Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own treatment systems. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a process called pollution prevention.

To remove heat from wastewater generated by power plants or manufacturing plants the following technologies are used:

Riparian buffer on Bear Creek in Story County, Iowa
Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa.

Agricultural wastewater treatment

Non point source controls
Sediment (loose soil) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States.[20] Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common techniques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop rotation, planting perennial crops and installing riparian buffers.[41][42]:pp. 4-95–4-96

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer, animal manure, or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition.[42]:p. 2–9 Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients[41][42]:pp. 4-37–4-38 and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution.

To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.[43]

Confined-animal-feeding-operation
Feedlot in the United States

Point source wastewater treatment
Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms, are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to increasing government regulation.[44][45] Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high temperature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement.

Erosion and sediment control from construction sites

Silt fence EPA
Silt fence installed on a construction site.

Sediment from construction sites is managed by installation of:

Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and concrete washout is prevented by use of:

  • spill prevention and control plans, and
  • specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms.[47]

Control of urban runoff (storm water)

Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pollutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best management practices for water pollution (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions.[7]

Pollution prevention practices include low-impact development techniques, installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides).[48] Runoff mitigation systems include infiltration basins, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices.[49][50]

Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by storm water management facilities that absorb the runoff or direct it into groundwater, such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins. Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream.[7]:p. 5–58

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b Moss, Brian (2008). "Water Pollution by Agriculture" (PDF). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 363: 659–666. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2176. PMC 2610176.
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  6. ^ a b UN-Water (2018) World Water Development Report 2018: Nature-based Solutions for Water, Geneva, Switzerland
  7. ^ a b c "Ch. 5: Description and Performance of Storm Water Best Management Practices". Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices (Report). Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). August 1999. EPA-821-R-99-012.
  8. ^ Kelland, Kate (October 19, 2017). "Study links pollution to millions of deaths worldwide". Reuters.
  9. ^ "An overview of diarrhea, symptoms, diagnosis and the costs of morbidity" (PDF). CHNRI. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2013.
  10. ^ "China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies". Chinadaily.com.cn. June 7, 2005.
  11. ^ Kahn, Joseph; Yardley, Jim (August 26, 2007). "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". New York Times.
  12. ^ Fact Sheet: 2004 National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress (Report). EPA. January 2009. EPA 841-F-08-003.
  13. ^ Jambeck, Jenna R.; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris (February 12, 2015). "Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean" (PDF). Science. 347 (6223): 769. Bibcode:2015Sci...347..768J. doi:10.1126/science.1260352. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  14. ^ Christian Schmidt; Tobias Krauth; Stephan Wagner (October 11, 2017). "Export of Plastic Debris by Rivers into the Sea". Environmental Science & Technology. 51 (21): 12246–12253. Bibcode:2017EnST...5112246S. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b02368. PMID 29019247. The 10 top-ranked rivers transport 88–95% of the global load into the sea
  15. ^ Harald Franzen (November 30, 2017). "Almost all plastic in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved December 18, 2018. It turns out that about 90 percent of all the plastic that reaches the world's oceans gets flushed through just 10 rivers: The Yangtze, the Indus, Yellow River, Hai River, the Nile, the Ganges, Pearl River, Amur River, the Niger, and the Mekong (in that order).
  16. ^ Zaikab, Gwyneth Dickey (March 28, 2011). "Marine microbes digest plastic". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.191. ISSN 0028-0836.
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  18. ^ United States. Clean Water Act (CWA), section 502(14), 33 U.S.C. § 1362 (14).
  19. ^ U.S. CWA section 402(p), 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p)
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  21. ^ Harrison, Roy M., ed. (2001). Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control (4th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 60. ISBN 0-85404-621-6.
  22. ^ USGS. Reston, VA. "A Primer on Water Quality." FS-027-01. March 2001.
  23. ^ Schueler, Thomas R. "Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Concentrations, Sources, & Pathways." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. Archived January 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  24. ^ EPA. “Illness Related to Sewage in Water.” Accessed February 20, 2009. Archived April 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ a b EPA. "Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs." August 2004. Document No. EPA-833-R-04-001.
  26. ^ a b c G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Chapter 2.
  27. ^ "Antidepressants are finding their way into fish brains". The Economist. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  28. ^ Schueler, Thomas R. "Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. Archived March 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  29. ^ Kennish, Michael J. (1992). Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects. Marine Science Series. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 415–17. ISBN 978-0-8493-8041-9.
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  31. ^ For example, see Baird, Rodger B.; Clesceri, Leonore S.; Eaton, Andrew D.; et al., eds. (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (22nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0875530130.
  32. ^ a b Newton, David (2008). Chemistry of the Environment. Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-7747-9.
  33. ^ Karr, James R. (1981). "Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities". Fisheries. 6: 21–27. doi:10.1577/1548-8446(1981)006<0021:AOBIUF>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1548-8446.
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  36. ^ a b WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2017
  37. ^ Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  38. ^ Drinan, Joanne E.; Spellman, Frank (2015). Water and Wastewater Treatment: A Guide for the Nonengineering Professional (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 140. ISBN 1498761372.
  39. ^ Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program (Report). EPA. June 2011. 833-B-11-001.
  40. ^ Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry (Report). EPA. September 1997. p. 24. EPA/310-R-97-007.
  41. ^ a b U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Washington, DC. "National Conservation Practice Standards." National Handbook of Conservation Practices. Accessed 2015-10-02.
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  43. ^ "Integrated Pest Management Principles". Pest Control and Pesticide Safety for Consumers. EPA. June 27, 2017.
  44. ^ "Animal Feeding Operations". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. September 20, 2018.
  45. ^ Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Des Moines, IA. "Animal Feeding Operations in Iowa." Accessed March 5, 2009.
  46. ^ Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Nashville, TN (2012). "Tennessee Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook."
  47. ^ Concrete Washout (Report). Stormwater Best Management Practice. EPA. February 2012. BMP fact sheet. EPA 833-F-11-006.
  48. ^ "Low Impact Development and Other Green Design Strategies". National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. EPA. 2014. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015.
  49. ^ California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. "Municipal BMP Handbook." 2003.
  50. ^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. "New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual." April 2004.

External links

Blackwater (waste)

Blackwater in a sanitation context denotes wastewater from toilets, which likely contains pathogens. Blackwater can contain feces, urine, water and toilet paper from flush toilets. Blackwater is distinguished from greywater, which comes from household use other than toilets. Greywater results from washing food, clothing, dishes, as well as from showering or bathing.Blackwater and greywater are separated in "ecological buildings", such as autonomous buildings. Recreational vehicles often have separate holding tanks for greywater from showers and sinks, and blackwater from the toilet.

Caribbean Princess

MS Caribbean Princess is a modified Grand Class cruise ship owned and operated by Princess Cruises, with a capacity of over 3,600 passengers, the largest carrying capacity in the Princess fleet until June 2013 when the new Royal Princess, another Princess ship superseded its record. She has 900 balcony staterooms and a deck of mini-suites. She was the first modern cruise ship with an outdoor theater, which Princess bills as "Movies Under The Stars".Caribbean Princess is slightly larger than the other ships in her class (Star Princess, Golden Princess, and Grand Princess), due to an additional deck of cabins called the Riviera deck. Another difference is that, being initially designed to cruise the Caribbean year-round, there is no sliding roof over the pool area for shelter in poor weather.

Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Its objective is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters; recognizing the responsibilities of the states in addressing pollution and providing assistance to states to do so, including funding for publicly owned treatment works for the improvement of wastewater treatment; and maintaining the integrity of wetlands. It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws. As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state governments. Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Subchapters D, N, and O (Parts 100-140, 401-471, and 501-503).

Technically, the name of the law is the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The first FWPCA was enacted in 1948, but took on its modern form when completely rewritten in 1972 in an act entitled the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. Major changes have subsequently been introduced via amendatory legislation including the Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Water Quality Act of 1987.The Clean Water Act does not directly address groundwater contamination. Groundwater protection provisions are included in the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Superfund act.

Effluent

Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to a natural body of water, from a structure such as a wastewater treatment plant, sewer pipe, or industrial outfall. Effluent, in engineering, is the stream exiting a chemical reactor.

Environmental issues in Libya

Environmental issues in Libya include desertification and very limited natural freshwater resources.

Environmental issues in Pakistan

Environmental issues in Pakistan include deforestation, air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, climate change, pesticide misuse, soil erosion, natural disasters and desertification. These are serious environmental problems that Pakistan is facing, and they are getting worse as the country's economy expands and the population grows. Little is being done to tackle these issues, because the goals of economic growth and tackling terrorism within the country supersede the goals of environmental preservation. Although NGOs and government departments have taken initiatives to stop environmental degradation, Pakistan's environmental issues still remain.

Environmental issues in Singapore

Environmental issues in Singapore include air, water pollution, and deforestation. The government established the Singapore Green Plan in 1992 to help with environmental problems.

Environmental issues in Turkey

Turkey hosts more than three thousand endemic plant species, has high diversity of other taxa, and is almost entirely covered by three of the world's thirty-five biodiversity hotspots. Although some environmental pressures have been decoupled from economic growth the environment still faces many threats, such as coal and diesel fuel emitting greenhouse gases and deadly fine particulate air pollution. As of 2019 there is no fine particulate limit and coal in Turkey is subsidized.

Environmental issues in the Philippines

The Philippines' evident risk to natural disasters is due to its location. Being a country that lies in the Pacific Ring of Fire, it is prone to earthquake and volcanic eruptions. In addition, the country is surrounded by large bodies of water and facing the Pacific Ocean where 60% of the world's typhoons are made. One of the most devastating typhoons that hit the Philippines in 2013 was Typhoon Haiyan, or "Yolanda", that killed over 10,000 people and destroyed over a trillion pesos worth of properties and damage to various sectors. Other environmental problems that the country is facing include pollution, illegal mining and logging, deforestation, dynamite fishing, landslides, coastal erosion, wildlife extinction, global warming and climate change.

Erosion control

Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction. Effective erosion controls handle surface runoff and are important techniques in preventing water pollution, soil loss, wildlife habitat loss and human property loss.

Industrial waste

Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations. Types of industrial waste include dirt and gravel, masonry and concrete, scrap metal, oil, solvents, chemicals, scrap lumber, even vegetable matter from restaurants. Industrial waste may be solid, liquid or gaseous. It may be hazardous or non-hazardous waste. Hazardous waste may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or radioactive. Industrial waste may pollute the air, the soil, or nearby water sources, eventually ending up in the sea. Industrial waste is often mixed into municipal waste, making accurate assessments difficult. An estimate for the US goes as high as 7.6 billion tons of industrial waste produced every year. Most countries have enacted legislation to deal with the problem of industrial waste, but strictness and compliance regimes vary. Enforcement is always an issue.

Nonpoint source pollution

Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is pollution resulting from many diffuse sources, in direct contrast to point source pollution which results from a single source. Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage, or hydrological modification (rainfall and snowmelt) where tracing pollution back to a single source is difficult.Non-point source water pollution affects a water body from sources such as polluted runoff from agricultural areas draining into a river, or wind-borne debris blowing out to sea. Non-point source air pollution affects air quality from sources such as smokestacks or car tailpipes. Although these pollutants have originated from a point source, the long-range transport ability and multiple sources of the pollutant make it a non-point source of pollution. Non-point source pollution can be contrasted with point source pollution, where discharges occur to a body of water or into the atmosphere at a single location.

NPS may derive from many different sources with no specific solution may change to rectify the problem, making it difficult to regulate. Non point source water pollution is difficult to control because it comes from the everyday activities of many different people, such as lawn fertilization, applying pesticides, road construction or building construction.It is the leading cause of water pollution in the United States today, with polluted runoff from agriculture and hydromodification the primary sources. Other significant sources of runoff include habitat modification and silviculture (forestry).Contaminated stormwater washed off parking lots, roads and highways, and lawns (often containing fertilizers and pesticides) is called urban runoff. This runoff is often classified as a type of NPS pollution. Some people may also consider it a point source because many times it is channeled into municipal storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to nearby surface waters. However, not all urban runoff flows through storm drain systems before entering water bodies. Some may flow directly into water bodies, especially in developing and suburban areas. Also, unlike other types of point sources, such as industrial discharges, sewage treatment plants and other operations, pollution in urban runoff cannot be attributed to one activity or even group of activities. Therefore, because it is not caused by an easily identified and regulated activity, urban runoff pollution sources are also often treated as true non-point sources as municipalities work to abate them.

Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer or foul sewer is an underground pipe or tunnel system for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings (but not stormwater) to treatment facilities or disposal. Sanitary sewers are part of an overall system called a sewage system or sewerage.

Sewage may be treated to control water pollution before discharge to surface waters. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater.

Separate sanitary sewer systems are designed to transport sewage alone. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. Sanitary sewers are distinguished from combined sewers, which combine sewage with stormwater runoff in one pipe. Sanitary sewer systems are beneficial because they avoid combined sewer overflows.

Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess storm water, melt water, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface. This might occur because soil is saturated to full capacity, because rain arrives more quickly than soil can absorb it, or because impervious areas (roofs and pavement) send their runoff to surrounding soil that cannot absorb all of it. Surface runoff is a major component of the water cycle. It is the primary agent in soil erosion by water.Runoff that occurs on the ground surface before reaching a channel is also called a non point source. If a nonpoint source contains man-made contaminants, or natural forms of pollution (such as rotting leaves) the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution. A land area which produces runoff that drains to a common point is called a drainage basin. When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up soil contaminants including petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become discharge or nonpoint source pollution.In addition to causing water erosion and pollution, surface runoff in urban areas is a primary cause of urban flooding which can result in property damage, damp and mold in basements, and street flooding.

Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Other causes of thermal pollution include soil erosion. This will elevate water and expose it to sunlight. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the sudden change in temperature decreases oxygen supply and affects ecosystem composition. Fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by an abrupt change in water temperature (either a rapid increase or decrease) known as "Thermal shock."

Urban runoff—stormwater discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots—can also be a source of elevated water temperatures.

Wastewater

Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration". Therefore, wastewater is a byproduct of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities. The characteristics of wastewater vary depending on the source. Types of wastewater include: domestic wastewater from households, municipal wastewater from communities (also called sewage) and industrial wastewater from industrial activities. Wastewater can contain physical, chemical and biological pollutants.

Households may produce wastewater from flush toilets, sinks, dishwashers, washing machines, bath tubs, and showers. Households that use dry toilets produce less wastewater than those that use flush toilets.

Wastewater may be conveyed in a sanitary sewer which conveys only sewage. Alternatively, it can be transported in a combined sewer which includes stormwater runoff and industrial wastewater. After treatment at a wastewater treatment plant, the treated wastewater (also called effluent) is discharged to a receiving water body. The terms "wastewater reuse" or "water reclamation" apply if the treated waste is used for another purpose. Wastewater that is discharged to the environment without suitable treatment causes water pollution.

In developing countries and in rural areas with low population densities, wastewater is often treated by various on-site sanitation systems and not conveyed in sewers. These systems include septic tanks connected to drain fields, on-site sewage systems (OSS), vermifilter systems and many more.

Water pollution in India

Water pollution is a major environmental issue in India. The largest source of water pollution in India is untreated

sewage. Other sources of pollution include agricultural runoff and unregulated small scale industry. Most rivers, lakes and surface water in India are polluted.

Water quality

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance, generally achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, and drinking water.

Water stagnation

Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing. Stagnant water can be a major environmental hazard.

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