Warner & Swasey Company

The Warner & Swasey Company was an American manufacturer of machine tools, instruments, and special machinery. It operated as an independent business firm, based in Cleveland, from its founding in 1880 until its acquisition in 1980. It was founded as a partnership in 1880 by Worcester Reed Warner (1846–1929) and Ambrose Swasey (1846–1937). The company was best known for two general types of products: astronomical telescopes and turret lathes. It also did a large amount of instrument work, such as equipment for astronomical observatories and military instruments (rangefinders, optical gunsights, etc.)[1] The themes that united these various lines of business were the crafts of toolmaking and instrument-making, which have often overlapped technologically. In the decades after World War II, it also entered the heavy equipment industry with its acquisition of the Gradall brand.

USNO Refractor 1904
26-inch Warner & Swasey refractor, U.S. Naval Observatory, 1904. Warner & Swasey name is visible on plate attached to telescope mount at lower right.


In 1866, Swasey and Warner met as fellow apprentices at the Exeter Machine Works in Exeter, New Hampshire.[2] Within a few years they went together to Pratt & Whitney in Hartford, Connecticut, which was one of the leading machine tool builders of the era. There they both rose through the ranks, with Warner rising to be in charge of an assembly floor and Swasey rising to be foreman of the gear-cutting department.[3] There Swasey invented the epicycloidal milling machine for cutting true theoretical curves for the milling cutters used for cutting gears.[3]

In 1880, Swasey and Warner resigned from Pratt & Whitney in order to start a machine-tool-building business together.[3] They investigated Chicago as a place to build their works, but they perceived the Chicago of 1880 as too far west and lacking a sufficient labor pool of skilled machinists.[4] So they went to Cleveland, Ohio, where their company would stay for the next century. They worked together for 20 years without a formal corporate agreement, during which time their partnership's principal products were various models of lathes and milling machines.[5] From the beginning, the partners built both machine tools and telescopes, which reflected their interests in toolmaking, instrument-making, and astronomy.

After nearly 20 years of successful growth, the partners realized that their business was growing enough that it should be given a formal corporate structure, so in 1900 they reorganized it under the official name of The Warner & Swasey Company.[6]

During the early- to mid-20th century, the company was well known in American industry. Its products, both turret lathes and instruments, played very prominent roles in the war efforts for both world wars. Warner & Swasey took part in the transition to numerical control (NC) and computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools during the 1950s through 1970s, but like many other machine tool builders during those decades, it ultimately was affected by the prevailing winds of merger and acquisition in the industry. It was acquired by Bendix Corporation in 1980.



Lick Telescope 1889
Warner & Swasey designed and built the Lick Observatory refractor, shown here in an 1889 drawing. Alvan Clark & Sons made the 36-inch objective lens.
The Irving Porter Church Memorial Telescope (built in 1922) on its original Warner & Swasey mount. The 12" objective lens was polished by Brashear Co.

The first Warner & Swasey telescope, built in 1881,[7] was sold to Beloit College for its new Smith Observatory and had a 9.5-inch lens made by Alvan Clark & Sons. Among the notable instruments the company built were the telescopes for Lick Observatory (1888, 36-inch, refracting); the United States Naval Observatory (1893); Yerkes Observatory (according to the 50th-anniversary book,[8] this was a 40-inch refracting telescope completed in time for display at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, although its installation at Yerkes was apparently in 1897); and Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (1916, 72-inch, reflecting). In 1919, the company's founders donated their private observatory in East Cleveland, Ohio to Case Western Reserve University. Today's Warner and Swasey Observatory grew from that facility.

The company's 50th-anniversary book[9] describes the firm's giant-telescope-building work as unprofitable overall but a labor of technological love.

List of observatories with Warner & Swasey telescopes

Turret lathes

Warner and Swasey--turret lathe models--1880 1881 1920
A selection of turret lathe models between 1880 and 1920.

Warner & Swasey was one of the premier brands in heavy turret lathes between the 1910s and 1960s. Its chief competitors in this market segment included Jones & Lamson (Springfield, VT, USA), Gisholt (Madison, WI, USA), and Alfred Herbert Ltd (Coventry, UK).

Military instruments

Military instrument contracts were an important line of work for the company.[12] The U.S. government referred many problems concerning such instruments to the company during the Spanish–American War (1898).[12] Instruments produced included "range finders of several types, gun-sight telescopes, battery commanders' telescopes, telescopic musket sights, and prism binoculars".[13] During World War I, three important kinds of instrument were produced: "musket sights, naval gun sights, and panoramic sights".[13]

Construction equipment

In 1946 Warner & Swasey Company acquired the patent rights to manufacture the Gradall telescopic boom excavator from the brothers Ray and Koop Ferwerda with their manufacturing company, the FWF Corporation, of Beachwood, Ohio. The Gradall, a type of hydraulic machinery, became a business of the new owner as the Gradall Division with operations in Cleveland. In the year 1946, the Gradall was the first production hydraulic excavator that was designed and manufactured in the United States. In July 1950, Gradall manufacturing operations were moved to New Philadelphia, Ohio, where it continues, in 2017, as Gradall Industries, Inc., a global manufacturer of telescopic boom excavators and industrial maintenance machinery. Gradall Industries, Inc. is a business unit of the Alamo Group of Seguin, Texas. [14]

The foundation of the Warner & Swasey Construction Equipment Division with five product lines was started in 1946 with the development of the first production hydraulic excavator; the GRADALL®. This machine was new technology for the industry and was highly versatile and productive for a variety of work. The DUPLEX TRUCK® Company of Lansing, Michigan, a heavy duty and specialized truck manufacturer was acquired in 1955 to supply truck chassis for the GRADALL and future Warner & Swasey backhoe excavator and crane products. In 1957 the Company sought a broader market penetration into the hydraulic excavator market. It acquired the Badger Machine Company of Winona, Minnesota, with its six HOPTO® hydraulic excavator models which complimented the Gradall models. The Company acquired in 1967, the Sargent Engineering Corporation of Fort Dodge, Iowa, a manufacturer of hydraulic cranes. Their six SARGENT HYDRA-TOWER® CRANE models enabled the company to move into another large segment of the construction industry using hydraulic machinery. That same year the Company partnered with a Canadian paper industry association in the manufacture of the ARBOMATIK® a line of hydraulic tree harvesting equipment. Through corporate diversity into hydraulic construction equipment, the growing popularity and productivity of this type of hydraulic machinery yielded strong business growth for the Warner & Swasey company of Cleveland, Ohio during the years of 1946 through 1977.

See also

James Hartness, president of competitor Jones & Lamson Machine Company, a contemporary of Worcester Reed Warner and Ambrose Swasey who shared their avocations of developing better telescopes and better turret lathes.


  1. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, pp. 34–35.
  2. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, pp. 9,11.
  3. ^ a b c Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 10.
  4. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 13.
  5. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, pp. 1,14.
  6. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 15.
  7. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 14,31.
  8. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930, pp. 31–33.
  9. ^ Warner & Swasey Company 1930.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ Gagne, Michael (29 April 2015). "Durfee hosting public viewings with restored telescope". Fall River, Massachusetts: Herald News. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  12. ^ a b Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 34.
  13. ^ a b Warner & Swasey Company 1930, p. 35.
  14. ^ Grant 2010.


  • Grant, James H. (2016), Warner & Swasey Construction Equipment, New Philadelphia, Ohio, USA: JHG Partners, LLC, ISBN 978-0-9853877-2-3.
  • Grant, James H. (2012), LOAD HANDLER Gradall LOED Materials Handler, New Philadelphia, Ohio, USA: JHG Partners, LLC, ISBN 978-0-9853877-1-6.
  • Grant, James H. (2010), The Gradall: A Story of American Ingenuity, New Philadelphia, Ohio, USA: JHG Partners, LLC, ISBN 978-0-692-00667-2.
  • Warner & Swasey Company (1920), The Warner & Swasey Company, 1880-1920, Cleveland, Ohio, USA: Warner & Swasey Company.
  • Warner & Swasey Company (1930), The Warner & Swasey Company, 1880-1930, Cleveland, Ohio, USA: Warner & Swasey Company.

Further reading

  • Baracskay, Daniel; Rebar, Peter D. (2003), The rise and destruction of the Warner & Swasey Company: a concise case study and analysis, Mansfield, Ohio, USA: BookMasters, Inc., ISBN 978-0-9727196-8-1, OCLC 52803685.

External links

Carol Burnett

Carol Creighton Burnett (born April 26, 1933) is an American actress, comedian, singer and writer, whose career spans seven decades of television. She is best known for her groundbreaking television variety show, The Carol Burnett Show, originally aired on CBS. It was the first of its kind to be hosted by a woman. She has achieved success on stage, television and film in varying genres including dramatic and comedic roles. She has also appeared on various talk shows and as a panelist on game shows.

Born in San Antonio, Texas, Burnett moved with her grandmother to Hollywood, where she attended Hollywood High School and eventually studied theater and musical comedy at UCLA. Later she performed in nightclubs in New York City and had a breakout success on Broadway in 1959 in Once Upon a Mattress, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. She soon made her television debut, regularly appearing on The Garry Moore Show for the next three years, and won her first Emmy Award in 1962. Burnett had her television special debut in 1963 when she starred as Calamity Jane in the Dallas State Fair Musicals production of Calamity Jane on CBS. Burnett moved to Los Angeles, California, and began an 11-year run as star of The Carol Burnett Show on CBS television from 1967 to 1978. With its vaudeville roots, The Carol Burnett Show was a variety show that combined comedy sketches with song and dance. The comedy sketches included film parodies and character pieces. Burnett created many memorable characters during the show's run, and both she and the show won numerous Emmy and Golden Globe Awards.

During and after her variety show, Burnett appeared in many television and film projects. Her film roles include Pete 'n' Tillie (1972), The Front Page (1974), The Four Seasons (1981), Annie (1982), Noises Off (1992), and Horton Hears a Who! (2008). On television, she has appeared in other sketch shows; in dramatic roles in 6 Rms Riv Vu (1974) and Friendly Fire (1979); in various well-regarded guest roles, such as in Mad About You, for which she won an Emmy Award; and in specials with Julie Andrews, Dolly Parton, Beverly Sills, and others. She returned to the Broadway stage in 1995 in Moon Over Buffalo, for which she was again nominated for a Tony Award.

Burnett has written and narrated several memoirs, earning Grammy nominations for almost all of them, and a win for In Such Good Company: Eleven Years Of Laughter, Mayhem, And Fun In The Sandbox.In 2005, she was recognized as "one of America's most cherished entertainers" and awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom "for enhancing the lives of millions of Americans and for her extraordinary contributions to American entertainment."

DC Comics

DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, and produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter, Nightwing, Green Arrow, Starfire, Aquaman, and Cyborg.

Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which also features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, and the Teen Titans, and well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Catwoman, Darkseid, Sinestro, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke. The company has also published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, and many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo.

The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name. Originally in Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and later 575 Lexington Avenue; 909 Third Avenue; 75 Rockefeller Plaza; 666 Fifth Avenue; and 1325 Avenue of the Americas. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015.Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics (acquired in 2009 by The Walt Disney Company, WarnerMedia's main competitor) together shared approximately 70% of the American comic book market in 2017.

DC Extended Universe

The DC Extended Universe (DCEU) is the unofficial term used to refer to an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures and based on characters that appear in American comic books by DC Comics. The shared universe, much like the original DC Universe in comic books and the television programs, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings, cast, and characters. The films have been in production since 2011 and in that time Warner Bros. has distributed six films. The series has grossed over $4.80 billion at the global box office, currently making it the 12th highest-grossing film franchise.

The films are written and directed by a variety of individuals and feature large, often ensemble, casts. Several actors, including Henry Cavill, Amy Adams, Ben Affleck, Gal Gadot, Ezra Miller, Jason Momoa, and Ray Fisher, have appeared in numerous films of the franchise, with continued appearances in sequels planned. In May 2016, DC's chief creative officer Geoff Johns and Warner Bros. executive vice president Jon Berg were appointed to co-run the DC Films division and oversee creative decisions, production and story-arcs in order to create a cohesive overarching plot within the films. In January 2018, Walter Hamada was appointed the president of DC Films, replacing Berg.

The first film in the DCEU was Man of Steel (2013) followed by Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), Suicide Squad (2016), Wonder Woman (2017), Justice League (2017), and Aquaman (2018). The franchise will continue with scheduled release dates for Shazam! (2019), Birds of Prey (and the Fantabulous Emancipation of One Harley Quinn) (2020), and Wonder Woman 1984 (2020). A multitude of other projects are in various stages of development.

DC Universe (streaming service)

DC Universe is a video-on-demand service operated by DC Entertainment and Warner Bros. Digital Networks. It was announced in April 2017, with the title and service formally announced in May 2018. The service includes original television programming, access to select animated series and films from DC's back catalogue, a rotating selection of comics from DC Comics, forum discussion space, and a merchandise store. DC Universe launched in a beta state in late August 2018, with its full release on September 15, 2018.

Kurt Warner

Kurtis Eugene Warner (born June 22, 1971) is a former American football quarterback. He played for three National Football League (NFL) teams: the St. Louis Rams, the New York Giants, and the Arizona Cardinals. He was originally signed by the Green Bay Packers as an undrafted free agent in 1994 after playing college football at Northern Iowa. Warner went on to be considered the best undrafted NFL player of all time, following a 12-year career regarded as one of the greatest stories in NFL history. Warner was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2017, and is the only person inducted into both the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the Arena Football Hall of Fame.

Warner first attained stardom while playing for the St. Louis Rams from 1998 to 2003, where he won NFL MVP awards in 1999 and 2001 as well as the Super Bowl MVP award in Super Bowl XXXIV when he and the Rams beat the Tennessee Titans. He led the 2008 Arizona Cardinals to Super Bowl XLIII (the franchise's first Super Bowl berth), and owns three of the top five highest single-game passing yardage totals in Super Bowl history. Warner is one of only two quarterbacks to win the Super Bowl in their first season as a starter, the other being Tom Brady. Warner currently holds the tenth-highest career passer rating of all-time (93.7), and the fourth-highest career completion percentage in NFL history with 65.5%.In 13 career playoff games, Warner ranks 5th all-time in completion percentage (66.5%), 10th in yards per attempt (8.55), and 10th in passer rating (102.8). He announced his retirement after the conclusion of the 2009 season.

List of programs broadcast by Cartoon Network

This is a list of television programs currently or formerly broadcast by Cartoon Network in the United States. The network was launched on October 1, 1992, and airs mainly animated programming, ranging from action to animated comedy.

In its early years, Cartoon Network's programming was predominantly made up of reruns of Looney Tunes, Tom and Jerry, and Hanna-Barbera shows such as Quick Draw McGraw, The Flintstones, The Jetsons, Johnny Quest, and Scooby-Doo. Cartoon Network's first original series were The Moxy Show and the late-night satirical animated talk show, Space Ghost Coast to Coast. The What a Cartoon! series of showcase shorts brought about the creation of a number of Cartoon Network original series, the first of which made into a full-fledged series was Dexter's Laboratory (created by Genndy Tartakovsky) in 1996, followed by Johnny Bravo (created by Van Partible) and Cow and Chicken in 1997 (as well as its spinoff, I Am Weasel later in 1999) (created by David Feiss), The Powerpuff Girls (created by Craig McCracken) in 1998, and Courage the Cowardly Dog (created by John R. Dilworth) in 1999, which debuted alongside Mike, Lu & Og (created by Charles Swenson). Another popular series, Ed, Edd n Eddy (created by Danny Antonucci) was one of the first to air without a What a Cartoon! pilot, debuting in 1999. Dexter's Laboratory creator Tartakovsky went on to create two more series for Cartoon Network: Samurai Jack and Star Wars: Clone Wars, and Powerpuff Girls creator McCracken later produced Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends for the network. Other series to be greenlit from programs similar to What a Cartoon! include Whatever Happened to Robot Jones? (created by Greg Miller), Codename: Kids Next Door (created by Mr. Warburton), and The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy (created by Maxwell Atoms).

Following the resignation of Jim Samples, Cartoon Network began airing live-action original series such as Destroy, Build, Destroy and Dude, What Would Happen as part of the CN Real block. By 2013, Cartoon Network began moving away from live-action series with the 2010 premieres of Adventure Time (created by Pendleton Ward) and Regular Show (created by J. G. Quintel).

Cartoon Network has also broadcast a number of feature films, mostly animated or containing animated sequences, under its "Cartoon Theater" block, later renamed "Flicks".

Looney Tunes

Looney Tunes is an American animated series of comedy short films produced by Warner Bros. from 1930 to 1969 during the golden age of American animation alongside its sister series Merrie Melodies. It was known for introducing Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Elmer Fudd, Tweety, Sylvester, Granny, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Tasmanian Devil, Road Runner, Wile E. Coyote and many other cartoon characters.

Looney Tunes' name was inspired by Walt Disney's musical series Silly Symphonies. They initially showcased musical compositions whose rights were held by Warner's music publishing interests through the adventures of cartoon characters such as Bosko and, after losing him, Buddy. The animation studio gained a higher profile, however, following their addition of directors Tex Avery and Chuck Jones and voice actor Mel Blanc. From 1942 to 1964, Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies were the most popular animated shorts in movie theaters.Looney Tunes has since become a worldwide media franchise, spawning several television series, feature films, comic books, music albums, video games, and amusement park rides, as well as serving as Warner Bros.' flagship franchise. Many of the characters have made and continue to make cameo appearances in various other television shows, films, and advertisements. The most famous Looney Tunes character, Bugs Bunny, is regarded as a cultural icon and has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Several Looney Tunes films are considered among the greatest animated cartoons of all time, and two (Knighty Knight Bugs and For Scent-imental Reasons) have won Academy Awards.

Mark Warner

Mark Robert Warner (born December 15, 1954) is an American businessman and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Virginia, a seat he was first elected to in 2008. He is a member of the Democratic Party and currently a Vice Chair of the Senate Democratic Caucus and the Vice Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee.

Prior to his congressional career, Warner was the 69th Governor of Virginia holding the office from 2002 to 2006, and is the honorary chairman of the Forward Together PAC. Warner delivered the keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Apart from politics, Warner is also known for his involvement in telecommunications-related venture capital during the 1980s; he founded the firm Columbia Capital.

In 2006, he was widely expected to pursue the Democratic nomination in the 2008 U.S. presidential election; however, he announced in October 2006 that he would not run, citing a desire not to disrupt his family life. Warner was considered to be a potential vice presidential candidate, until he took himself out of consideration after winning the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate.Running against his gubernatorial predecessor, Jim Gilmore, Warner won his first election to the Senate in 2008 with 65% of the vote. Warner won reelection in 2014, narrowly defeating Ed Gillespie.

New Line Cinema

New Line Productions Inc., doing business as New Line Cinema, is an American film production studio of Warner Bros. It was founded in 1967 by Robert Shaye as an independent film distribution company, later becoming a film studio. It was acquired by Turner Broadcasting System in 1994; Turner later merged with Time Warner (now WarnerMedia) in 1996, and New Line was merged with Warner Bros. Pictures in 2008. Currently, its films are distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures.

Space Jam

Space Jam is a 1996 American live-action/animated sports comedy film starring basketball player Michael Jordan and featuring the Looney Tunes cartoon characters. The film was produced by Ivan Reitman, and directed by Joe Pytka. Nigel Miguel was a basketball technical advisor. Space Jam presents an alternate history of what happened between Jordan's initial retirement from the NBA in 1993 and his comeback in 1995, in which he is enlisted by Bugs Bunny and his friends to help them win a basketball match against a group of aliens who want to enslave them for their amusement park. The film also serves to introduce a new Looney Tunes character, Bugs' love interest Lola Bunny.

Released theatrically by Warner Bros. Pictures under their Warner Bros. Family Entertainment banner on November 15, 1996, Space Jam opened at No. 1 in the US and grossed over $230 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing basketball film of all-time. Despite its box office success, the film received mixed reviews from critics who were divided on the merits of combining Jordan and his profession with the Looney Tunes characters.

Spectrum (cable service)

Charter Spectrum (operating as Spectrum) is a brand of Charter Communications which was launched in 2014 and used to market consumer cable television, Internet, and telephone provided by the company, and formerly provided by Time Warner Cable and Bright House Networks, which Charter Communications acquired in May 2016.

The CW

The CW Television Network (commonly referred to as just The CW) is an American English-language free-to-air television network that is operated by the CW Network, LLC, a limited liability joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network (UPN); and AT&T, whose WarnerMedia subsidiary is the parent company of Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB. The network's name is an abbreviation derived from the first letters of the names of its two parent corporations (CBS and Warner Bros.).

The CW Television Network made its debut on September 18, 2006, after its two predecessors, UPN and The WB, respectively ceased independent operations on September 15 and 17 of that year. The CW's first two nights of programming – on September 18 and 19, 2006 – consisted of reruns and launch-related specials. The CW marked its formal launch date on September 20, 2006, with the two-hour premiere of the seventh cycle of America's Next Top Model. Originally, the network's programming lineup was intended to appeal mainly to women between the ages of 18 and 34, although starting in 2011 the network increased in programming that appeals to men. As of August 2017, the CW's audience is 50% male and 50% female. The network currently runs programming seven days a week: airing Mondays through Fridays in the afternoon and Sundays through Fridays in prime time, along with a Saturday morning live-action educational programming block produced by Litton Entertainment called One Magnificent Morning, which is the successor to the animation block Vortexx.

It is also available in Canada on pay television providers through stations owned-and-operated by CBS Corporation and affiliates that are located within proximity to the Canada–United States border (whose broadcasts of CW shows are subject to simultaneous substitution laws imposed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, if a Canadian network holds the broadcast rights); it is also available through two affiliates owned by Tribune Media that are classified in the United States as superstations – New York City affiliate WPIX and Los Angeles affiliate KTLA.

Additionally, The CW is available in Mexico through affiliates located near the Mexico–U.S. border (such as KFMB-DT2/San Diego-Tijuana, KECY-DT3 in El Centro, California, KVIA-DT2 in El Paso, and KCWT-CD with simulcasters KFXV-LD2 and KNVO-DT4 in McAllen–Brownsville, Texas) on pay television providers. In both Canada and Mexico, some CW affiliate signals originating from the U.S. are receivable over-the-air in border areas depending on the station's signal coverage.

Time Warner Cable

Time Warner Cable (TWC) was an American cable television company. Before it was purchased by Charter Communications on May 18, 2016, it was ranked the second largest cable company in the United States by revenue behind only Comcast, operating in 29 states. Its corporate headquarters were located in the Time Warner Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, with other corporate offices in Stamford, Connecticut; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Herndon, Virginia. From 1971 to 1981, Time Warner Cable, as Warner Cable, owned Dimension Pictures.

It was controlled by Warner Communications, then by Time Warner. That company spun off the cable operations in March 2009 as part of a larger restructuring. From 2009 to 2016, Time Warner Cable was an entirely independent company, continuing to use the Time Warner name under license from its former parent (including the "Road Runner" name for its Internet service, now Spectrum Internet).

In 2014, the company was the subject of a proposed purchase by Comcast Corporation, valued at $45.2 billion; however, following opposition to the deal by various groups, along with plans by the U.S. government to try to block the merger, Comcast called off the deal in April 2015. On May 26, 2015, Charter Communications announced that it would acquire Time Warner Cable for $78.7 billion, along with Bright House Networks in a separate $10.1 billion deal, pending regulatory approval.The purchase was completed on May 18, 2016; Charter had continued to do business as Time Warner Cable in its former markets, but has now re-branded these operations under the Spectrum brand in most markets (even Charter launched this brand in 2014), though it will continue to use the roadrunner.com email addresses and adelphia.net email addresses to new customers.


Warner Media, LLC, doing business as WarnerMedia, is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned by AT&T and headquartered in New York City. The company has film, television, cable networks, and publishing operations.

The company was formed in 1990 as Time Warner, from the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications. The current company consists largely of the assets of the former Warner Communications, HBO (a Time Inc. subsidiary until the merger), and the Turner Broadcasting System assets which it acquired in 1996. Its assets include HBO, Turner, half of The CW, Cartoon Network, Audience, Warner Bros., CNN, DC Comics, Otter Media, and a 10% stake in Hulu.On October 22, 2016, AT&T announced an offer to acquire Time Warner for $108.7 billion (including assumed Time Warner debt). The proposed merger was confirmed on June 12, 2018, after AT&T won an antitrust lawsuit that the U.S. Justice Department filed in 2017 to attempt to block the acquisition. The merger closed two days later, with the company becoming a subsidiary of AT&T.Despite spinning off Time Inc. in 2014 (which was acquired by the Meredith Corporation in 2018), the company retained the Time Warner name until AT&T's acquisition in 2018. The company's previous assets included Time Inc., AOL (now owned by Verizon Communications), Time Warner Cable (later purchased by Charter Communications), Warner Books (now Hachette Book Group), and Warner Music Group; these operations were either sold to others or spun off as independent companies. The company ranked No. 98 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Warner Bros.

Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. (formerly Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.), commonly referred to as Warner Bros. or Warner and abbreviated WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. It has operations in film, television and video games and is one of the "Big Six" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

Warner Bros. Animation

Warner Bros. Animation is the animation division of Warner Bros. The studio is closely associated with the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies characters, among others. The studio is the successor to Warner Bros. Cartoons, the studio which produced Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoon shorts from 1933 to 1963, and from 1967 to 1969. Warner reestablished its animation division in 1980 to produce Looney Tunes–related works.In recent years, Warner Bros. Animation has focused primarily on producing television and feature animation featuring characters created by other properties owned by Warner Bros., including DC Comics and Hanna-Barbera.

Warner Bros. Records

Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American major record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros., and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world.

In 2004, these music assets were divested by their then owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group. This independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment. Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company.

Artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Cher, Kylie Minogue, Kimbra, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Ciara, Lil Pump, Gorillaz, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Blur, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen, Tegan and Sara, Linkin Park, Muse, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, and Van Halen.

Warner Bros. Television

Warner Bros. Television (WBTV) is the television production arm of Warner Bros. Entertainment. As of 2015, it was one of the world's four largest television production companies measured by revenue and library (along with Sony Pictures Television, Paramount Television and CBS Television Studios).

Warner Music Group

Warner Music Group Inc. (WMG), also known as Warner Music or WEA International Inc., is an American multinational entertainment and record label conglomerate headquartered in New York City. It is one of the "big three" recording companies and the third largest in the global music industry, after Universal Music Group (UMG) and Sony Music Entertainment (SME). Formerly part of Time Warner (currently known as WarnerMedia), the company was publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange until May 2011, when it announced its privatization and sale to Access Industries, which was completed in July 2011. With a multibillion-dollar annual turnover, WMG employs more than 3,500 people and has operations in more than 50 countries throughout the world.The company owns and operates some of the largest and most successful labels in the world, including Elektra Records, Warner Bros. Records, Parlophone, and Atlantic Records. WMG also owns Warner/Chappell Music, one of the world's largest music publishers.

Since August 2, 2018, WMG has expanded its business to digital media operation through its acquisition of Uproxx Media Group.

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