Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface, mostly in seas and oceans.[1] Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).[2][3]

Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture.[4] Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil and natural gas) and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, and diving.

Iceberg with hole near Sandersons Hope 2007-07-28 2
Water in two states: liquid (including the clouds, which are examples of aerosols), and solid (ice).

Etymology

The word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar (source also of Old Saxon watar, Old Frisian wetir, Dutch water, Old High German wazzar, German Wasser, Old Norse vatn, Gothic wato), from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed- ("water"; "wet"). [5] Also cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ (ýdor), Russian вода́ (vodá), Irish uisce, Albanian ujë.

History

Chemical and physical properties

Water (H
2
O
) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances.[6][7] This allows it to be the "solvent of life".[8] It is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions.[9]

States

Brindis (24675281395)
Liquid water, showing droplets and air bubbles caused by the drops

Water is a liquid at the temperatures and pressures that are most adequate for life. Specifically, at a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C (32 and 212 °F). Increasing the pressure slightly lowers the melting point, which is about −5 °C (23 °F) at 600 atm and −22 °C (−8 °F) at 2100 atm. This effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, and to the movement of glaciers. (At pressures higher than 2100 atm the melting point rapidly increases again, and ice takes several exotic forms that do not exist at lower pressures.)

Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, that is about 374 °C (705 °F) at 220 atm. This effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, and steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C (154 °F).

At very low pressures (below about 0.006 atm), water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food. At very high pressures (above 221 atm), the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam.

Water also differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes. The maximum density of water in its liquid form (at 1 atm) is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft); that occurs at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F).[10] The density of ice is 917 kg/m3 (57.25 lb/cu ft).[11][12] Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water.

The details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood; some theories suggest that the unusual behaviour of water is due to the existence of 2 liquid states.[10][13][14][15]

Taste and odor

Pure water is usually described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths,[16] and frogs are known to be able to smell it.[17] However, water from ordinary sources (including bottled mineral water) usually has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid.[18]

Color and appearance

The apparent color of natural bodies of water (and swimming pools) is often determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.

Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water (or ice) without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless.[19] Thus aquatic plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is essentially invisible as a gas.

Through a thickness of 10 meters (33 ft) or more, however, the intrinsic color of water (or ice) is visibly turquoise (greenish blue), as its absorption spectrum has a sharp minimum at the corresponding color of light (1/227 m−1 at 418 nm). The color becomes increasingly stronger and darker with increasing thickness. (Practically no sunlight reaches the parts of the oceans below 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) of depth.) Infrared and ultraviolet light, on the other hand, is strongly absorbed by water.

The refraction index of liquid water (1.333 at 20 °C (68 °F)) is much higher than that of air (1.0), similar to those of alkanes and ethanol, but lower than those of glycerol (1.473), benzene (1.501), carbon disulfide (1.627), and common types of glass (1.4 to 1.6). The refraction index of ice (1.31) is lower than that of liquid water.

Polarity and hydrogen bonding

3D model hydrogen bonds in water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water.
Capillarity
Capillary action of water compared to mercury. Note that the menisci of the two liquids curve in the opposite direction.
Water drop 001
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.

Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms, it is a polar molecule, with an electrical dipole moment: the oxygen atom carries a slight negative charge, whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. Water is a good polar solvent, that dissolves many salts and hydrophilic organic molecules such as sugars and simple alcohols such as ethanol. Water also dissolves many gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide—the latter giving the fizz of carbonated beverages, sparkling wines and beers. In addition, many substances in living organisms, such as proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, are dissolved in water. The interactions between water and the subunits of these biomacromolecules shape protein folding, DNA base pairing, and other phenomena crucial to life (hydrophobic effect).

Many organic substances (such as fats and oils and alkanes) are hydrophobic, that is, insoluble in water. Many inorganic substances are insoluble too, including most metal oxides, sulfides, and silicates.

Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. These bonds are the cause of water's high surface tension[20] and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees.[21]

The hydrogen bonds are also the reason why the melting and boiling points of water are much higher than those of other analogous compounds like hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S
). They also explain its exceptionally high specific heat capacity (about 4.2 J/g/K), heat of fusion (about 333 J/g), heat of vaporization (2257 J/g), and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth's climate, by storing heat and transporting it between the oceans and the atmosphere. The hydrogen bonds of water are of moderate strength, around 23 kJ/mol (compared to a covalent O-H bond at 492 kJ/mol). Of this, it is estimated that 90% of the hydrogen bond is attributable to electrostatics, while the remaining 10% reflects partial covalent character.[22]

Electrical conductivity and electrolysis

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as common salt.

Liquid water can be split into the elements hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it—a process called electrolysis. The decomposition requires more energy input than the heat released by the inverse process (285.8 kJ/mol, or 15.9 MJ/kg).[23]

Mechanical properties

Liquid water can be assumed to be incompressible for most purposes: its compressibility ranges from 4.4 to 5.1×10−10 Pa−1 in ordinary conditions.[24] Even in oceans at 4 km depth, where the pressure is 400 atm, water suffers only a 1.8% decrease in volume.[25]

The viscosity of water is about 10−3 Pa·s or 0.01 poise at 20 °C (68 °F), and the speed of sound in liquid water ranges between 1,400 and 1,540 meters per second (4,600 and 5,100 ft/s) depending on temperature. Sound travels long distances in water with little attenuation, especially at low frequencies (roughly 0.03 dB/km for 1 kHz), a property that is exploited by cetaceans and humans for communication and environment sensing (sonar).[26]

Reactivity

Metallic elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium, sodium, calcium, potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water, forming hydroxides and releasing hydrogen. At high temperatures, carbon reacts with steam to form carbon monoxide.

On Earth

The Earth seen from Apollo 17
Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface; the oceans contain 96.5% of the Earth's water. The Antarctic ice sheet, which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth, is visible at the bottom. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds, contributing to the Earth's albedo.

Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth. The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, of glaciers is glaciology, of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.

The collective mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. Earth's approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1.338 billion cubic kilometers (321×106 cu mi).[2]

Liquid water is found in bodies of water, such as an ocean, sea, lake, river, stream, canal, pond, or puddle. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid, liquid, and vapor states. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers.

Water is important in many geological processes. Groundwater is present in most rocks, and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. On the surface of the Earth, water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Water, and to a lesser but still significant extent, ice, are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks, which make up the geologic record of Earth history.

Water cycle

The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere, between the atmosphere, soil water, surface water, groundwater, and plants.

Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes:

  • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air.
  • precipitation, from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean.
  • runoff from the land usually reaching the sea.

Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans, but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea, about 47 Tt per year. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute another 72 Tt per year. Precipitation, at a rate of 119 Tt per year over land, has several forms: most commonly rain, snow, and hail, with some contribution from fog and dew.[27] Dew is small drops of water that are condensed when a high density of water vapor meets a cool surface. Dew usually forms in the morning when the temperature is the lowest, just before sunrise and when the temperature of the earth's surface starts to increase.[28] Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows.

Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is a hydrological transport model. Some water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. Through erosion, runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. A flood occurs when an area of land, usually low-lying, is covered with water. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood comes from the sea. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.

Fresh water storage

The Bay of Fundy at high tide and low tide. At low tide, many rocks are exposed and the boat in the picture is grounded.

Bay of Fundy High Tide
Bay of Fundy Low Tide

Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time, for example in lakes. At high altitude, during winter, and in the far north and south, snow collects in ice caps, snow packs and glaciers. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs, or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. This water storage is important, since clean, fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply.

Sea water and tides

Sea water contains about 3.5% sodium chloride on average, plus smaller amounts of other substances. The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. It freezes at a lower temperature (about −1.9 °C (28.6 °F)) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the freezing point, instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4.0% in the Red Sea. (The Dead Sea, known for its ultra-high salinity levels of between 30–40%, is really a salt lake.)

Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide, the intertidal zone, is an important ecological product of ocean tides.

Effects on life

Oasis in Libya
An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in a desert.
Auto-and heterotrophs
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red). Water (at right), together with carbon dioxide (CO2), form oxygen and organic compounds (at left), which can be respired to water and (CO2).

From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Without water, these particular metabolic processes could not exist.

Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration).

Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as a hydroxide ion (OH) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7.

Aquatic life forms

Blue Linckia Starfish
Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef
Diatoms through the microscope
Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group

Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales. Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians, spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain.

Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water.

Effects on human civilization

Longwood Gardens-Italian Garden
Water fountain

Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia, the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. Rome was also founded on the banks of the Italian river Tiber. Large metropolises like Rotterdam, London, Montreal, Paris, New York City, Buenos Aires, Shanghai, Tokyo, Chicago, and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development.

Health and pollution

Field Trip- water sampling
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water

Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation, or by a range of other methods.

Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water, or "safe for bathing". Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water, and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light.

In the US, non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater, which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again, and blackwater, which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. Greywater composes 50–80% of residential wastewater generated by a household's sanitation equipment (sinks, showers and kitchen runoff, but not toilets, which generate blackwater.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures.

This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern. Currently, about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit.[29] Even if this difficult goal is met, it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1.4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year.[30]

Water, however, is not a finite resource (meaning the availability of water is limited), but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation[31] in quantities many orders of magnitude higher than human consumption. Therefore, it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply, which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years), that is a non-renewable resource, and it is, rather, the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce, rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the earth. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption), since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water.

In the developing world, 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams.[32] Some 50 countries, with roughly a third of the world's population, also suffer from medium or high water stress, and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles.[33] The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater resources.

Human uses

Agriculture

Water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation
SiphonTubes
Irrigation of field crops

The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation, which is a key component to produce enough food. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries[34] and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (in the United States, 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation).[35]

Fifty years ago, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At the time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for the fixed amount of water resources is much more intense, giving rise to the concept of peak water.[36] This is because there are now nearly seven billion people on the planet, their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising, and there is increasing competition for water from industry, urbanisation and biofuel crops. In future, even more water will be needed to produce food because the Earth's population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by 2050.[37]

An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in 2007 by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population.[38] It assessed the current availability of water for agriculture on a global scale and mapped out locations suffering from water scarcity. It found that a fifth of the world's people, more than 1.2 billion, live in areas of physical water scarcity, where there is not enough water to meet all demands. A further 1.6 billion people live in areas experiencing economic water scarcity, where the lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity make it impossible for authorities to satisfy the demand for water. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future, but that continuation of today's food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.[39]

Water scarcity is also caused by production of cotton: 1 kg of cotton—equivalent of a pair of jeans—requires 10.9 cubic meters (380 cu ft) water to produce. While cotton accounts for 2.4% of world water use, the water is consumed in regions which are already at a risk of water shortage. Significant environmental damage has been caused, such as disappearance of the Aral Sea.[40]

As a scientific standard

On 7 April 1795, the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice".[41] For practical purposes though, a metallic reference standard was required, one thousand times more massive, the kilogram. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C (32 °F)—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density, which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F).[42]

The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water, defined as exactly 273.16 K (0.01 °C; 32.02 °F). The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale, which was originally defined according to the boiling point (set to 100 °C (212 °F)) and melting point (set to 0 °C (32 °F)) of water.

Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16, but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium). The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small, but it still affects the properties of water. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. Therefore, standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification.

For drinking

Humanitarian aid OCPA-2005-10-28-090517a
A young girl drinking bottled water
2006 Global Water Availability
Water availability: fraction of population using improved water sources by country

The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size.[43] To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters (0.22 and 1.54 imp gal; 0.26 and 1.85 U.S. gal) of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most specialists agree that approximately 2 liters (6 to 7 glasses) of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.[44] Medical literature favors a lower consumption, typically 1 liter of water for an average male, excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather.[45]

For those who have healthy kidneys, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration), which can be fatal.[46][47] The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science.[48] Studies have shown that extra water intake, especially up to 500 milliliters (18 imp fl oz; 17 U.S. fl oz) at mealtime was conducive to weight loss.[49][50][51][52][53][54] Adequate fluid intake is helpful in preventing constipation.[55]

DIN 4844-2 D-P005
Hazard symbol for non-potable water

An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods."[56] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended, based on the median total water intake from US survey data (including food sources): 3.7 liters (0.81 imp gal; 0.98 U.S. gal) for men and 2.7 liters (0.59 imp gal; 0.71 U.S. gal) of water total for women, noting that water contained in food provided approximately 19% of total water intake in the survey.[57]

Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. The Institute of Medicine (US) recommends that, on average, men consume 3 liters (0.66 imp gal; 0.79 U.S. gal) and women 2.2 liters (0.48 imp gal; 0.58 U.S. gal); pregnant women should increase intake to 2.4 liters (0.53 imp gal; 0.63 U.S. gal) and breastfeeding women should get 3 liters (12 cups), since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.[58] Also noted is that normally, about 20% of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.

Humans require water with few impurities. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides, including copper, iron, calcium and lead,[59] and/or harmful bacteria, such as Vibrio. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes.[60]

The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia.[61]

Washing

The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. Most of personal water use is due to showering, doing the laundry and dishwashing, reaching hundreds of liters per day in developed countries.

Transportation

The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.

Chemical uses

Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water. In organic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Nevertheless, these properties are sometimes desirable. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. Water vapor is used for some processes in the chemical industry. An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane.[62][63][64][65] The possible effect of water in these reactions includes the physical-, chemical interaction of water with the catalyst and the chemical reaction of water with the reaction intermediates.

Heat exchange

Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchange, due to its availability and high heat capacity, both for cooling and heating. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. It's especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization. A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam. In almost all thermal power stations, water is used as the working fluid (used in a closed loop between boiler, steam turbine and condenser), and the coolant (used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower). In the United States, cooling power plants is the largest use of water.[35]

In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. In most nuclear reactors, water is both a coolant and a moderator. This provides something of a passive safety measure, as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down. However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling.

Fire considerations

MH-60S Helicopter dumps water onto Fire
Water is used for fighting wildfires.

Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents, because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid.

Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion, which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces, and of a hydrogen explosion, when substances which react with water, such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal, charcoal, or coke graphite, decompose the water, producing water gas.

The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster, although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium.

Some metallic oxides, most notably those of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, produce so much heat on reaction with water that a fire hazard can develop. The alkaline earth oxide quicklime is a mass-produced substance which is often transported in paper bags. If these are soaked through, they may ignite as their contents react with water.[66]

Recreation

Grand Anse Beach Grenada
Grand Anse Beach, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies

Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports. Some of these include swimming, waterskiing, boating, surfing and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skating, are played on ice. Lakesides, beaches and water parks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming, and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i.e. skiing, sledding, snowmobiling or snowboarding, which require the water to be frozen.

Water industry

Water carrier in India
A water-carrier in India, 1882. In many places where running water is not available, water has to be transported by people.
TapWater-china
A manual water pump in China

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. Water supply facilities include water wells, cisterns for rainwater harvesting, water supply networks, and water purification facilities, water tanks, water towers, water pipes including old aqueducts. Atmospheric water generators are in development.

Drinking water is often collected at springs, extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground, or pumped from lakes and rivers. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Water may require purification for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.

The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems, tanker delivery or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge.

Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources.

Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population, victims of this pollution. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable.

Municipal and industrial wastewater are typically treated at wastewater treatment plants. Mitigation of polluted surface runoff is addressed through a variety of prevention and treatment techniques. (See Surface runoff#Mitigation and treatment.)

Industrial applications

Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances, or to wash products or process equipment. Processes such as mining, chemical pulping, pulp bleaching, paper manufacturing, textile production, dyeing, printing, and cooling of power plants use large amounts of water, requiring a dedicated water source, and often cause significant water pollution.

Water is used in power generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source. The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Typically a dam is constructed on a river, creating an artificial lake behind it. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators.

Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating, or prevent saw blades from overheating.

Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines, such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger, in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge.

Food processing

Cuisson des pates
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles

Boiling, steaming, and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state, steam.[67] Water is also used for dishwashing. Water also plays many critical roles within the field of food science. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products.

Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes, as well as air pressure, which is in turn affected by altitude. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure that occurs at higher elevations. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0.51 °C (0.918 °F), and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1.02 °C (1.836 °F); similarly, increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water's freezing point.[68]

Solutes in water also affect water activity that affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food.[69] Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water.[68] Solutes in water lower water activity—this is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity.[69] Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food, but also the preservation and shelf life of food.

Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product, as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water hardness is classified based on concentration of calcium carbonate the water contains. Water is classified as soft if it contains less than 100 mg/l (UK)[70] or less than 60 mg/l (US).[71]

According to a report published by the Water Footprint organization in 2010, a single kilogram of beef requires 15 thousand liters (3.3×103 imp gal; 4.0×103 U.S. gal) of water; however, the authors also make clear that this is a global average and circumstantial factors determine the amount of water used in beef production.[72]

Medical use

Sterilewater
Sterile water for injection

Water for injection is on the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines.[73]

Distribution in nature

In the universe

Band 5 ALMA receiver
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.[74]

Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. The formation of stars is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas, the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas.[75]

On 22 July 2011, a report described the discovery of a gigantic cloud of water vapor containing "140 trillion times more water than all of Earth's oceans combined" around a quasar located 12 billion light years from Earth. According to the researchers, the "discovery shows that water has been prevalent in the universe for nearly its entire existence".[76][77]

Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy, the Milky Way.[78] Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies, too, because its components, hydrogen and oxygen, are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Based on models of the formation and evolution of the Solar System and that of other star systems, most other planetary systems are likely to have similar ingredients.

Water vapor

Water is present as vapor in:

Liquid water

Liquid water is present on Earth, covering 71% of its surface.[1] Liquid water is also occasionally present in small amounts on Mars. Scientists believe liquid water is present in the Saturnian moons of Enceladus, as a 10-kilometre thick ocean approximately 30–40 kilometres below Enceladus' south polar surface,[99][100] and Titan, as a subsurface layer, possibly mixed with ammonia.[101] Jupiter's moon Europa has surface characteristics which suggest a subsurface liquid water ocean.[102] Liquid water may also exist on Jupiter's moon Ganymede as a layer sandwiched between high pressure ice and rock.[103]

Water ice

Water is present as ice on:

South Polar Cap of Mars during Martian South summer 2000
South Polar ice cap of Mars during Martian South summer 2000

And is also likely present on:

Exotic forms

Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and deeper still as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float about freely within the oxygen lattice.[122]

Water and habitable zone

The existence of liquid water, and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms, on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system; if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%, or about 8 million kilometers), the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.[123][124]

Earth's gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were smaller, a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes, thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars).

The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation), indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.

The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure, which is determined by the planet's gravity. If a planet is sufficiently massive, the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures, because of the high pressure caused by gravity, as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b[125] and GJ 1214 b.[126]

Law, politics, and crisis

Access to drinking water in third world
An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000

Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. For this reason, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity.

Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation.[127] However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability.[128] A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.[129]

1.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990.[130] The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970[131] to 71% in 1990, 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004. This trend is projected to continue.[127] To halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals. This goal is projected to be reached.

A 2006 United Nations report stated that "there is enough water for everyone", but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption.[132] In addition, global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery, such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health, potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act.[133]

The authors of the 2007 Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture cited poor governance as one reason for some forms of water scarcity. Water governance is the set of formal and informal processes through which decisions related to water management are made. Good water governance is primarily about knowing what processes work best in a particular physical and socioeconomic context. Mistakes have sometimes been made by trying to apply 'blueprints' that work in the developed world to developing world locations and contexts. The Mekong river is one example; a review by the International Water Management Institute of policies in six countries that rely on the Mekong river for water found that thorough and transparent cost-benefit analyses and environmental impact assessments were rarely undertaken. They also discovered that Cambodia's draft water law was much more complex than it needed to be.[134]

The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that, in the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. More than 2.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. In 2004, the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases; often this means lack of sewage disposal; see toilet.

Organizations concerned with water protection include the International Water Association (IWA), WaterAid, Water 1st, and the American Water Resources Association. The International Water Management Institute undertakes projects with the aim of using effective water management to reduce poverty. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June.

In culture

Religion

Water is considered a purifier in most religions. Faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, the Rastafari movement, Shinto, Taoism, and Wicca. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism); it is also a part of the practice of other religions, including Islam (Ghusl), Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). In addition, a ritual bath in pure water is performed for the dead in many religions including Islam and Judaism. In Islam, the five daily prayers can be done in most cases after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu), unless water is unavailable (see Tayammum). In Shinto, water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e.g., in the ritual of misogi).

In Christianity, holy water is water that has been sanctified by a priest for the purpose of baptism, the blessing of persons, places, and objects, or as a means of repelling evil.[135][136]

In Zoroastrianism, water (āb) is respected as the source of life.[137]

Philosophy

The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire, earth and air, and was regarded as the ylem, or basic substance of the universe. Thales, who was portrayed by Aristotle as an astronomer and an engineer, theorized that the earth, which is denser than water, emerged from the water. Thales, a monist, believed further that all things are made from water. Plato believed the shape of water is an icosahedron which accounts for why it is able to flow easily compared to the cube-shaped earth.[138]

In the theory of the four bodily humors, water was associated with phlegm, as being cold and moist. The classical element of water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy, along with earth, fire, wood, and metal.

Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy. James Legge's 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states, "The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things, and in its occupying, without striving (to the contrary), the low place which all men dislike. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao" and "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water, and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed."[139] Guanzi in "Shui di" 水地 chapter further elaborates on symbolism of water, proclaiming that "man is water" and attributing natural qualities of the people of different Chinese regions to the character of local water resources.[140]

Dihydrogen monoxide hoax

Water's technically correct but rarely used chemical name, "dihydrogen monoxide", has been used in a series of hoaxes and pranks that mock scientific illiteracy. This began in 1983, when an April Fools' Day article appeared in a newspaper in Durand, Michigan. The false story consisted of safety concerns about the substance.[141]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "CIA – The world facctbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 1 February 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
  2. ^ a b Gleick, P.H., ed. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources. Oxford University Press. p. 13, Table 2.1 "Water reserves on the earth". Archived from the original on 8 April 2013.
  3. ^ Water Vapor in the Climate System Archived 20 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Special Report, [AGU], December 1995 (linked 4/2007). Vital Water UNEP. Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Baroni, L.; Cenci, L.; Tettamanti, M.; Berati, M. (2007). "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61 (2): 279–286. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602522. PMID 17035955.
  5. ^ "Water (v.)". www.etymonline.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  6. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 620. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.
  7. ^ "Water, the Universal Solvent". USGS. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  8. ^ Reece, Jane B. (31 October 2013). Campbell Biology (10 ed.). Pearson. p. 48. ISBN 9780321775658.
  9. ^ Reece, Jane B. (31 October 2013). Campbell Biology (10 ed.). Pearson. p. 44. ISBN 9780321775658.
  10. ^ a b "Water: Water—an enduring mystery". Nature. Archived from the original on 17 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  11. ^ Kotz, J.C., Treichel, P., & Weaver, G.C. (2005). Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. Thomson Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-534-39597-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Ben-Naim, Ariel; Ben-Naim, Roberta; et al. (2011). Alice's Adventures in Water-land. Singapore. doi:10.1142/8068. ISBN 978-981-4338-96-7.
  13. ^ Maestro, L.M.; Marqués, M.I.; Camarillo, E.; Jaque, D.; Solé, J. García; Gonzalo, J.A.; Jaque, F.; Valle, Juan C. Del; Mallamace, F. (1 January 2016). "On the existence of two states in liquid water: impact on biological and nanoscopic systems". International Journal of Nanotechnology. 13 (8–9): 667–677. Bibcode:2016IJNT...13..667M. doi:10.1504/IJNT.2016.079670. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017 |archive-url= requires |url= (help). |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  14. ^ Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene (18 December 2012). "A singular thermodynamically consistent temperature at the origin of the anomalous behavior of liquid water". Scientific Reports. 2 (1): 993. Bibcode:2012NatSR...2E.993M. doi:10.1038/srep00993. PMC 3524791. PMID 23251779.
  15. ^ Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Nilsson, Anders (26 June 2017). "Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 13 (8–9): 667–677. doi:10.1073/pnas.1705303114. PMC 5547632. PMID 28652327.
  16. ^ Edmund T. Rolls (2005), "Emotion Explained". Oxford University Press, Medical. ISBN 0198570031, 9780198570035.
  17. ^ R. Llinas, W. Precht (2012), "Frog Neurobiology: A Handbook". Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 3642663168, 9783642663161
  18. ^ Candau, Joël (2004). "The Olfactory Experience: constants and cultural variables". Water Science and Technology. 49 (9): 11–17. doi:10.2166/wst.2004.0522. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  19. ^ Braun, Charles L.; Sergei N. Smirnov (1993). "Why is water blue?". J. Chem. Educ. 70 (8): 612. Bibcode:1993JChEd..70..612B. doi:10.1021/ed070p612. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2007.
  20. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-250882-7. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  21. ^ Capillary Action – Liquid, Water, Force, and Surface – JRank Articles Archived 27 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Science.jrank.org. Retrieved on 28 September 2015.
  22. ^ Isaacs, E.D; Shukla, A; Platzman, P.M; Hamann, D.R; Barbiellini, B; Tulk, C.A (1 March 2000). "Compton scattering evidence for covalency of the hydrogen bond in ice". Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 61 (3): 403–406. Bibcode:2000JPCS...61..403I. doi:10.1016/S0022-3697(99)00325-X.
  23. ^ Ball, Philip (14 September 2007). "Burning water and other myths". News@nature. doi:10.1038/news070910-13. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
  24. ^ Fine, R.A. & Millero, F.J. (1973). "Compressibility of water as a function of temperature and pressure". Journal of Chemical Physics. 59 (10): 5529. Bibcode:1973JChPh..59.5529F. doi:10.1063/1.1679903.
  25. ^ Nave, R. "Bulk Elastic Properties". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University. Archived from the original on 28 October 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2007.
  26. ^ UK National Physical Laboratory, Calculation of absorption of sound in seawater Archived 3 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Online site, last accessed on 28 September 2016.
  27. ^ Gleick, P.H., ed. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Freshwater Resources. Oxford University Press. p. 15, Table 2.3. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013.
  28. ^ Ben-Naim, A. & Ben-Naim, R., P.H. (2011). Alice's Adventures in Water-land. World Scientific Publishing. p. 31. doi:10.1142/8068. ISBN 978-981-4338-96-7.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ "G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit". G8.fr. 2 June 2003. Archived from the original on 8 June 2003. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  30. ^ "World Health Organization. Safe Water and Global Health". Who.int. 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  31. ^ Hoekstra, Arjen Y. (19 June 2013). The Water Footprint of Modern Consumer Society. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136457043.
  32. ^ UNEP International Environment (2002). Environmentally Sound Technology for Wastewater and Stormwater Management: An International Source Book. IWA Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84339-008-4. OCLC 49204666.
  33. ^ Ravindranath, Nijavalli H.; Jayant A. Sathaye (2002). Climate Change and Developing Countries. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-0104-8. OCLC 231965991.
  34. ^ "WBCSD Water Facts & Trends". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  35. ^ a b Water Use in the United States, National Atlas.gov Archived 14 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Gleick, P.H.; Palaniappan, M. (2010). "Peak Water" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (125): 11155–11162. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10711155G. doi:10.1073/pnas.1004812107. PMC 2895062. PMID 20498082. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  37. ^ United Nations Press Release POP/952 (13 March 2007). World population will increase by 2.5 billion by 2050 Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ Molden, D. (Ed). Water for food, Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Earthscan/IWMI, 2007.
  39. ^ Chartres, C. and Varma, S. (2010) Out of water. From Abundance to Scarcity and How to Solve the World's Water Problems. FT Press (US).
  40. ^ waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report18.pdf
  41. ^ Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures. 18 germinal an 3 (7 April 1795) Archived 10 May 2013 at WebCite. Decree relating to the weights and measurements (in French). quartier-rural.org
  42. ^ here L'Histoire Du Mètre, La Détermination De L'Unité De Poids Archived 10 May 2013 at WebCite. histoire.du.metre.free.fr
  43. ^ Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Archived 25 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine Jeffrey Utz, M.D., The MadSci Network
  44. ^ "Healthy Water Living". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  45. ^ Rhoades RA, Tanner GA (2003). Medical Physiology (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-1936-0. OCLC 50554808.
  46. ^ Noakes TD; Goodwin N; Rayner BL; et al. (1985). "Water intoxication: a possible complication during endurance exercise". Med Sci Sports Exerc. 17 (3): 370–375. doi:10.1249/00005768-198506000-00012. PMID 4021781. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  47. ^ Noakes TD, Goodwin N, Rayner BL, Branken T, Taylor RK (2005). "Water intoxication: a possible complication during endurance exercise, 1985". Wilderness Environ Med. 16 (4): 221–227. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2005)16[221:WIAPCD]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16366205.
  48. ^ Valtin, Heinz (2002). ""Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"?". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 283 (5): R993–R1004. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00365.2002. PMID 12376390. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  49. ^ Stookey JD, Constant F, Popkin BM, Gardner CD (November 2008). "Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity". Obesity. 16 (11): 2481–2488. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.409. PMID 18787524.
  50. ^ "Drink water to curb weight gain? Clinical trial confirms effectiveness of simple appetite control method". www.sciencedaily.com. 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  51. ^ Dubnov-Raz G, Constantini NW, Yariv H, Nice S, Shapira N (October 2011). "Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children". International Journal of Obesity. 35 (10): 1295–1300. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.130. PMID 21750519.
  52. ^ Dennis EA; Dengo AL; Comber DL; et al. (February 2010). "Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults". Obesity. 18 (2): 300–307. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.235. PMC 2859815. PMID 19661958.
  53. ^ Vij VA, Joshi AS (September 2013). "Effect of 'water induced thermogenesis' on body weight, body mass index and body composition of overweight subjects". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 7 (9): 1894–1896. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5862.3344. PMC 3809630. PMID 24179891.
  54. ^ Muckelbauer R, Sarganas G, Grüneis A, Müller-Nordhorn J (August 2013). "Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 98 (2): 282–299. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.055061. PMID 23803882.
  55. ^ Water, Constipation, Dehydration, and Other Fluids Archived 4 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Sciencedaily.com. Retrieved on 28 September 2015.
  56. ^ Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences. Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Research Council, Reprint and Circular Series, No. 122. 1945. pp. 3–18.
  57. ^ Medicine, Institute of; Board, Food Nutrition; Intakes, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference; Water, Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and (2005). 4 Water | Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate | The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/10925. ISBN 978-0-309-09169-5. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  58. ^ "Water: How much should you drink every day?". Mayoclinic.com. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  59. ^ Conquering Chemistry 4th Ed. Published 2008
  60. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins; Charles William McLaughlin; Susan Johnson; Maryanna Quon Warner; David LaHart; Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-981176-0. OCLC 32308337.
  61. ^ Unesco (2006). Water: a shared responsibility. Berghahn Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-84545-177-6.
  62. ^ Naumann d'Alnoncourt, Raoul; Csepei, Lénárd-István; Hävecker, Michael; Girgsdies, Frank; Schuster, Manfred E; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette (2014). "The reaction network in propane oxidation over phase-pure MoVTeNb M1 oxide catalysts" (PDF). Journal of Catalysis. 311: 369–385. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2013.12.008. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0014-F434-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  63. ^ Hävecker, Michael; Wrabetz, Sabine; Kröhnert, Jutta; Csepei, Lenard-Istvan; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, Raoul; Kolen'Ko, Yury V; Girgsdies, Frank; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette (2012). "Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid" (PDF). Journal of Catalysis. 285: 48–60. doi:10.1016/j.jcat.2011.09.012. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0012-1BEB-F. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  64. ^ Kinetic studies of propane oxidation on Mo and V based mixed oxide catalysts (PDF). 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  65. ^ Amakawa, Kazuhiko; Kolen'Ko, Yury V; Villa, Alberto; Schuster, Manfred E/; Csepei, Lénárd-István; Weinberg, Gisela; Wrabetz, Sabine; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, Raoul; Girgsdies, Frank; Prati, Laura; Schlögl, Robert; Trunschke, Annette (2013). "Multifunctionality of Crystalline MoV(TeNb) M1 Oxide Catalysts in Selective Oxidation of Propane and Benzyl Alcohol". ACS Catalysis. 3 (6): 1103–1113. doi:10.1021/cs400010q.
  66. ^ https://www.lhoist.com/sites/lhoist/files/lna_msds_quicklime_2012-3.pdf
  67. ^ Duff, Sister Loretto Basil (1916). A Course in Household Arts: Part I. Whitcomb & Barrows.
  68. ^ a b Vaclavik, Vickie A. & Christian, Elizabeth W (2007). Essentials of Food Science. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-69939-4.
  69. ^ a b DeMan, John M (1999). Principles of Food Chemistry. Springer. ISBN 978-0-8342-1234-3.
  70. ^ "Map showing the rate of hardness in mg/l as Calcium carbonate in England and Wales" (PDF). DEFRA/ Drinking Water Inspectorate. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  71. ^ "Water hardness". US Geological Service. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  72. ^ M.M. Mekonnen; A.Y. Hoekstra (December 2010). "The green, blue and grey water footprint of farm animals and animal products, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 48 – Volume 1: Main report" (PDF). UNESCO – IHE Institute for Water Education. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  73. ^ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  74. ^ "ALMA Greatly Improves Capacity to Search for Water in Universe". Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  75. ^ Melnick, Gary, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Neufeld, David, Johns Hopkins University quoted in: "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System (sic)". The Harvard University Gazette. 23 April 1998. Archived from the original on 16 January 2000. "Space Cloud Holds Enough Water to Fill Earth's Oceans 1 Million Times". Headlines@Hopkins, JHU. 9 April 1998. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 21 April 2007. "Water, Water Everywhere: Radio telescope finds water is common in universe". The Harvard University Gazette. 25 February 1999. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2010. (archive link)
  76. ^ a b Clavin, Whitney; Buis, Alan (22 July 2011). "Astronomers Find Largest, Most Distant Reservoir of Water". NASA. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  77. ^ a b Staff (22 July 2011). "Astronomers Find Largest, Oldest Mass of Water in Universe". Space.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  78. ^ Bova, Ben (13 October 2009). Faint Echoes, Distant Stars: The Science and Politics of Finding Life Beyond Earth. Zondervan. ISBN 9780061854484.
  79. ^ Solanki, S.K.; Livingston, W.; Ayres, T. (1994). "New Light on the Heart of Darkness of the Solar Chromosphere". Science. 263 (5143): 64–66. Bibcode:1994Sci...263...64S. doi:10.1126/science.263.5143.64. PMID 17748350.
  80. ^ "MESSENGER Scientists 'Astonished' to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere". Planetary Society. 3 July 2008. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
  81. ^ Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Vandaele, Ann-Carine; Korablev, Oleg; Villard, E.; Fedorova, A.; Fussen, D.; Quémerais, E.; Belyaev, D.; et al. (2007). "A warm layer in Venus' cryosphere and high-altitude measurements of HF, HCl, H2O and HDO". Nature. 450 (7170): 646–649. Bibcode:2007Natur.450..646B. doi:10.1038/nature05974. PMID 18046397.
  82. ^ Sridharan, R.; Ahmed, S.M.; Dasa, Tirtha Pratim; Sreelathaa, P.; Pradeepkumara, P.; Naika, Neha; Supriya, Gogulapati (2010). "'Direct' evidence for water (H2O) in the sunlit lunar ambience from CHACE on MIP of Chandrayaan I". Planetary and Space Science. 58 (6): 947. Bibcode:2010P&SS...58..947S. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2010.02.013.
  83. ^ Rapp, Donald (28 November 2012). Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars. Springer. p. 78. ISBN 978-3-642-32762-9.
  84. ^ Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Zakharov, V.; Lee, S.; Von Allmen, P.; Carry, B.; Teyssier, D.; Marston, A.; Müller, T.; Crovisier, J.; Barucci, M.A.; Moreno, R. (23 January 2014). "Localized sources of water vapour on the dwarf planet (1) Ceres". Nature. 505 (7484): 525–527. Bibcode:2014Natur.505..525K. doi:10.1038/nature12918. PMID 24451541.
  85. ^ Atreya, Sushil K.; Wong, Ah-San (2005). "Coupled Clouds and Chemistry of the Giant Planets — A Case for Multiprobes" (PDF). Space Science Reviews. 116 (1–2): 121–136. Bibcode:2005SSRv..116..121A. doi:10.1007/s11214-005-1951-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  86. ^ Cook, Jia-Rui C.; Gutro, Rob; Brown, Dwayne; Harrington, J.D.; Fohn, Joe (12 December 2013). "Hubble Sees Evidence of Water Vapor at Jupiter Moon". NASA. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
  87. ^ Hansen; C.J.; et al. (2006). "Enceladus' Water Vapor Plume". Science. 311 (5766): 1422–1425. Bibcode:2006Sci...311.1422H. doi:10.1126/science.1121254. PMID 16527971.
  88. ^ Hubbard, W.B. (1997). "Neptune's Deep Chemistry". Science. 275 (5304): 1279–1280. doi:10.1126/science.275.5304.1279. PMID 9064785.
  89. ^ Water Found on Distant Planet Archived 16 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine 12 July 2007 By Laura Blue, Time
  90. ^ Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere Archived 30 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine – Space.com
  91. ^ Lockwood, Alexandra C; Johnson, John A; Bender, Chad F; Carr, John S; Barman, Travis; Richert, Alexander J.W.; Blake, Geoffrey A (2014). "Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Boo B". The Astrophysical Journal. 783 (2): L29. arXiv:1402.0846. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/783/2/L29.
  92. ^ Clavin, Whitney; Chou, Felicia; Weaver, Donna; Villard; Johnson, Michele (24 September 2014). "NASA Telescopes Find Clear Skies and Water Vapor on Exoplanet". NASA. Archived from the original on 14 January 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  93. ^ a b c Arnold Hanslmeier (29 September 2010). Water in the Universe. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-90-481-9984-6.
  94. ^ "Hubble Traces Subtle Signals of Water on Hazy Worlds". NASA. 3 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  95. ^ a b Andersson, Jonas (June 2012). Water in stellar atmospheres "Is a novel picture required to explain the atmospheric behavior of water in red giant stars?" Archived 13 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Lund Observatory, Lund University, Sweden
  96. ^ Herschel Finds Oceans of Water in Disk of Nearby Star Archived 19 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Nasa.gov (20 October 2011). Retrieved on 28 September 2015.
  97. ^ Herschel Finds Oceans of Water in Disk of Nearby Star Archived 4 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ Lloyd, Robin. "Water Vapor, Possible Comets, Found Orbiting Star", 11 July 2001, Space.com. Retrieved 15 December 2006. Archived 23 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  99. ^ Platt, Jane; Bell, Brian (3 April 2014). "NASA Space Assets Detect Ocean inside Saturn Moon". NASA. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  100. ^ Iess, L.; Stevenson, D.J.; Parisi, M.; Hemingway, D.; Jacobson, R.A.; Lunine, J.I.; Nimmo, F.; Armstrong, J.W.; Asmar, S.W.; Ducci, M.; Tortora, P. (4 April 2014). "The Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Enceladus". Science. 344 (6179): 78–80. Bibcode:2014Sci...344...78I. doi:10.1126/science.1250551. PMID 24700854. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  101. ^ Dunaeva, A.N.; Kronrod, V.A.; Kuskov, O.L. (2013). "44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18–22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (1719): 2454. Bibcode:2013LPI....44.2454D. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. |chapter= ignored (help)
  102. ^ Tritt, Charles S. (2002). "Possibility of Life on Europa". Milwaukee School of Engineering. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
  103. ^ Dunham, Will. (3 May 2014) Jupiter's moon Ganymede may have 'club sandwich' layers of ocean | Reuters Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. In.reuters.com. Retrieved on 28 September 2015.
  104. ^ Carr, M.H. (1996). Water on Mars. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 197.
  105. ^ Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Gendrin, Aline; Gondet, Brigitte; Berthé, Michel; Soufflot, Alain; Drossart, Pierre; Combes, Michel; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Moroz, Vassili; Mangold, Nicolas; Schmitt, Bernard; Omega Team, the; Erard, S.; Forni, O.; Manaud, N.; Poulleau, G.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; Melchiorri, R.; Altieri, F.; Formisano, V.; Bonello, G.; Fonti, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Kottsov, V.; et al. (2004). "Perennial Water Ice Identified in the South Polar Cap of Mars". Nature. 428 (6983): 627–630. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..627B. doi:10.1038/nature02461. PMID 15024393.
  106. ^ Versteckt in Glasperlen: Auf dem Mond gibt es Wasser – Wissenschaft – Archived 10 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Der Spiegel – Nachrichten
  107. ^ Water Molecules Found on the Moon Archived 27 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, NASA, 24 September 2009
  108. ^ McCord, T.B.; Sotin, C. (21 May 2005). "Ceres: Evolution and current state". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 110 (E5): E05009. Bibcode:2005JGRE..110.5009M. doi:10.1029/2004JE002244.
  109. ^ Thomas, P.C.; Parker, J.Wm.; McFadden, L.A.; et al. (2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature. 437 (7056): 224–226. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..224T. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  110. ^ Carey, Bjorn (7 September 2005). "Largest Asteroid Might Contain More Fresh Water than Earth". SPACE.com. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2006.
  111. ^ Chang, Kenneth (12 March 2015). "Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System". New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  112. ^ Kuskov, O.L.; Kronrod, V.A. (2005). "Internal structure of Europa and Callisto". Icarus. 177 (2): 550–369. Bibcode:2005Icar..177..550K. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.04.014.
  113. ^ Showman, A. P.; Malhotra, R. (1 October 1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564.
  114. ^ a b Sparrow, Giles (2006). The Solar System. Thunder Bay Press. ISBN 978-1-59223-579-7.
  115. ^ Tobie, G.; Grasset, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Mocquet, Antoine; Sotin, Christophe (2005). "Titan's internal structure inferred from a coupled thermal-orbital model". Icarus. 175 (2): 496–502. Bibcode:2005Icar..175..496T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.12.007.
  116. ^ Verbiscer, A.; French, R.; Showalter, M.; Helfenstein, P. (9 February 2007). "Enceladus: Cosmic Graffiti Artist Caught in the Act". Science. 315 (5813): 815. Bibcode:2007Sci...315..815V. doi:10.1126/science.1134681. PMID 17289992. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2011. (supporting online material, table S1)
  117. ^ Greenberg, J. Mayo (1998). "Making a comet nucleus". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 330: 375. Bibcode:1998A&A...330..375G.
  118. ^ "Dirty Snowballs in Space". Starryskies. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  119. ^ E.L. Gibb; M.J. Mumma; N. Dello Russo; M.A. DiSanti & K. Magee-Sauer (2003). "Methane in Oort Cloud comets". Icarus. 165 (2): 391–406. Bibcode:2003Icar..165..391G. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00201-X.
  120. ^ NASA, "MESSENGER Finds New Evidence for Water Ice at Mercury's Poles Archived 30 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine", NASA, 29 November 2012.
  121. ^ Thomas, P.C.; Burns, J.A.; Helfenstein, P.; Squyres, S.; Veverka, J.; Porco, C.; Turtle, E.P.; McEwen, A.; Denk, T.; Giesef, B.; Roatschf, T.; Johnsong, T.V.; Jacobsong, R.A. (October 2007). "Shapes of the saturnian icy satellites and their significance" (PDF). Icarus. 190 (2): 573–584. Bibcode:2007Icar..190..573T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  122. ^ Weird water lurking inside giant planets Archived 15 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, New Scientist, 1 September 2010, Magazine issue 2776.
  123. ^ Ehlers, E.; Krafft, T, eds. (2001). "J.C.I. Dooge. "Integrated Management of Water Resources"". Understanding the Earth System: compartments, processes, and interactions. Springer. p. 116.
  124. ^ "Habitable Zone". The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy and Spaceflight. Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  125. ^ Shiga, David (6 May 2007). "Strange alien world made of "hot ice"". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  126. ^ Aguilar, David A. (16 December 2009). "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur, Off-the-Shelf Technology". Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  127. ^ a b "MDG Report 2008" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  128. ^ Kulshreshtha, S.N (1998). "A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025". Water Resources Management. 12 (3): 167–184. doi:10.1023/A:1007957229865.
  129. ^ "Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision-making" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  130. ^ The Millennium Development Goals Report Archived 27 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations, 2008
  131. ^ Lomborg, Björn (2001). The Skeptical Environmentalist (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-521-01068-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2013.
  132. ^ UNESCO, (2006), Water, a shared responsibility. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2 Archived 6 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  133. ^ Welle, Katharina; Evans, Barbara; Tucker, Josephine and Nicol, Alan (2008) Is water lagging behind on Aid Effectiveness? Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  134. ^ "Search Results". International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  135. ^ Chambers's encyclopædia, Lippincott & Co (1870). p. 394.
  136. ^ Altman, Nathaniel (2002) Sacred water: the spiritual source of life. pp. 130–133. ISBN 1-58768-013-0.
  137. ^ "ĀB i. The concept of water in ancient Iran – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  138. ^ Lindberg, D. (2008). The beginnings of western science: The European scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, prehistory to A.D. 1450. (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  139. ^ "Internet Sacred Text Archive Home". Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  140. ^ Guanzi : Shui Di – Chinese Text Project Archived 6 November 2014 at Archive.today. Ctext.org. Retrieved on 28 September 2015.
  141. ^ "{title}". Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.

Further reading

External links

Aral Sea

The Aral Sea () was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south. The name roughly translates as "Sea of Islands", referring to over 1,100 islands that had dotted its waters; in the Turkic languages aral means "island, archipelago". The Aral Sea drainage basin encompasses Uzbekistan and parts of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Iran.Formerly the fourth-largest lake in the world with an area of 68,000 km2 (26,300 sq mi), the Aral Sea has been shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet irrigation projects. By 1997, it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into four lakes: the North Aral Sea, the eastern and western basins of the once far larger South Aral Sea, and one smaller intermediate lake. By 2009, the southeastern lake had disappeared and the southwestern lake had retreated to a thin strip at the western edge of the former southern sea; in subsequent years, occasional water flows have led to the southeastern lake sometimes being replenished to a small degree. Satellite images taken by NASA in August 2014 revealed that for the first time in modern history the eastern basin of the Aral Sea had completely dried up. The eastern basin is now called the Aralkum Desert.

In an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish the North Aral Sea, a dam project was completed in 2005; in 2008, the water level in this lake had risen by 12 m (39 ft) compared to 2003. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The maximum depth of the North Aral Sea is 42 m (138 ft) (as of 2008).The shrinking of the Aral Sea has been called "one of the planet's worst environmental disasters". The region's once-prosperous fishing industry has been decimated, bringing unemployment and economic hardship. The water from the diverted Syr Darya river is used to irrigate about two million hectares (5,000,000 acres) of farmland in the Ferghana Valley. The Aral Sea region is also heavily polluted, with consequential serious public health problems.

UNESCO added the historical documents concerning the development of the Aral Sea to its Memory of the World Register as a unique resource to study this "environmental tragedy".

Astrological sign

In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30° sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries. The order of the astrological signs is Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. Each sector is named for a constellation it passes through.

The concept of the zodiac originated in Babylonian astrology, and was later influenced by Hellenistic culture. According to astrology, celestial phenomena relate to human activity on the principle of "as above, so below", so that the signs are held to represent characteristic modes of expression. Modern discoveries about the true nature of celestial objects have undermined the theoretical basis for assigning meaning to astrological signs, and empirical scientific investigation has shown that predictions and recommendations based on these systems are not accurate. Astrology is generally regarded as pseudoscience.

The twelve sector division of the ecliptic constitutes astrology's primary frame of reference when considering the positions of celestial bodies, from a geocentric point of view, so that we may find, for instance, the Sun in 23° Aries (23° longitude), the Moon in 7° Scorpio (217° longitude), or Jupiter in 29° Pisces (359° longitude). Beyond the celestial bodies, other astrological points that are dependent on geographical location and time (namely, the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Vertex and the houses' cusps) are also referenced within this ecliptic coordinate system.Various approaches to measuring and dividing the sky are currently used by differing systems of astrology, although the tradition of the Zodiac's names and symbols remain consistent. Western astrology measures from Equinox and Solstice points (points relating to equal, longest and shortest days of the tropical year), while Jyotiṣa or Vedic astrology measures along the equatorial plane (sidereal year). Precession results in Western astrology's zodiacal divisions not corresponding in the current era to the constellations that carry similar names, while Jyotiṣa measurements still correspond with the background constellations.In Western and Indian astrology, the emphasis is on space, and the movement of the Sun, Moon and planets in the sky through each of the zodiac signs. In Chinese astrology, by contrast, the emphasis is on time, with the zodiac operating on cycles of years, months, and hours of the day.

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles). It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica). The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N.Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office.

Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Dnieper, Southern Bug, Dniester, Don, and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.

The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2 (168,500 sq mi) (not including the Sea of Azov), a maximum depth of 2,212 m (7,257 ft), and a volume of 547,000 km3 (131,000 cu mi). It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, and features a wide shelf to the northwest.

The longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km (730 mi).Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Burgas, Constanța, Giresun, Istanbul, Kerch, Novorossiysk, Odessa, Ordu, Poti, Rize, Samsun, Sevastopol, Sochi, Sukhumi, Trabzon, Varna, Yalta, and Zonguldak.

The Black Sea has a positive water balance; that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 (72 cu mi) per year through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles into the Aegean Sea. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow. This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, and is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Western Asia. The Black Sea is also connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch.

The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established. It is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example. Currently the Black Sea water level is relatively high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.

Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria. Undercooked seafood is a common source. Humans are the only animal affected. Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, and poverty. There are concerns that rising sea levels will increase rates of disease. Cholera can be diagnosed by a stool test. A rapid dipstick test is available but is not as accurate.Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months. They have the added benefit of protecting against another type of diarrhea caused by E. coli. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy—the replacement of fluids with slightly sweet and salty solutions. Rice-based solutions are preferred. Zinc supplementation is useful in children. In severe cases, intravenous fluids, such as Ringer's lactate, may be required, and antibiotics may be beneficial. Testing to see which antibiotic the cholera is susceptible to can help guide the choice.Cholera affects an estimated 3–5 million people worldwide and causes 28,800–130,000 deaths a year. Although it is classified as a pandemic as of 2010, it is rare in the developed world. Children are mostly affected. Cholera occurs as both outbreaks and chronically in certain areas. Areas with an ongoing risk of disease include Africa and Southeast Asia. The risk of death among those affected is usually less than 5% but may be as high as 50%. No access to treatment results in a higher death rate. Descriptions of cholera are found as early as the 5th century BC in Sanskrit. The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology. Seven large outbreaks have occurred over the last 200 years with millions of deaths.

Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins, which in turn drain into another common outlet.Other terms used interchangeably with drainage basin are catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, and water basin. In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide.

In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channelling it to a single point. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, the drainage divide, making up a succession of higher geographical features (such as a ridge, hill or mountains) forming a barrier.

Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks. In a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.

Ganges

The Ganges ( GAN-jeez), or Ganga (Hindustani: [ˈɡəŋɡaː]), is a trans-boundary river of the Indian subcontinent which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India. After entering West Bengal, it divides into two rivers: the Hooghly and the Padma River. The Hooghly, or Adi Ganga, flows through several districts of West Bengal and into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. The other, the Padma, also flows into and through Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna river which ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

The Ganges is one of the most sacred rivers to Hindus. It is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshipped in Hinduism and personified as the goddess Gaṅgā. It has also been important historically, with many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Kannauj, Kampilya, Kara, Prayag or Allahabad, Kashi, Pataliputra or Patna, Hajipur, Munger, Bhagalpur, Baranagar, Murshidabad, Baharampur, Nabadwip, Saptagram and Kolkata) located on its banks.

The Ganges is highly polluted. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The Ganges is a major source of global ocean plastic pollution. The levels of fecal coliform bacteria from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to rampant corruption, lack of will on behalf of the government and its bureaucracy, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.

Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They consist of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, although hydrologically, there are four lakes, Superior, Erie, Ontario, and Michigan-Huron. The connected lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway.

The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, and second-largest by total volume, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3), slightly less than the volume of Lake Baikal (5,666 cu mi or 23,615 km3, 22–23% of the world's surface fresh water). Due to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and the largest freshwater lake by area. Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which then filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration, trade, and fishing, serving as a habitat to a large number of aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity.

The surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region, which includes the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons.

The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid–base reactions because most acid-base reactions involve the exchange of protons between soluble molecules. In ionic compounds, hydrogen can take the form of a negative charge (i.e., anion) when it is known as a hydride, or as a positively charged (i.e., cation) species denoted by the symbol H+. The hydrogen cation is written as though composed of a bare proton, but in reality, hydrogen cations in ionic compounds are always more complex. As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics.

Hydrogen gas was first artificially produced in the early 16th century by the reaction of acids on metals. In 1766–81, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize that hydrogen gas was a discrete substance, and that it produces water when burned, the property for which it was later named: in Greek, hydrogen means "water-former".

Industrial production is mainly from steam reforming natural gas, and less often from more energy-intensive methods such as the electrolysis of water. Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. Hydrogen is a concern in metallurgy as it can embrittle many metals, complicating the design of pipelines and storage tanks.

List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "notes" column for each country for clarification.

Not included in the list are individual country claims to parts of the continent of Antarctica, entities such as the European Union that have some degree of sovereignty but do not consider themselves to be sovereign countries or dependent territories, and unrecognised micronations such as the Principality of Sealand.

This list includes three measurements of area:

Total area: the sum of land and water areas within international boundaries and coastlines.

Land area: the aggregate of all land within international boundaries and coastlines, excluding water area.

Water area: the sum of the surface areas of all inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, and rivers) within international boundaries and coastlines. Coastal internal waters (some small bays) may be included. Territorial waters are not included unless otherwise noted. Contiguous zones and exclusive economic zones are not included.Data is taken from the United Nations Statistics Division unless otherwise noted.

Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.

There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior.Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.94, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers (190 mi) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.

Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2 (965,000 sq mi), representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic (the Strait of Gibraltar) is only 14 km (8.7 mi) wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m (17,280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, and in the south by Africa. It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km (2,500 miles). The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km (500 miles).

The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region. The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.

Ocean

An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós) is a body of water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word "ocean" is often used interchangeably with "sea" in American English. Strictly speaking, a sea is a body of water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land, though "the sea" refers also to the oceans.

Saline water covers approximately 361,000,000 km2 (139,000,000 sq mi) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth's surface and 90% of the Earth's biosphere. The ocean contains 97% of Earth's water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored. The total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers (320 million cu mi) with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters (12,100 ft).As the world ocean is the principal component of Earth's hydrosphere, it is integral to life, forms part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns. The World Ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the number of species that exist in the ocean is much larger, possibly over two million. The origin of Earth's oceans is unknown; oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean eon and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life.

Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds. The only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their geologic histories, Mars and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, and a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus. Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many dwarf planets and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of Europa is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth. The Solar System's giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.

Properties of water

Water (H2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe.Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to dissociate ions in salts and bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity.

Water is amphoteric, meaning that it can exhibit properties of an acid or a base, depending on the pH of the solution that it is in; it readily produces both H+ and OH− ions. Related to its amphoteric character, it undergoes self-ionization. The product of the activities, or approximately, the concentrations of H+ and OH− is a constant, so their respective concentrations are inversely proportional to each other.

The Shape of Water

The Shape of Water is a 2017 American romantic dark fantasy film directed by Guillermo del Toro and written by del Toro and Vanessa Taylor. It stars Sally Hawkins, Michael Shannon, Richard Jenkins, Doug Jones, Michael Stuhlbarg, and Octavia Spencer. Set in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1962, the story follows a mute cleaner at a high-security government laboratory who falls in love with a captured humanoid amphibian creature. Filming took place in Ontario, Canada, between August and November 2016.

The film was screened in the main competition section of the 74th Venice International Film Festival, where it premiered on August 31, 2017, and was awarded the Golden Lion for best film. It was also screened at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival. It began a limited release in two theaters in New York City on December 1, 2017, before expanding wide on December 23, 2017, and grossed $195 million worldwide.

The Shape of Water received critical acclaim for its acting, screenplay, direction, visuals, production design, and musical score, with many critics calling the film del Toro's best work since Pan's Labyrinth; the American Film Institute selected it as one of the top 10 films of the year. The Shape of Water received a number of awards and nominations, including thirteen nominations at the 90th Academy Awards, where it won for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Production Design, and Best Original Score. It was nominated for seven awards at the 75th Golden Globe Awards, winning for Best Director and Best Original Score, twelve at the 71st British Academy Film Awards, winning three awards including Best Director, and fourteen at the 23rd Critics' Choice Awards, winning four awards. A novelization by del Toro and Daniel Kraus was published on March 6, 2018.

Tsunami

A tsunami (from Japanese: 津波, "harbour wave";

English pronunciation: soo-NAH-mee or ) or tidal wave,, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations, landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.

Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide. For this reason, it is often referred to as a "tidal wave", although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "internal wave train". Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, and they can affect entire ocean basins. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

The Ancient Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; accurately forecasting the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and forecasting how tsunami waves interact with shorelines.

Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the hydrological cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor.

The water cycle involves the exchange of energy, which leads to temperature changes. When water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings and cools the environment. When it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment. These heat exchanges influence climate.

The evaporative phase of the cycle purifies water which then replenishes the land with freshwater. The flow of liquid water and ice transports minerals across the globe. It is also involved in reshaping the geological features of the Earth, through processes including erosion and sedimentation. The water cycle is also essential for the maintenance of most life and ecosystems on the planet.

Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e.g. due to water-borne diseases.Water pollution can be grouped into surface water pollution. Marine pollution and nutrient pollution are subsets of water pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources and non-point sources. Point sources have one identifiable cause of the pollution, such as a storm drain, wastewater treatment plant or stream. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff. Pollution is the result of the cumulative effect over time. All plants and organisms living in or being exposed to polluted water bodies can be impacted. The effects can damage individual species and impact the natural biological communities they are part of.

The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as physical parameters. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Elevated temperatures can also lead to polluted water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species.Water pollution is measured by analysing water samples. Physical, chemical and biological tests can be done. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants. Sewage treatment plants and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from untreated wastewater. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control from construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Nature-based solutions are another approach to prevent water pollution. Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quantity of flow. In the United States, best management practices for water pollution include approaches to reduce the quantity of water and improve water quality.

Water
Overviews
States
Forms
On Earth
Air
Energy
Land
Life
Water
Related
Molecules
Deuterated
molecules
Unconfirmed
Related

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.