Washington's Crossing

Washington's Crossing is the location of Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776 in the American Revolutionary War. This daring maneuver led to victory in the Battle of Trenton and altered the course of the war. The site, a National Historic Landmark, is composed of state parks in Washington Crossing, New Jersey, and Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania, north of Trenton, New Jersey.[1][3]

Washington's Crossing
Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Leutze, MMA-NYC, 1851
Washington's Crossing is located in Mercer County, New Jersey
Washington's Crossing
Washington's Crossing is located in New Jersey
Washington's Crossing
Washington's Crossing is located in Pennsylvania
Washington's Crossing
Washington's Crossing is located in the United States
Washington's Crossing
Nearest cityTitusville, New Jersey, and Yardley, Pennsylvania
Coordinates40°18′00″N 74°52′24″W / 40.3°N 74.8734°W
Area872 acres (353 ha)[1]
Built1776
NRHP reference #66000650
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966[2]
Designated NHLJanuary 20, 1961[3]

Description and history

The Washington's Crossing site is located north of Yardley, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey. The main commemorative sites are located north of a road bridge spanning the river.

Each year on Christmas Day, hundreds of people gather to hear Washington's stand-in deliver stirring words to the troops and watch three boats make the crossing from Pennsylvania to New Jersey. December 25, 2016, marked the 64th reenactment of Washington's Crossing when he crossed the Delaware river over 240 years ago.[4]

Pennsylvania side

Washington Crossing Historic Park encapsulates the crossing site on the Pennsylvania side. Covering about 500 acres (200 ha), it includes the actual embarkation site for the main crossing, and a 19th-century inn set on the foundation of an 18th-century inn that was present at the time of the crossing. A memorial marker indicates the site of the crossing. The park also includes a detached unit 4 miles (6.4 km) north of the crossing site, where Bowman's Hill Tower, the Thompson-Neely House, and a grist mill that served the army are located.[1]

New Jersey side

Washington Crossing State Park includes the New Jersey side of the crossing site. It is at over 3,500 acres (1,400 ha) much larger than the Pennsylvania park, including a broader array of recreational amenities, including a visitors center, nature center, astronomical observatory, campground, and open-air theater. Elements specifically relating to the crossing including the McConkey Ferry House and a stretch of the original roadway traversed by the army.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d C. E. Shedd, Jr. (August 1, 1960). National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: Washington Crossing State Parks (pdf). National Park Service. and Accompanying two photos, from 1960 and undated (32 KB)
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  3. ^ a b "Washington's Crossing". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
  4. ^ Associated Press (December 25, 2013). "Crowds Relive Washington's 1776 River Crossing". Weekly Times. Retrieved December 25, 2013.

Coordinates: 40°18′00″N 74°52′24″W / 40.3°N 74.8734°W

Ambush of Geary

The Ambush of Geary was a skirmish of the American Revolutionary War fought on 14 December 1776 near Ringoes in Amwell Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Cornet Francis Geary, the leader of a company of dragoons, was shot in an ambush set up by local militiamen.

After British forces captured New York City in the first part of the New York and New Jersey campaign, they established outposts throughout central New Jersey. Geary, the son of Admiral Sir Francis Geary, was operating from a station at Pennington when he was killed in the ambush. His body was concealed and later buried in a shallow grave, preventing its recovery by British troops. In the 19th century local historical interest led to the confirmation of his grave's location, and the establishment of markers at the site and in England.

Making a casualty of Geary was one of a number of militia actions that resulted in a reduced scope of British reconnaissance, contributing to the eventual success of George Washington's crossing of the Delaware and success at Trenton.

Battle of Trenton

The Battle of Trenton was a small but pivotal battle during the American Revolutionary War which took place on the morning of December 26, 1776, in Trenton, New Jersey. After General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton the previous night, Washington led the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian auxiliaries garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, almost two-thirds of the Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired re-enlistments.

The Continental Army had previously suffered several defeats in New York and had been forced to retreat through New Jersey to Pennsylvania. Morale in the army was low; to end the year on a positive note, George Washington—Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army—devised a plan to cross the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26 and surround the German Hessians garrison.

Because the river was icy and the weather severe, the crossing proved dangerous. Two detachments were unable to cross the river, leaving Washington with only 2,400 men under his command in the assault, 3,000 less than planned. The army marched 9 miles (14.5 km) south to Trenton. The Hessians had lowered their guard, thinking they were safe from the American army, and had no long-distance outposts or patrols. Washington's forces caught them off guard and, after a short but fierce resistance, most of the Hessians surrendered and were captured, with just over a third escaping across Assunpink Creek.

Despite the battle's small numbers, the American victory inspired rebels in the colonies. With the success of the revolution in doubt a week earlier, the army had seemed on the verge of collapse. The dramatic victory inspired soldiers to serve longer and attracted new recruits to the ranks.

David Hackett Fischer

David Hackett Fischer (born December 2, 1935) is University Professor and Earl Warren Professor of History at Brandeis University. Fischer's major works have covered topics ranging from large macroeconomic and cultural trends (Albion's Seed, The Great Wave) to narrative histories of significant events (Paul Revere's Ride, Washington's Crossing) to explorations of historiography (Historians' Fallacies, in which he coined the term "historian's fallacy").

George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River

George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against the Hessian (German mercenaries) forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26. Planned in partial secrecy, Washington led a column of Continental Army troops across the icy Delaware River in a logistically challenging and dangerous operation. Other planned crossings in support of the operation were either called off or ineffective, but this did not prevent Washington from surprising and defeating the troops of Johann Rall quartered in Trenton. The army crossed the river back to Pennsylvania, this time laden with prisoners and military stores taken as a result of the battle.

Washington's army then crossed the river a third time at the end of the year, under conditions made more difficult by the uncertain thickness of the ice on the river. They defeated British reinforcements under Lord Cornwallis at Trenton on January 2, 1777, and defeated his rear guard at Princeton on January 3, before retreating to winter quarters in Morristown, New Jersey.

The unincorporated communities of Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania, and Washington Crossing, New Jersey, are named in honor of this event.

List of George Washington articles

List of articles about (and largely involving) George Washington

New York and New Jersey campaign

The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of the Port of New York and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir William Howe and the Continental Army under General George Washington. Howe was successful in driving Washington out of New York, but overextended his reach into New Jersey, and ended the active campaign season in January 1777 with only a few outposts near the city. The British held New York harbor for the rest of the war, using it as a base for expeditions against other targets.

First landing unopposed on Staten Island on July 3, 1776, Howe assembled an army composed of elements that had been withdrawn from Boston in March following their failure to hold that city, combined with additional British troops, as well as Hessian troops hired from several German principalities. Washington had New England soldiers as well as regiments from states as far south as Virginia. Landing on Long Island in August, Howe defeated Washington in the largest battle of the war, but the Continental Army was able to make an orderly retreat to Manhattan under cover of darkness and fog. Washington suffered a series of further defeats in Manhattan, with the exception of the skirmish at Harlem Heights, and eventually withdrew to White Plains, New York. At that point Howe returned to Manhattan to capture forces Washington had left in the north of the island.

Washington and much of his army then crossed the Hudson River into New Jersey, and retreated all the way across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania, shrinking due to ending enlistment periods, desertions, and poor morale. Howe ordered his troops into winter quarters in December, establishing a chain of outposts from New York to Burlington, New Jersey. Washington, in a tremendous boost to American morale, launched a successful strike against the Trenton garrison after crossing the icy Delaware River, prompting Howe to withdraw his chain of outposts back to New Brunswick and the coast near New York, while Washington established his winter camp at Morristown. During the remaining winter months, both sides skirmished frequently as the British sought forage and provisions.

Britain maintained control of New York City and some of the surrounding territory until the war ended in 1783, using it as a base for operations elsewhere in North America. In 1777, General Howe launched a campaign to capture Philadelphia, leaving General Sir Henry Clinton in command of the New York area, while General John Burgoyne led an attempt to gain control of the Hudson River valley, moving south from Quebec and failed at Saratoga. Northern New Jersey was the scene of skirmishing between the opposing forces for the rest of the war.

Princeton Battlefield

The Princeton Battlefield in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, is where American and British troops fought each other on January 3, 1777 in the Battle of Princeton during the American Revolutionary War. The battle ended when the British soldiers in Nassau Hall surrendered. This success, shortly after Washington's crossing of the Delaware River and capturing the troops at the Old Barracks in Trenton, helped improve American morale.

Part of the battlefield is now a state park, while other portions remain under threat of development. For several years, the Institute for Advanced Study has been attempting to build faculty housing on the portion of Princeton Battlefield known as Maxwell's field. The Princeton Battlefield Society is protesting the project in court, and national and local preservation organizations are working to prevent construction on the property. The American Battlefield Trust, based in Washington, D.C., has reached agreement with the institute to purchase almost 15 acres of the land for $4.5 million, more than $1 million above the site's appraised value. The Trust and its partners had already acquired and preserved 9 acres (0.036 km2) of the battlefield. On May 30, 2018, the Trust announced that it had finalized the purchase after raising almost $3.2 million from private donors, which was matched by an $837,000 grant from the National Park Service and the Mercer County Open Space Assistance Program. The completed purchase ended the long dispute over how and whether the battlefield land would be developed.

Samuel Nicholas

Samuel Nicholas (1744 – 27 August 1790) was the first officer commissioned in the United States Continental Marines (predecessor to the United States Marine Corps) and by tradition is considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps.

Titusville, New Jersey

Titusville is an unincorporated community located within Hopewell Township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The area includes a post office with its own ZIP code (08560), a small village of homes, and a large park dedicated to George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River in 1776. Titusville was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.

Victory or death

"Victory or death" and its equivalents, is used as a motto or battle cry.

The Bedford Flag, possibly the oldest extant battle flag of the American Revolution, bears the motto Vincere aut mori ("To conquer or die")

Before Washington's crossing of the Delaware River at the Battle of Trenton in 1776, "Victory" was the password and "Or Death" was the response.

The Maniots used "Victory or Death" as their motto when they joined the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire in 1821.

The letter written "To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World" during the Battle of the Alamo (1836), ends with "Victory or Death!".

Adolf Hitler gave the order "Victory or Death" twice:

to Erwin Rommel at the Second Battle of El Alamein (1942);

to Friedrich Paulus at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–3).

The 32nd Armor Regiment of the United States Army has the motto "Victory or Death" .

The 1960 film G.I. Blues features the regimental emblem as Elvis Presley had served with them in 1958–60.

The 1986 film Ferris Bueller's Day Off features a black beret bearing the regiment's emblem.

Axl Rose of Guns N' Roses has the regiment's emblem and motto tattooed on his left arm.

The 442 Field Artillery Battalion of the US Army have the motto Victoria laeta aut mors ("Glorious victory or death")

The Chilean Navy has the motto Vencer o Morir ("Conquer or Die").

It was used as a battle cry in medieval Muslim battles and conquests.It is the name of a gun battery on the main gun deck of the U.S.S. Constitution.

Virginia Association

The Virginia Association was a series of non-importation agreements adopted by Virginians in 1769 as a way of speeding economic recovery and opposing the Townshend Acts. Drafted by George Mason and passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses in May 1769, the Virginia Association was a way for Virginians to stand united against continued British taxation and trade control. The Virginia Association served as the framework and precursor to the larger more powerful Continental Association.

Washington's Crossing (book)

Washington's Crossing is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written by David Hackett Fischer and part of the "Pivotal Moments in American History" series. It is primarily about George Washington's leadership during the 1776 campaign of the American Revolutionary War, culminating with the famous crossing of the Delaware River and the subsequent campaign, with the Battle of Trenton, the Second Battle of Trenton, and the Battle of Princeton.

Washington Crossing

Washington Crossing may refer to:

Places:

Washington's Crossing, the location in both New Jersey and Pennsylvania, a U.S. National Historic Landmark

Washington Crossing State Park, Titusville, New Jersey

Washington Crossing, New Jersey

Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania

Washington Crossing Historic Park, Pennsylvania

Washington Crossing BridgeA historical event:

Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, a famous American Revolutionary War event that took place on the night of December 25–26, 1776Art and literature about the event:

Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851 painting), a painting by Emanuel Leutze commemorating the crossing

Washington Crossing the Delaware (sonnet), a sonnet by David Schulman about the scene in the painting

Washington's Crossing (book), a book by David Hackett Fischer

The Crossing (2000 film), an A&E television movie starring Jeff Daniels as George Washington

Washington Crossing, New Jersey

Washington Crossing is an unincorporated community located within Hopewell Township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. It was the location of Washington's crossing of the Delaware River. As part of Washington's Crossing, the community was named a US National Historic Landmark in 1961. The 3,100-acre (13 km2) Washington Crossing State Park is adjacent to the community. The Washington Crossing Bridge connects the community to Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania on the opposite bank of the river.

Each year on Christmas Day since 1952, hundreds of people gather to hear Washington's stand-in deliver stirring words to the troops and watch three boats make the crossing from Pennsylvania to New Jersey.

Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania

Washington Crossing, Pennsylvania, is a small unincorporated village located in Upper Makefield Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, with a zip code of 18977. Formerly known as "Taylorsville," it is most famous for Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on the night of December 25–26, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War. It is also the location of the headquarters of Washington Crossing Historic Park. It is directly across the river from Washington Crossing, New Jersey, to which it is connected by the Washington Crossing Bridge. The town also participates in special events, such as a re-enactment of Washington's crossing of the Delaware River on Christmas Day each year. The town of Washington Crossing has an array of shops including a pizza restaurant, a bank, a Dunkin' Donuts, a convenience store, an inn, and a jewelry store. As part of Washington's Crossing, the community was named a US National Historic Landmark in 1961.

Washington Crossing Historic Park

Washington Crossing Historic Park is a 500-acre (2 km²) state park operated by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources in partnership with the Friends of Washington Crossing Park. The park is divided into two sections. One section of the park, the "lower park," is headquartered in the village of Washington Crossing located in Upper Makefield Township in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. It marks the location of where George Washington crossed the Delaware River during the American Revolutionary War.

The lower park includes 13 historic buildings including McConkey's Ferry Inn, where General George Washington and his aides ate dinner and made plans prior to the crossing. Among the historic buildings is a 20th-century barn that houses 5 replica Durham Boats. Durham boats were large, open boats that were used to transport pig iron along the Delaware River at the time of the Revolution and these boats, along with the ferries and others, were used to transport soldiers, horses, and equipment across the river on the night of December 25–26, 1776. The replica boats are used each Christmas when the famous crossing is re-enacted in the park.

Located 4.5 miles away in Solebury Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, is the park's northern section, the "upper park." In its 100-acre area it contains (0.4 km²) Bowman's Hill Tower and the Thompson-Neely House, which was used as a military hospital during Washington's encampment in the area, and the graves of an estimated 40 to 60 soldiers who died there. The exact location of the graves is unknown, though they were partially unearthed during the construction of the nearby Delaware Canal in the early 19th century and during other nearby construction projects. Presently there are 23 memorial headstones as a reminder that the area is a gravesite.

The lower park contains a visitor's center, which was renovated from July 2011 to March 2013. The newly renovated visitor's center was opened March 10, 2013. It features a small exhibition with some Revolutionary war artifacts, and an original letter written by George Washington while in the Mckonkey's Ferry Inn. The park also has obtained a full size digital copy of Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's "Washington Crossing the Delaware" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that is hanging in the auditorium.

Washington Crossing State Park

Not to be confused with Washington Crossing Historic Park, a Pennsylvania state park across the Delaware River near Yardley, PennsylvaniaWashington Crossing State Park is a 3,575-acre (14 km2) state park in the U.S. state of New Jersey that is part of Washington's Crossing, a U.S. National Historic Landmark area. It is located in the Washington Crossing and Titusville sections of Hopewell Township in Mercer County, north of Trenton along the Delaware River. The park is operated and maintained by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry. It is supported by the Washington Crossing Park Association, a friends group that works to preserve, enhance, and advocate for the park.

The park includes the site of Washington's crossing of the Delaware at Johnsons Ferry. This is where General George Washington and a 2,400-man detachment of Continental Army troops crossed the river overnight on December 25, 1776, and into the morning of December 26, 1776, to make a surprise attack on Trenton, a move that would prove to be a turning point in the American Revolutionary War.

This park area, together with Washington Crossing Historic Park on the Pennsylvania side, comprise the Washington's Crossing National Historic Landmark.

Inside the park is the Washington Crossing Open Air Theatre, an outdoor theater with seating consisting of wooden benches.

Goat Hill Overlook, located nearby in West Amwell Township in Hunterdon County, is administered by the New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry as part of Washington Crossing State Park.

Washington Crossing the Delaware

Washington Crossing the Delaware may refer to:

George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, the event

Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851 painting)

Washington Crossing the Delaware (1953 painting)

Washington Crossing the Delaware (sonnet), the 1936 sonnet by David Shulman

Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851 painting)

Washington Crossing the Delaware is an 1851 oil-on-canvas painting by the German-American artist Emanuel Leutze.

It commemorates General George Washington during his famous crossing of the Delaware River with the Continental Army on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War. That action was the first move in a surprise attack against the German Hessian allied mercenary forces at Trenton, New Jersey, in the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26.

The original was part of the collection at the Kunsthalle in Bremen, Germany, and was destroyed in a bombing raid in 1942, during World War II. Leutze painted two more versions, one of which is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The other was in the West Wing reception area of the White House in Washington, D.C., but in March 2015, was put on display at the Minnesota Marine Art Museum in Winona, Minnesota.

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