Washington had a small number of aides-de-camp at any given time, with relatively frequent turnover. A total of 32 men were appointed to these positions, and served between July 4, 1775, and December 23, 1783.:15 Other people worked as volunteer aides or assistants, and helped with office duties when needed.
The responsibilities of the headquarters staff included managing Washington's military correspondence, making copies of each day's General Orders (to be distributed to the commanding officer at each military post), and making copies of individual orders. The 19-year-old artist John Trumbull, who was skilled at drawing maps, was appointed an aide-de-camp on July 27, and served three weeks before being transferred.
Congress had authorized one military secretary and three aides-de-camp for the commander-in-chief, but this number soon proved inadequate. Washington's pleas for Congress to authorize two additional aides were ignored, so he augmented his staff with volunteers. Six aides-de-camp – George Baylor, Edmund Randolph, Robert Hanson Harrison, George Lewis, Stephen Moylan, William Palfrey – were appointed between August 1775 and March 1776, some replacing predecessors who had been transferred. Finally, in January 1778, Congress granted the commander-in-chief the power to appoint headquarters staff as he saw fit.
The military secretary held the rank of colonel in the Continental Army, with a monthly pay of $66 in 1775 (equivalent to about $2,050 in 2018). The aides-de-camp held the rank of lieutenant colonel, with a monthly pay of $33 in 1775 (equivalent to about $1,025 in 2018). The aides-de-camp wore a green riband across their chests as a rank insignia. Washington referred to the headquarters staff as "my family." Some were the sons of his friends and relatives, but above all he valued talent:
The Secretaries and Aid De Camps to the Commander in chief ought not to be confined to the line for plain and obvious reasons. The number which the nature and extent of his business require, in addition to the many drawn from the line to fill the different offices of the staff, when it is considered, that they ought all to be men of abilities, may seem too large a draft upon the line. But a consideration still more forcible is, that in a service so complex as ours, it would be wrong and detrimental to restrict the choice; the vast diversity of objects, occurrences and correspondencies, unknown in one more regular and less diffusive; constantly calling for talents and abilities of the first rate, men who possess them, ought to be taken, wherever they can be found.
Joseph Reed (1741–1785) – Served as Gen. Washington's military secretary from June 19 to October 30, 1775. He took leave to prepare a case before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Reed rejoined the Continental Army on June 16, 1776, as Adjutant General.
Stephen Moylan (1737–1811) – Served as Muster Master General from August 14 to November 1775; and as Gen. Washington's acting-military secretary (in Joseph Reed's absence) from November 1775 to May 1776. He served as a Washington aide-de-camp from March 6 to June 5, 1776, and as a volunteer aide from September 28, 1776 to January 1777.
Robert Hanson Harrison (1745–1790) – Served as Gen. Washington's military secretary from May 16, 1776 to March 25, 1781. He had served as a Washington aide-de-camp from November 1775 to May 1776.
Hodijah Baylies (1756–1842) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from May 14, 1782 to December 23, 1783. He had graduated Harvard in 1777, was commissioned a lieutenant in Jackson's Additional Continental Regiment, appointed as aide-de-camp to General Benjamin Lincoln, and was promoted to major. He was captured by the British at the siege of Charleston. Exchanged in November 1780, he returned to Harvard for a master of arts degree.:256
George Baylor (1752–1784) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from August 15, 1775 to January 1, 1777.
Richard Cary (c.1746–1806) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from June 21 to December 1776. He was written about kindly by Congressman John Adams to another Massachusetts delegate, William Tudor, judge advocate to the Continental Army, and was appointed a brigade major.:56 Cary resigned to get married.
Dr. David Cobb (1748–1830)– Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from June 15, 1781 to January 1783, and from June to December 23, 1783.
Col. John Fitzgerald (d. 1799) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from November 1776 to July 1778. Wounded at the June 28, 1778 Battle of Monmouth, he retired from the Continental Army.
Peregrine Fitzhugh (1759–1811) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from July 2 to October 1781.
Capt. Caleb Gibbs (1748–1818) – Commander of Washington's life-guard, he managed the headquarters household accounts from May 16, 1776 to the end of 1780, and served as a supplemental aide-de-camp.
Col. William Grayson (1740–1790) – Served as Gen. Washington's assistant secretary from July to August 1776, and served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from August 24, 1776 to January 11, 1777.
Robert Hanson Harrison (1745–1790) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from November 6, 1775 to May 16, 1776, and as Gen. Washington's military secretary from May 16, 1776 to March 25, 1781.
David Humphreys (1752–1818) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from June 23, 1780:262 to December 23, 1783. After the war, he was private secretary to Washington at Mount Vernon, and secretary to President Washington in New York City, 1789-90.
George Johnston, Jr. (1750–1777) – Major in the 5th Virginia Regiment; appointed an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington on January 20, 1777; died of disease at Morristown, New Jersey, May 29, 1777.
John Laurens (1754–1782) – Served as volunteer aide from August 9 to September 6, 1777, when he was appointed an extra aide-de-camp. He was officially appointed aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington on October 6, 1777, and held that position until March 29, 1779, when Congress commissioned him to travel home to South Carolina and attempt to recruit a regiment of slaves. On behalf of the United States, Laurens traveled to Europe and negotiated a 10 million-livre loan from the Netherlands, to be guaranteed by France. He returned to the United States in September 1781, rejoined General Washington at the Siege of Yorktown, and helped to negotiate the surrender of British General Cornwallis. He returned to South Carolina in November 1781, and died nine months later in the Battle of the Combahee River.
Dr. James McHenry (1753–1816) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from May 15, 1778, to August 1780. An Irish-born Philadelphia medical student, he served as a surgeon early in the war. Left to join the staff of the Marquis de Lafayette.
Richard Kidder Meade (1746–1805) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from March 12, 1777, to November 1780; supervised the October 2, 1780 execution of British Major John André.
Stephen Moylan (1737–1811) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from March 6, 1776, to June 5, 1776, and as a volunteer aide from September 28, 1776 to January 1777.
William Palfrey (1741–1780) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from March 6 to April 1776.
Pierre Penet (d. 1812) – A French merchant who had supplied arms and materiel, 1775-76. On Washington's recommendation, Congress confirmed him as a brevetaide-de-camp (October 14, 1776). Penet served from October 1776 to January 1783.
Edmund Randolph (1753–1813) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from August 15 to November 2, 1775.
Peter Presley Thornton (1750–1780) – A volunteer aide, August–September 1777; served as an extra aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from September 6, 1777 to [unknown].
Tench Tilghman (1744–1786) – A Maryland militiaman who spoke fluent French, he served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington for more than 7 years (longer than anyone else). A volunteer aide from August 8, 1776, to June 21, 1780, Washington confirmed his special status in General Orders. He was appointed an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington on June 21, 1780 and served until November 1783. On June 5, 1781, at Washington's request, Congress awarded Tilghman the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, dating his military commission retroactively to April 1, 1777.
John Trumbull (1756–1843) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from July 27 to August 15, 1775.
Richard Varick (1753–1831) – Served as Gen. Washington's aide-de-camp and private secretary from May 25, 1781, to mid-December 1783.. Hired after Congress approved Washington's request to have a team specifically designed to organize and catalogue and compose all of his correspondence, Varick was personally hired by Washongton to lead that team. He would go on to serve at Mayor of New York City for eleven years.
Benjamin Walker (1753–1818) – Served as an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington from January 25, 1782, to December 23, 1783.
John Walker (1744–1809) – Served as a Washington aide-de-camp, February 19 to March 1777.
George Augustine Washington (1759–1793) – Gen. Washington's nephew. A volunteer aide from September 1779 to May 1781, and from December 1781 to May 1782. Estate manager at Mount Vernon, 1780s-1793.
Peter Bowman (1761–1835) – "Among the graves of distinguished Revolutionary War soldiers in Onondaga County [New York] is that of Peter Bowman, an aide of Gen. George Washington, who is buried in Belle Isle Cemetery."
John Hopwood (1745–1802) – Family tradition holds that Hopwood was an aide to Gen. Washington.
Ebenezer Mann – "Dr. Ebenezer Mann was a Brigade Surgeon at the Battle of Monmouth and Yorktown."
Albert Pawling (1750–1837) – A family history claims he was an aide-de-camp to Gen. Washington. Major Albert Pawling was an officer in Malcolm's Additional Continental Regiment, and tendered his resignation on February 25, 1779. Washington tried to persuade him to reconsider, but was unsuccessful.
^ abcWashington, George (July 22, 1775). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives: note 2.
^ abHamilton, Alexander (July 5, 1778). Letter to Elias Boudinot. Founders Online, National Archives. Retrieved September 25, 2019. Also published with an introduction in: "The Battle of Monmouth". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 2 (2): 145–46. 1878. JSTOR20084337.
^ abcFore, Samuel K. (2012). Stoltz, Joseph F., III (ed.). "Tench Tilghman". George Washington Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon Estate.
^ abGrizzard, Frank E. (2005). George!: A Guide to All Things Washington. Mariner Publishing.
^ abWashington, George (June 19, 1775). "Diary Entry". Founders Online. National Archives: see note.
^ abcWashington, George (June 21, 1776). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives: note 1.
^Richard Cary married Anna Low, of New York, December 20, 1776, in Philadelphia. See Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed. (1893). "Richard Cary to Samuel Webb [December 22, 1776]". Correspondence and Journals of Samuel Blachley Webb, Vol. 1. New York: Wickersham Press. pp. 175–76.
^Washington, George (June 15, 1781). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives.
^Washington, George (September 17, 1776). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives. the General’s Orders are delivered by the Adjutant General, or one of his Aid’s-De-Camp, Mr Tilghman, or Col. Moylan the Quarter Master General.
^Washington, George (June 21, 1780). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives.
^Washington, George (June 5, 1781). "General Orders". Founders Online. National Archives.
Elizabeth Hamilton (née Schuyler ; August 9, 1757 – November 9, 1854), also called Eliza or Betsey, was co-founder and deputy director of the first private orphanage in New York City. She was the wife of American founding father Alexander Hamilton.
Located in Morristown, New Jersey, USA, the Ford Mansion is a classic 18th-century American home built by Jacob Ford, Jr. in 1774 and now owned by the National Park Service as a part of the Morristown National Historical Park.
It was acquired by the Washington Association of New Jersey in 1873. The Georgian-styled mansion is known for being George Washington's headquarters from December 1779 to June 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.
John Laurens (October 28, 1754 – August 27, 1782) was an American soldier and statesman from South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War, best known for his criticism of slavery and his efforts to help recruit slaves to fight for their freedom as U.S. soldiers.In 1779, Laurens gained approval from the Continental Congress for his plan to recruit a brigade of 3,000 slaves by promising them freedom in return for fighting. The plan was defeated by political opposition in South Carolina, and Laurens was killed in the Battle of the Combahee River in August 1782.
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The Reformed Dutch Church of Claverack is located on New York State Route 9H at the north end of the hamlet of Claverack, New York, United States. It is a brick church built in the mid-18th century and renovated and expanded twice in the 19th, reaching its present form in 1879. The congregation was founded in 1716.
It is the oldest institutional building in Columbia County. In 2001 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, along with several of its other buildings and cemetery. The dead buried there include one of George Washington's aides and a former speaker of the state assembly.
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