Warmblood

Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds primarily originating in Europe and registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook policy, studbook selection, and the aim of breeding for equestrian sport. The term distinguishes these horses from both heavy draft horses ("cold bloods") and refined light saddle horses such as the Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Akhal-Teke[1] ("hot bloods"). Although modern warmbloods are descended from heavier agricultural types systematically upgraded by hotblood influence, the term does not imply that warmbloods are direct crosses of "cold" and "hot".

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A Trakehner performing dressage.

Breeding policies

Open studbook policies separate most warmbloods from true "breeds" such as Thoroughbreds, Arabians, Percherons, and Morgans which have a closed stud book and require two purebred parents. Instead, most warmblood registries accept breeding stock from other similar populations to continuously improve their own, and do not consider their own horses to be a discrete "breed". The Trakehner is an exception, as although some other breeds are used within the breeding population, this horse is considered a true breed. The Hanoverian, Holsteiner, and Selle Français studbooks are also considered slightly less open than others. Most warmblood registries recognize breeding stock from any other registry that is a member of the World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses which is affiliated with the IOC-recognized International Federation for Equestrian Sports.

A defining characteristic of a warmblood registry is studbook selection, though even some purebred breeds in Europe use this practice. Studbook selection is the use of external evaluation - critiquing conformation and movement - of potential breeding stock to cull unsuitable breeding horses and direct the evolution towards a particular goal. Today, studbook selection usually entails a performance proof in addition to external evaluation, particularly for stallions.

Standards of conformation and movement are not designed to perpetuate a particular ancestral type, but rather to meet a particular need. This concept is illustrated by the history of the Oldenburg horse through the past 150 years: in the late 19th century, the standard called for a heavy but elegant, high-stepping carriage horse, in the early 20th century for a heavier, stronger, economical farm and artillery horse, and since 1950 for a modern sport horse.

The most critical characteristic of a warmblood registry is that its breeding goal (or "breeding aim") is to breed sport horses. Each registry has a slightly different focus, but most breed primarily for show jumping and dressage. Many include combined driving and eventing as well. The breeding aim is reflective of the needs of the market. In eras and regions which called for cavalry mounts, warmbloods were bred to fit that need; when and where horses for light to moderate agricultural work were needed, warmbloods have also filled those roles. The purposeful evolution of the standard breeding aim is another characteristic of the warmbloods.

Warmbloods have become popular since the end of World War II when mechanization made agricultural horses obsolete, and recreational riding became more widespread in the western world. The ancestral warmblood types are referred to as the heavy warmbloods and are preserved through special organizations. The heavy warmbloods have found their niche as family horses and in combined driving.

Warmblood registries

Most warmbloods were developed in continental Europe, especially Germany. It was once thought that the warmblood type, which originated in continental Europe, descended from wild, native proto-warmblood ancestors,[2] called the Forest Horse, though modern DNA studies of early horses have disproven this hypothesis.

The best-known German warmbloods are the Hanoverian, Holsteiner, Oldenburg and the purebred Trakehner. Others include the Württemberger, Rhinelander, Westphalian, Zweibrücker, Brandenburger, Mecklenburger, and Bavarian Warmblood. Several of these breeds are also represented by ancestral types such as the Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger, Alt-Württemberger, and Rottaler.

Western European warmbloods include the French Selle Français, Belgian Warmblood, Dutch Warmblood, Swiss Warmblood, Austrian Warmblood and Danish Warmblood. Scandinavian countries also produce high-quality warmbloods such as the Finnish Warmblood and Swedish Warmblood.

Warmblood registries which are not based in continental Europe include those that regulate the breeding of American Warmbloods and Irish Sport Horses.

See also

References

  1. ^ Wallner, Barbara (10 July 2017). "Y Chromosome Uncovers the Recent Oriental Origin of Modern Stallions". Current Biology. 27 (13): 2029–2035. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.086. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  2. ^ Dorene Schuette. "What Is a Warmblood?". Retrieved 2008-02-19.

Further reading

  • Edwards, E. H. (1994), The Encyclopedia of the Horse, London: Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 1-56458-614-6.

External links

American Warmblood

The American Warmblood is a horse of warmblood type, intended primarily for the traditional sport horse disciplines of dressage, show jumping, eventing and combined driving.

Bavarian Warmblood

The Bavarian Warmblood is a horse breed of southern Germany that developed from an older Bavarian heavy warmblood breed called the Rottaler. Since mechanization in the mid-20th century, the Bavarian Regional Horse Breeders' Society has concentrated on producing a riding horse for the Olympic disciplines and recreational riding based on other European warmblood bloodlines.

Belgian Warmblood

The Belgian Warmblood, Dutch: Belgisch Warmbloedpaard, is a Belgian breed of warmblood sport horse. It is bred for dressage, for show-jumping and for three-day eventing.:164 It is one of three Belgian warmblood breeds or stud-books, the others being the Zangersheide and the Belgian Sport Horse – to which it is closely similar.

Czech Warmblood

The Czech Warmblood, Czech: 'Český teplokrevník', is the warmblood sport horse of the Czech Republic.

Danish Warmblood

The Danish Warmblood (Dansk Varmblod) is the modern sport horse breed of Denmark. Initially established in the mid-20th century, the breed was developed by crossing native Danish mares with elite stallions from established European bloodlines.

Draft horse

A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK, Ireland and Commonwealth) or dray horse (from the Old English dragan meaning "to draw or haul"; compare Dutch dragen and German tragen meaning "to carry" and Danish drage meaning "to draw" or "to fare"), less often called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor. There are a number of breeds, with varying characteristics, but all share common traits of strength, patience, and a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers.

Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, draft horse showing, logging, recreation, and other uses. They are also commonly used for crossbreeding, especially to light riding breeds such as the Thoroughbred, for the purpose of creating sport horses of warmblood type. While most draft horses are used for driving, they can be ridden and some of the lighter draft breeds are capable performers under saddle.

Dutch Warmblood

A Dutch Warmblood is a warmblood type of horse registered with the Koninklijk Warmbloed Paardenstamboek Nederland (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands (KWPN), which governs the breeding of competitive dressage and show jumping horses, as well as the show harness horse and Gelderlander, and a hunter studbook in North America. Developed through a breeding program that began in the 1960s, the Dutch are some of the most successful competition horses developed in postwar Europe.

German warmblood

German Warmblood may refer generally to any of the various warmblood horses of Germany, or more specifically to a warmblood registered with the nationwide German Horse Breeding Society (ZfDP). Beneath the umbrella term German warmblood are several regional variations on a singular standard; individual German warmblood types are not necessarily considered "breeds", because they have an open stud book and freely exchange genetic material between each other, with other warmblood types, with Anglo-Arabians, and with breeds like the Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Trakehner. (The Trakehner, while a warmblood horse from Germany, has a closed stud book and thus, like the Thoroughbred and Arabian, is considered a "true" breed.)

Hanoverian horse

A Hanoverian (German: Hannoveraner) is a warmblood horse breed originating in Germany, which is often seen in the Olympic Games and other competitive English riding styles, and has won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions. It is one of the oldest, most numerous, and most successful of the warmbloods. Originally a carriage horse, infusions of Thoroughbred blood lightened it to make it more agile and useful for competition. The Hanoverian is known for a good temperament, athleticism, beauty, and grace.

Heavy warmblood

The heavy warmbloods (German: Schwere Warmblüter) are a group of horse breeds primarily from continental Europe. The title includes the Ostfriesen ("East Friesian") and Alt-Oldenburger ("Old-Oldenburger"), Groningen, and similar horses from Silesia, Saxony-Thuringia, and Bavaria. Breeds like the Hungarian Nonius, Kladruber, and Cleveland Bay are also often classed as "heavy warmbloods." They are the ancestors of the modern warmbloods, and are typically bred by preservation groups to fit the pre-World War model of the all-purpose utility horse. Unlike the registries of the sport horses that followed them, many heavy warmblood registries maintain closed or partly closed studbooks. However, external evaluation and performance testing of the breeding stock is still a key element in these registries. Many of the heavy warmbloods are selected primarily for family-friendly temperaments.

List of horse breeds

This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms for types of horse that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. While there is no scientifically accepted definition of the term "breed", a breed is defined generally as having distinct true-breeding characteristics over a number of generations. Its members may be called "purebred". In most cases, bloodlines of horse breeds are recorded with a breed registry. The concept is somewhat flexible in horses, as open stud books are created for developing horse breeds that are not yet fully true-breeding.

Registries also are considered the authority as to whether a given breed is listed as a "horse" or a "pony". There are also a number of "color breed", sport horse, and gaited horse registries for horses with various phenotypes or other traits, which admit any animal fitting a given set of physical characteristics, even if there is little or no evidence of the trait being a true-breeding characteristic. Other recording entities or specialty organizations may recognize horses from multiple breeds, thus, for the purposes of this article, such animals are classified as a "type" rather than a "breed".

The breeds and types listed here are those that already have a Wikipedia article. For a more extensive list, see the List of all horse breeds in DAD-IS.

For additional information, see horse breed, horse breeding, and the individual articles listed below. Additional articles may be listed under Category:Horse breeds and Category:Types of horse.

Rhenish Warmblood

The Rhenish Warmblood, German: Rheinisches Warmblut or Rheinisches Reitpferd, is a German warmblood breed of sport horse. It was registered with the Rheinisches Pferdestammbuch until 2014, when the Hannoveraner Verband took over management of the stud-book. It is traditionally bred around Warendorf State Stud, which it shares with the Westphalian, and is bred to the same standard as the Westphalian and other German warmbloods, such as the Bavarian Warmblood, Mecklenburger, Brandenburger, and Württemberger.

Sport horse

A sport horse or sporthorse is a type of horse, rather than any particular breed. The term is usually applied to horses bred for the traditional Olympic equestrian sporting events of dressage, eventing, show jumping, and combined driving, but the precise definition varies. In the United States, horses used in hunt seat and show hunter competition are often classed as sport horses, whereas the British show hunter is classified as a "show horse."

Horses used for western riding disciplines, Saddle seat, or any form of horse racing are generally not described as sport horses.

Swedish Warmblood

The Swedish Warmblood is a horse breed that was developed at Strömsholm and Flyinge in Sweden. It descends from imported stock in the 17th century. The horses imported to Sweden were from Denmark, Germany, England, Hungary, France, Russia, Spain, and Turkey. These horses were extraordinarily varied, but along the way became the Swedish Warmblood.

Swiss Warmblood

The Swiss Warmblood, also called the Einsiedler, is a horse breed, founded in the 10th century on the local Schwyer stock. It was first bred at the Benedictine Monastery of Einsiedeln. They are now raised at the Federal Stud at Avenches.

Trakehner

Trakehner is a light warmblood breed of horse, originally developed at the East Prussian state stud farm in the town of Trakehnen from which the breed takes its name. The state stud (de:Hauptgestüt Trakehnen) was established in 1731 and operated until 1944, when the fighting of World War II led to the annexing of East Prussia by Russia, and the town containing the stud renamed as Yasnaya Polyana.

The Trakehner typically stands between 15.2 and 17 hands (62 and 68 inches, 157 and 173 cm). They can be any color, with bay, gray, chestnut and black being the most common, though the breed also includes few roan and tobiano pinto horses. It is considered to be the lightest and most refined of the warmbloods, due to its closed stud book which allows entry of only Trakehner, as well as few selected Thoroughbred, Anglo-Arabian, Shagya and Arabian bloodlines.

Westphalian horse

The Westphalian, or Westfalen, is a warmblood horse bred in the Westphalia region of western Germany. The Westphalian is closely affiliated with the state-owned stud farm of Warendorf, which it shares with the Rhinelander. Since World War II, the Westphalian horse has been bred to the same standard as the other German warmbloods, and they are particularly famous as Olympic-level show jumpers and dressage horses. Next to the Hanoverian, the Westphalian studbook has the largest breeding population of any warmblood in Germany.

Württemberger

The Württemberger, Baden-Württemberger or Württemberg is a Warmblood horse breed originating in Germany. They are primarily riding horses, and are selectively bred for dressage and show jumping.

Zangersheide

The Zangersheide is a Belgian breed or stud-book of warmblood sport horses. It is one of three Belgian warmblood breeds or stud-books, the others being the Belgian Sport Horse and the Belgian Warmblood. It is bred at the stud of the same name near Lanaken, in the province of Limburg in eastern Flanders, close to the Dutch border. Breeding and selection are directed at performance in show-jumping.:166

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