Warren Giles

Warren Crandall Giles (May 28, 1896 – February 7, 1979) was an American professional baseball executive. He spent 33 years in high-level posts in Major League Baseball as club president and general manager of the Cincinnati Reds (1937–51) and president of the National League (1951–69), and was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

Born in Tiskilwa, Illinois,[1] Giles attended Washington & Lee University[2] and served as an infantry officer in France during World War I. Before becoming a full-time baseball executive he worked as a football and basketball official in the Missouri Valley Conference, a major U.S. college sports league.[3]

Warren Giles
BornMay 28, 1896
DiedFebruary 7, 1979 (aged 82)
OccupationBaseball executive

President/GM of the Cincinnati Reds

Giles was elected president of the Moline, Illinois, Plowboys baseball club in the Class B Three-I League at age 23 in 1919, beginning his 50-year career in baseball.

He then joined the St. Louis Cardinals' organization and rose to prominence as the president and business manager of their top-level farm teams, the Syracuse Stars (1926–27) and Rochester Red Wings (1928–36) of the International League. As a foreshadowing of his most powerful position in professional baseball, Giles spent part of the 1936 season as president of the International League.

Upon the recommendation of Cardinals' executive Branch Rickey, Powel Crosley Jr., owner of the Cincinnati Reds, appointed Giles as his club's general manager and president on November 1, 1936, succeeding Larry MacPhail.[4] While the 1937 Reds won only 56 games and slid into the basement of the National League, the 1938 edition improved by 26 games to finish in the first division, earning Giles the 1938 Major League Executive of the Year award from The Sporting News. That season, he hired a future Hall of Fame manager, Bill McKechnie, to take charge of the Reds on the field. Then, on June 13, 1938, Giles swung one of the most successful trades in Cincinnati history, when he obtained starting pitcher Bucky Walters from the Philadelphia Phillies for catcher Spud Davis, pitcher Al Hollingsworth and cash.

Walters would help lead the Reds of 1939 and 1940 to back-to-back National League championships. The 1939 Reds—with Walters winning 27 games and the league Most Valuable Player award—captured the NL pennant by 4½ games, but they were swept by the New York Yankees in the World Series. Unfazed, the 1940 Reds won 100 games (with Walters accounting for 22 victories and leading the NL in earned run average for a second straight season) to repeat as league champions by a 12-length margin. Then, behind Walters' two complete game victories, the Reds defeated the Detroit Tigers in a seven-game World Series for the second world title in modern club history.

The Reds boasted .500 or above teams through 1944, but declined beginning in 1945 and during the postwar era finished in the NL's second division and posted losing records for Giles' last seven seasons as the Reds' top executive.[5]

Nevertheless, Giles was a leading candidate to become baseball's third commissioner after Happy Chandler was fired in 1951. He was runner-up in the commissioner balloting to Ford Frick but succeeded Frick as president of the National League on October 8, 1951.[3][6]

National League president

During his 18-year reign as chief executive of the Senior Circuit (including the full seasons of 1952–69), Giles presided over several historic events.

The NL opened the West Coast and Southeastern United States territories by approving the transfers of the Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants in 1958, and the Atlanta Braves in 1966. Giles' first full season, 1952, had been the last in which the eight-team league operated in the same cities as it had since 1900. In March 1953, the Braves pulled up stakes in Boston, where they had played since 1876 as a charter member of the National League, and moved to Milwaukee. That transfer—initially wildly successful, although the Braves would stay in Milwaukee only 13 seasons before settling in Atlanta—was the first in the series of franchise moves that shook Major League Baseball for the next two decades.

In addition, Giles' National League expanded to 12 teams by adding two clubs in both 1962 and 1969. Although "who says you have to have a team in New York [City]?"[3] was Giles' notorious reply when asked if his league would seek to replace the Dodgers and Giants in New York, the 1962 expansion, which created the Mets, returned the Senior Circuit to the city. The same expansion brought Major League Baseball to Texas and the Southwest, with the Houston Colt .45s. In 1969, Giles' last year in office, his league expanded into Canada with the Montreal Expos, adopted divisional play, and played the first National League Championship Series, between the Braves and Mets. Between 1952 and 1969, the NL's member clubs, with the exception of the Chicago Cubs, also opened or were planning to open new stadiums.

Giles' presidency also saw the National League widen its advantage over the American League in the signing of African-American and Latin American players, resulting in a three-decade-long domination of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. In clubhouse meetings before the midsummer classic, Giles famously would exhort the NL's players to uphold their league's honor. During his tenure, the National League won 16 of 22 All-Star games played, with one tie. (Two games were played each year from 1959 to 1962.) The NL also won ten of 18 World Series during Giles' term.

In addition, Giles worked vigorously to keep premier players in his league. After the advent of interleague trading without waivers in November 1959, he lobbied against the trade of National League superstars to the American League to preserve the NL's hegemony. He was successful until his former team, the Reds, traded Frank Robinson to the Baltimore Orioles after the 1965 season. Under Giles, the National League began a 33-year (1956–88) streak during which it dominated the American League in attendance—a remarkable achievement, given that the Junior Circuit had two more member teams than the NL during 13 of those seasons (1961; 1977–88).[7]

During the early weeks of the 1963 season, Giles became a figure of some controversy after he instructed the NL's umpires to strictly enforce the balk rule then in place. In response, the Senior Circuit's arbiters called 74 balks from the opening of the season on April 8 until April 26, when Giles announced a relaxation of the policy.[3][8] Only two balks were called in the American League over the same period.[8]

Giles, then 73, announced his intention to retire after the 1969 season and on December 5, Giants' executive Chub Feeney was elected to succeed him. Under Feeney, league president through 1986, the NL's All-Star Game dominance would continue, with 14 triumphs in 17 games.

Hall of Fame honors

Warren Giles plaque
Plaque of Warren Giles at the Baseball Hall of Fame

Giles was elected to the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame in 1969 and the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1979 shortly after his death in Cincinnati at age 82. Giles is interred in Riverside Cemetery in Moline, Illinois.

The National League Championship Series trophy is named in his honor.[9] Also, Minor League Baseball gives out the Warren Giles Award to outstanding minor league presidents.[10][11][12]

His son, Bill Giles, has also had lengthy baseball career. After serving as an executive with the Reds, Houston Colt .45s/Astros and Phillies, he became a part-owner of the Phillies in 1981, and served as their club president until 1997 before becoming board chairman and then chairman emeritus. Following in his father's footsteps, Bill Giles is also honorary president of the National League.

References

  1. ^ "Giles, Warren/ Baseball Hall of Fame". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  2. ^ Sportsecyclopedia.com
  3. ^ a b c d Sports Illustrated, June 10, 1963
  4. ^ Armour, Mark, Warren Giles. SABR Biography Project
  5. ^ Retrosheet
  6. ^ United Press International, February 8, 1979
  7. ^ Studenmund, Dave; Tamer, Greg (2004). The Hardball Times 2004 Baseball Annual. The Hardball Times.
  8. ^ a b United Press International, 1963-04-26
  9. ^ Jensen, Mike (October 16, 2008). "'Fantastic feeling' for Bill Giles". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
  10. ^ "History: MiLB Major Award Winners". Minor League Baseball. Retrieved 2011-10-15.
  11. ^ Avallone, Michael (November 19, 2007). "Minor League Baseball announces top honorees: Annual awards salute outstanding organizations and executives". MLB.com. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved 2011-10-06. [Presented] annually to a league president for exceptional service.
  12. ^ Czerwinski, Kevin T. (December 14, 2006). "McEacharn claims 2006 Warren Giles Award". MinorLeagueBaseball.com. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

External links

Preceded by
Larry MacPhail
Cincinnati Reds General Manager
19371951
Succeeded by
Gabe Paul
1942 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1942 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fourth in the National League with a record of 76–76, 29 games behind the St. Louis Cardinals.

1943 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1943 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished second in the National League with a record of 87–67, 18 games behind the St. Louis Cardinals.

1946 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1946 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished sixth in the National League with a record of 67–87, 30 games behind the St. Louis Cardinals.

1957 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1957 throughout the world.

1979 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1979 followed the system in place since 1978, except that players who appeared on fewer than 5% of BBWAA ballots would now no longer be eligible in future elections.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and

elected Willie Mays.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider older major league players as well as managers, umpires, executives, and figures from the Negro Leagues.

It selected Warren Giles and Hack Wilson.

1979 Major League Baseball season

The 1979 Major League Baseball season. None of the post-season teams of 1977 or 1978 returned to this year's postseason. In a re-match of the 1971 World Series, the Pittsburgh Pirates defeated the Baltimore Orioles in seven games in the 1979 World Series.

1979 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1979 throughout the world.

Al Barlick

Albert Joseph Barlick (April 2, 1915 – December 27, 1995) was an American umpire in Major League Baseball who worked in the National League for 28 seasons (1940–43, 1946–55, 1958–71). Barlick missed two seasons (1944–45) due to service in the United States Coast Guard and two seasons (1956–57) due to heart problems. He umpired seven World Series and seven All-Star Games.

Barlick was known for a strong voice and for booming strike calls. After he left active umpiring in 1971, Barlick became an umpire scout and supervisor. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1989.

Ford Frick

Ford Christopher Frick (December 19, 1894 – April 8, 1978) was an American sportswriter and baseball executive. After working as a teacher and as a sportswriter for the New York American, he served as public relations director of the National League (NL), then as the league's president from 1934 to 1951. He was the third Commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1951 to 1965.

While Frick was NL president, he had a major role in the establishment of the Baseball Hall of Fame as a museum that honors the best players in baseball history. He extinguished threats of a player strike in response to the racial integration of the major leagues. During Frick's term as commissioner, expansion occurred and MLB faced the threat of having its antitrust exemption revoked by Congress. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1970. The Ford C. Frick Award recognizes outstanding MLB broadcasters.

Félix Mantilla (baseball)

Félix Mantilla Lamela (born July 29, 1934 in Isabela, Puerto Rico) is a former Major League Baseball player. In his 11-year career, Mantilla played for the Milwaukee Braves (1956–61), New York Mets (1962), Boston Red Sox (1963–65) and Houston Astros (1966). An infielder and outfielder, he played second base the majority of his career (326 games). He also played shortstop (180 games), third base (143), the outfield (156) and, in the latter part of his career, first base (16). He batted and threw right-handed.

Mantilla and two other black players joined the Jacksonville Braves of the Class-A South Atlantic League in 1953. This was one of the first two integrated baseball teams in the Southern United States. During this time Mantilla was the roommate of Hank Aaron. Mantilla and Aaron were both called up to the major leagues, playing for the Milwaukee Braves. Both were on the team when they won the World Series title in 1957. He was selected by the New York Mets in the expansion draft and became their most regular third baseman in 1962, establishing career highs in batting average, home runs and RBI (.275, 11 and 59 respectively). At the end of the season he was traded to the Red Sox for three players, two of whom were Pumpsie Green and Tracy Stallard.

Mantilla's numbers improved dramatically in the hitter-friendly Fenway Park: he hit .315 in 66 games in 1963, hit .289 with 30 home runs in 1964 (five fewer than he had hit in his career prior to that season), and set a career high with 92 RBIs in 1965. During this latter year, he was also named to the American League All-Star team for the only time in his career.

Prior to the start of the 1966 season, the Red Sox traded Mantilla to the Houston Astros for Eddie Kasko. He spent that year as a utility player before being released on November 28. The Chicago Cubs signed Mantilla as a free agent before the start of the 1967 season; however, during spring training he suffered an Achilles tendon injury that required surgery. He never played a game for them and was released on July 6. He went to spring training with the Cubs in 1968 as a non-roster player; at the end of camp the Cubs signed him to a minor league contract, but he never appeared in another professional game.

A lifetime .261 hitter, Mantilla compiled 89 home runs with 330 runs batted in.

On May 26, 1959, in the 13th inning of a game against the Pittsburgh Pirates at Milwaukee County Stadium, Mantilla ruined Harvey Haddix's bid for a perfect game. Leading off the inning, he hit a ground ball to third baseman Don Hoak, whose throw to first pulled Rocky Nelson off the bag for an error. (Mantilla had not even been in the starting lineup; he entered the game in the 11th after Del Rice had pinch-hit for Johnny O'Brien.) Mantilla was sacrificed to second by Eddie Mathews, followed by an intentional walk to Hank Aaron. The following batter, Joe Adcock, hit one over the right-center field wall, just beyond the reach of right fielder Joe Christopher (who was making his Major League debut), for an apparent 3–0 victory. Mantilla scored the winning run, but Aaron, thinking the ball was still in play and that the game ended when Mantilla scored the winning run, rounded second and then headed for the dugout. Adcock, running out his home run, passed Aaron on the bases; as a result, the ruling from National League president Warren Giles was that Adcock's hit was a double (not a home run), only Mantilla's run counted and the final score was 1–0. Mantilla's Topps 1962 baseball card was featured in the 2000 film Skipped Parts as the top card in a stack being thrown into a fire as part of a right of passage/growing up event between a stern grandfather (R. Lee Ermey) and his grandson (Bug Hall).

Harvey Haddix's near-perfect game

On May 26, 1959, at Milwaukee County Stadium, Harvey Haddix of the Pittsburgh Pirates pitched a perfect game for 12 innings against the Milwaukee Braves, but lost the game in the 13th. His perfect game bid was broken up in the bottom of the 13th by a throwing error; he would lose the no-hitter, and the game with it, on a Joe Adcock hit (a baserunning mistake caused it to be changed from a 3-run home run to a 1-run double) later in the inning.

Braves starter Lew Burdette, despite giving up eight hits through nine innings, was pitching a shutout of his own. Three times, the Pirates came close to scoring the winning run for Haddix. In the third inning, a baserunning blunder by Don Hoak negated three consecutive singles; in the ninth, Bill Virdon, after reaching base on a hit with one out, advanced to third on Rocky Nelson's single; however, Bob Skinner grounded back to Burdette the threat. In the 10th inning, with the Pirates still not having scored, pinch-hitter Dick Stuart flied out to center fielder Andy Pafko on a ball that came within a few feet of a two-run home run. The Pirates also recorded hits in the 11th, 12th and 13th innings, but left a runner on base in the latter two innings.

Félix Mantilla, who entered the game in the 11th after Del Rice had pinch-hit for Johnny O'Brien, was the Braves' first hitter in the 13th inning. He hit a ground ball to third baseman Hoak, who fielded the ball cleanly but threw wide to first, pulling Nelson off the base. Mantilla was then sacrificed to second by Eddie Mathews. Haddix, his perfect game bid gone but his no-hit bid still intact, then intentionally walked Hank Aaron to set up a double play situation for Adcock, who had already grounded out twice earlier in the game, striking out the other two times. Adcock hit a fly ball to deep right-center field, just beyond the reach of right fielder Joe Christopher, who was making his Major League debut (he replaced Román Mejías in right field after Stuart had pinch-hit for Mejías), for an apparent home run, the ball landing between the outfield fence and another fence behind it, in front of a line of pine trees. Mantilla rounded third and touched home plate for the winning run; however, in the confusion, Aaron saw the ball hit the second fence but did not realize it had carried over the first and, thinking that the game had ended when Mantilla scored the winning run, rounded second and headed for the dugout. Adcock rounded the bases, running out his home run. First base umpire Frank Dascoli ruled that the final score was 2-0; he was overruled by National League president Warren Giles, who changed Adcock's home run to a double and declared that only Mantilla's run counted for a final score of 1-0. In addition to Stuart being used as a pinch-hitter, two other Pirate regulars did not play in this game: Dick Groat, who would win the 1960 National League Most Valuable Player Award, was mired in a slump and had been benched, and Roberto Clemente was sidelined with a sore shoulder.

In 1989, during a banquet attended by players from both teams commemorating the game's 30th anniversary, Milwaukee pitcher Bob Buhl told Haddix that the Braves' bullpen had stolen Smoky Burgess' signs, the Pittsburgh catcher exposing them due to a high crouch. From their bullpen, the Braves pitchers repeatedly repositioned a towel to signal for a fastball or a breaking ball, the only two pitches Haddix used in the game. If a fastball was coming, the towel was made visible to the batter; if a breaking pitch was coming, the towel was out of sight. Despite this assistance, the usually solid Milwaukee offense managed only the one hit. All but one Milwaukee hitter, Aaron, took the signals. Haddix's 12 2/3-inning complete game, in which he struck out eight batters against the team that had just won the previous two National League pennants (including winning the 1957 World Series), and featured one of the top offensive lineups in the Major Leagues, is considered by many to be the best pitching performance in Major League history. Pirate second baseman Bill Mazeroski would say, "Usually you have one or two great or spectacular defensive plays in these no-hitters. Not that night. It was the easiest game I ever played in." In 1991, Major League Baseball changed the definition of a no-hitter to "a game in which a pitcher or pitchers complete a game of nine innings or more without allowing a hit." Under this new definition, Haddix's masterpiece was one of 12 extra-inning no-hitters to be struck from the record books. Haddix's response was, "It's O.K. I know what I did." Haddix's near-perfect game is immortalized by The Baseball Project, whose song, Harvey Haddix, appears on their debut album, 2008's Volume 1: Frozen Ropes and Dying Quails.

List of Cincinnati Reds owners and executives

This page is a list of the owners and executives of the Cincinnati Reds.

The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. They were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890.

List of Major League Baseball awards

Major League Baseball presents a variety of annual awards and trophies to recognize both its teams and its players. Three team trophies are awarded annually: one each to the National League and American League champions, and one of the champion of the World Series. Additionally, various organizations—such as the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA), the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball, and select corporate sponsors—present awards for such accomplishments as excellence in batting, pitching performance, fielding prowess, and community service.The Most Valuable Player Award, commonly known as the "MVP", is the oldest individual award, given in its current format since 1931. MVP awards are also presented for performances in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the League Championship Series, and the World Series. Offensive awards include the Silver Slugger Award and the Hank Aaron Award, while the Cy Young Award and Rolaids Relief Man Award recognize pitching; the Rawlings Gold Glove Award is given for fielding. The DHL Delivery Man and Major League Baseball Comeback Player of the Year Awards are the newest awards, both established in 2005. Additionally, the Commissioner, at his discretion, can present an Historic Achievement Award for any great contribution to the sport that he deems worthy.

List of National League presidents

The National League President was the chief executive of the National League of professional baseball until 1999, when the NL and the American League merged into Major League Baseball.

List of Philadelphia Phillies owners and executives

The Philadelphia Phillies are a Major League Baseball (MLB) team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Phillies compete in MLB as a member club of the National League (NL) East division. In the franchise's history, the owners and ownership syndicates of the team have employed 11 general managers (GMs) and appointed 15 team presidents. The GM controls player transactions, hiring and firing of the coaching staff, and negotiates with players and agents regarding contracts. The team president is the representative for the owner or the ownership group within the front office and is responsible for overseeing the team's staff, minor league farm system, and scouting.The longest-tenured general manager is Paul Owens, with 11 years of service to the team in that role, from 1972 to 1983. Owens also served as the team manager in 1972, and from 1983 to 1984. After this time, he served as a team executive until 2003, and was inducted into the Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame in recognition of his services. The longest-tenured owner is Bob Carpenter, Jr., who was the team's primary shareholder from 1943 to 1972. He appointed the team's first general manager, Herb Pennock, during his tenure. In combination with his son, Ruly, the Carpenter family owned the Phillies for nearly 50 years (until 1981) until it was sold to Bill Giles, son of former league president Warren Giles. After Giles sold his part-ownership share, the Phillies are currently owned by John S. Middleton, Jim & Pete Buck, and former team President David Montgomery. The Phillies are currently overseen by team president Andy MacPhail and GM Matt Klentak.

Major League Baseball Player of the Month Award

The Player of the Month Award is a Major League Baseball award named by each league every month of the regular season. The National League started recognizing the award on June 4, 1958. National League president Warren Giles conducted a poll of baseball writers in each Major League city and awarded the winner an engraved desk set. The American League did not follow suit until 1974. The National League created a separate award for pitchers starting in 1975 and the American League did likewise in 1979. Pitchers have not been eligible since then.

Moline Plowboys

The Moline Plowboys were a minor league baseball team in Moline, Illinois that existed for 27 seasons between 1914 and 1948. From 1914 to 1923, they played in the Class B Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League (Three-I League); from 1924 to 1932, they played in the Class D Mississippi Valley League; and from 1937 to 1941, they again played in the Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League, before joining the Central Association in 1947-48. The Plowboys' ballpark from 1920 to 1948 was Browning Field. Baseball Hall of Fame inductee Warren Giles, future President of the National League was President of the Plowboys Franchise from 1919–1922.

Scotty Robb

Douglas Walker "Scotty" Robb (September 23, 1908 – April 10, 1969) was a professional baseball umpire who worked for in the National League from 1947 to 1952, and the American League in 1952 and 1953.

In 1936, Robb was initially a student in the George Barr Umpire School held at Whittington Park in Hot Springs, Arkansas and operated by Major League Umpire George Barr.On August 29, 1947, Robb joined the National League. Robb was an umpire in the 1950 and 1951 Major League Baseball All-Star Games. In his career, he umpired 869 Major League games. He was the home plate umpire for Virgil Trucks no-hitter on August 25, 1952.In 1952, Robb was fined and suspended by National League President Warren Giles for an April 22 incident with player Solly Hemus. Robb paid the fine then resigned. Two days later he was offered a job by American League President Will Harridge, which he accepted. Robb, therefore, became one of the few umpires to work in both leagues. On June 28, 1953, Robb retired to work in his printing business.

St. Louis Cardinals award winners and league leaders

The St. Louis Cardinals, a professional baseball franchise based in St. Louis, Missouri, compete in the National League (NL) of Major League Baseball (MLB). Before joining the NL in 1892, they were also a charter member of the American Association (AA) from 1882 to 1891. Although St. Louis has been the Cardinals' home city for the franchise's entire existence, they were also known as the Brown Stockings, Browns, and Perfectos.

In 134 seasons, the franchise has won more than 10,000 regular season games and appeared in 27 postseasons while claiming 12 interleague championships and 23 league pennants. Eleven of the interleague championships are World Series titles won under the modern format since 1903; 19 of the league pennants are NL pennants, and the other four are AA pennants. Their 11 World Series titles represent the most in the NL and are second in MLB only to the New York Yankees' 27.

The first major award MLB presented for team performance occurred with the World Series champions in 1903, and for individual performance, in 1911 in the American League with the Chalmers Award. The first major award which the National League presented for individual performance was the League Award in 1924, the predecessor of the modern Most Valuable Player Award (MVP). Rogers Hornsby earned the League Award in 1925 making him the first winner of an MVP or its equivalent in franchise history. The following season, the Cardinals won their first modern World Series. They won the first World Series Trophy, following their 1967 World Series title, which, before that year, the World Series champion had never received any kind of official trophy.

BBWAA Vote
Veterans Committee
J. G. Taylor Spink Award
Ford C. Frick Award
Pitchers
Catchers
First basemen
Second basemen
Third basemen
Shortstops
Outfielders
Designated hitters
Managers
Executives /
pioneers
Umpires

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