Walter Q. Gresham

Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832 – May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. He served as a federal judge and in the Cabinet of two presidential administrations. He affiliated with the Republican Party for most of his career but joined the Democratic Party late in life.

Gresham began a legal career in Corydon, Indiana after attending the Indiana University Bloomington. He campaigned for the Republican Party in the 1856 elections and won election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1860. He served as a Union general during the American Civil War, taking part in the Siege of Vicksburg and other major battles. After the war, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Gresham to a position on the United States District Court for the District of Indiana. Gresham remained on that court until 1883, when he resigned his position to become Postmaster General under President Chester A. Arthur. After briefly serving as Arthur's Secretary of the Treasury, Gresham accepted appointment to the United States circuit court for the Seventh Circuit.

Gresham was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention and the 1888 Republican National Convention. Much of his support for those nominations came from agrarian unions like the Farmers' Alliance. In the 1892 presidential election, Gresham broke with the Republican Party and advocated the election of Democrat Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland won the election, Gresham resigned from the federal bench to serve as Cleveland's Secretary of State. Gresham held that position until his death in 1895.

Walter Gresham
Walter Q. Gresham - Brady-Handy
33rd United States Secretary of State
In office
March 7, 1893 – May 28, 1895
PresidentGrover Cleveland
Preceded byJohn Foster
Succeeded byRichard Olney
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
In office
June 16, 1891 – March 3, 1893
Preceded bySeat established
Succeeded byJames Jenkins
Judge of the United States Circuit Court for the Seventh Circuit
In office
October 28, 1884 – June 16, 1891
Appointed byChester Arthur
Preceded byThomas Drummond
Succeeded bySeat abolished
35th United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
September 5, 1884 – October 28, 1884
PresidentChester Arthur
Preceded byCharles Folger
Succeeded byHugh McCulloch
31st United States Postmaster General
In office
April 9, 1883 – September 4, 1884
PresidentChester Arthur
Preceded byTimothy Howe
Succeeded byFrank Hatton
Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Indiana
In office
September 1, 1869 – April 9, 1883
Appointed byUlysses Grant
Preceded byDavid McDonald
Succeeded byWilliam Woods
Personal details
Walter Quintin Gresham

March 17, 1832
Lanesville, Indiana, U.S.
DiedMay 28, 1895 (aged 63)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyWhig (Before 1854)
Republican (1854–1892)
Democratic (1892–1895)
Spouse(s)Matilda McGrain
EducationIndiana University, Bloomington
Military service
Allegiance United States
 • Union
Branch/service United States Army
 • Union Army
Years of service1861–1864
RankUnion Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brigadier General
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War


He was born near Lanesville, Indiana, to William Gresham (1802–1834) and his wife Sarah Davis. William had been elected a Colonel in the militia of Indiana. He was a member of the Whig Party and was elected Sheriff of Harrison County, Indiana. On January 26, 1834, William was fatally stabbed while assisting in the arrest of Levi Sipes, a so-called "desperado".[1]

His paternal grandparents were George Gresham (born 1776) and Mary Pennington. George was born in Virginia but later settled in Kentucky. He moved to Indiana in 1809. Mary was the only sister of Dennis Pennington, speaker of the first Indiana Senate.[1]

George was a son of Lawrence Gresham. Lawrence was born in England but moved to the Colony of Virginia in 1759. He initially served as an indentured servant of an uncle. He was released from service upon reaching adulthood. He later served in the Continental Army. He married Sarah O'Neal. Lawrence followed his son to Kentucky and Indiana well into his old age.[1]

Early years

Walter Gresham spent two years in an academy at Corydon, Indiana, one year at the Indiana University Bloomington, then studied law under Judge William A. Porter in Corydon before he was admitted to the bar in 1854 and started a practice in Corydon. He was active as a campaign speaker for the Republican ticket in 1856, married Matilda McGrain in 1858, and in 1860 was elected to the Indiana House of Representatives as a Republican from a strong Democratic district. In the House, as chairman of the committee on military affairs, he did much to prepare the Indiana troops for service in the federal army.

Civil War

Gresham was commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 38th Indiana Volunteer Infantry on September 18, 1861. In December of that year, he was promoted to colonel and placed in command of the 53rd Indiana Volunteer Infantry.[2] The 53rd Indiana Infantry subsequently took part in Grant's Tennessee campaign of 1862, including the Siege of Corinth and Battle of Vicksburg. During the Siege of Vicksburg, Colonel Gresham commanded a brigade. In August 1863 he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers, and was placed in command of the Federal forces at Natchez, Mississippi. In 1864 he commanded a division of the XVII Corps in Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, and before the Battle of Atlanta, on July 20, he received a gunshot wound to his knee that forced him to retire from active service, and left him lame for life. In 1865 he was appointed a brevet major general of volunteers.

Political career

WQ Gresham
Walter Quintin Gresham

After the war he practiced law at New Albany, Indiana, and on September 1, 1869 received a recess appointment from President Ulysses S. Grant to a seat on the United States District Judge for Indiana vacated by David McDonald. Formally nominated on December 6, 1869, Gresham was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 21, 1869, and received his commission the same day. On April 9, 1883 he resigned from the bench to succeed Timothy O. Howe (1816–1883) as Postmaster General in President Chester A. Arthur's cabinet, taking an active part in the suppression of the Louisiana Lottery, supervising the successful September, 1883 introduction of Postal Notes. During his service as Postmaster General, Gresham, Oregon, was named after him.

In September 1884, Gresham succeeded Charles J. Folger as United States Secretary of the Treasury, but the following month he resigned to accept a recess appointment, made on October 28, 1884, to a seat on the United States circuit court for the Seventh Circuit, vacated by Thomas Drummond. Gresham was formally nominated on December 3, 1884, and confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 1884, receiving his commission the same day. On June 16, 1891, Gresham was reassigned by operation of law to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

Gresham was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1884 and 1888, in the latter year leading for some time in the balloting. His 1888 candidacy was supported by several notable agrarian unions, including The Agricultural Wheel, Grange and Farmer's Alliance.[3] Gradually, however, he grew out of sympathy with the Republican leaders and policy, and in 1892 advocated the election of the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland, for the presidency. On March 3, 1893, he resigned from the bench, and from March 7, 1893, until his death at Washington, D.C., on May 28, 1895, he was Secretary of State in President Grover Cleveland's Cabinet. His grave is in Arlington National Cemetery.

He is the namesake of communities in Oregon, Nebraska and Wisconsin.[4]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Matilda Gresham, "The Life of Walter Quintin Gresham" (1919)
  2. ^ Perry, Henry F. (1906). History of the 38th Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry. Palo Alto CA: F.A. Stuart. pp. 14–15.
  3. ^ "The Farmers for Gresham.; Walter Q. Gresham. The Strong And Cunning Hand". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. 1888-06-20. p. 12. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  4. ^ Sedgwick, Theron E. (1921). York County, Nebraska and Its People: Together with a Condensed History of the State. S.J. Clarke. p. 463.

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
David McDonald
Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Indiana
Succeeded by
William Woods
Preceded by
Thomas Drummond
Judge of the United States Circuit Court for the Seventh Circuit
Seat abolished
New seat Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
Succeeded by
James Jenkins
Political offices
Preceded by
Timothy Howe
United States Postmaster General
Succeeded by
Frank Hatton
Preceded by
Charles Folger
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Succeeded by
Hugh McCulloch
Preceded by
John Foster
United States Secretary of State
Succeeded by
Richard Olney
1888 Republican National Convention

The 1888 Republican National Convention was a presidential nominating convention held at the Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois, on June 19–25, 1888. It resulted in the nomination of former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana for President and Levi P. Morton of New York, a former Congressman and Minister to France, for Vice President. During the convention, Frederick Douglass was invited to speak and became the first African-American to have his name put forward for a presidential nomination in a major party's roll call vote; he received one vote from Kentucky on the fourth ballot.

The ticket won in the election of 1888, defeating President Grover Cleveland and former Senator Allen G. Thurman from Ohio.

Charles J. Folger

Charles James Folger (April 16, 1818 – September 4, 1884) was an American lawyer and politician. He served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1881 until his death.

Fort Beauregard

Fort Beauregard, located half a mile north of the village of Harrisonburg, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana, was one of four Confederate forts guarding the Ouachita River during the American Civil War. In 1863, four Union gunboats attacked it, unsuccessfully.

Frank Hatton (U.S. politician)

Frank Hatton (April 28, 1846 – April 30, 1894) was an American politician and newspaperman. He was a Union Army veteran of the American Civil War, served as United States Postmaster General, and later edited The Washington Post.

German submarine U-221

German submarine U-221 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

Ordered on 15 August 1940 from the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel, she was laid down on 16 June 1941 as yard number 651, launched on 14 March 1942 and commissioned on 9 May 1942 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Hans-Hartwig Trojer.

A member of twelve wolfpacks, she sank a total of eleven ships for a total of 65,589 gross register tons (GRT) in five patrols. In addition, it sunk

10 warships with a total tonnage 759 tons and damaged one ship with a total tonnage of 7,197 GRT.

Gresham, Missouri

Gresham is an extinct town in Polk County, in the U.S. state of Missouri.A post office called Gresham was established in 1885, and remained in operation until 1900. The community has the name of Walter Q. Gresham, 33rd United States Secretary of State.

Gresham, Oregon

Gresham is a city located in Multnomah County, Oregon, in the United States, immediately east of Portland. Though it began as a settlement in the mid-1800s, it was not officially incorporated as a city until 1905; it was named after Walter Quinton Gresham, the American Civil War general and United States Postmaster General.

The city's early economy was sustained largely by farming, and by the mid-20th century the city experienced a population boom, growing from 4,000 residents to over 10,000 between 1960 and 1970. The population was 105,594 at the 2010 census, making Gresham the fourth largest city in Oregon.

Gresham, Wisconsin

Gresham is a village in Shawano County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 586 at the 2010 census.

Gresham (surname)

Gresham is a surname.

Those bearing it include:

Diane Guthrie-Gresham (born 1971), Jamaican track and field athlete

Douglas Gresham (born 1945), British film producer

Gloria Gresham, American costume designer

Grits Gresham (1922–2008), American sportsman

James Gresham (disambiguation)

Sir John Gresham (1495–1556), Lord Mayor of London and founder of Gresham's School

Joy Gresham (1915–1960), poet married to C. S. Lewis

Peter Gresham (born 1933), New Zealand politician

Sir Richard Gresham (1494–1549), merchant

Suzette Gresham, American chef

Sir Thomas Gresham (c. 1519 – 1579), after whom Gresham's Law is named, founder of Gresham College

Walter Q. Gresham (1832–1895), American statesman and jurist

William Lindsay Gresham (1909–1962), American author

William Gresham, (1870 – after 1894), English footballer

Hugh McCulloch

Hugh McCulloch (December 7, 1808 – May 24, 1895) was an American statesman who served two non-consecutive terms as U.S. Treasury Secretary under three presidents. He was opposed to the National Banking Act of 1864, and attempted to bring the United States back to the gold standard throughout his career.

John W. Foster

John Watson Foster (March 2, 1836 – November 15, 1917) was an American diplomat and military officer, as well as a lawyer and journalist. His highest public office was U.S. Secretary of State under Benjamin Harrison, although he also proved influential as a lawyer in technically private practice in the international relations sphere.

List of Indiana state historical markers in Harrison County

This is a list of the Indiana state historical markers in Harrison County.

This is intended to be a complete list of the official state historical markers placed in Harrison County, Indiana, United States by the Indiana Historical Bureau. The locations of the historical markers and their latitude and longitude coordinates are included below when available, along with their names, years of placement, and topics as recorded by the Historical Bureau. There are 22 historical markers located in Harrison County.

List of Secretaries of State of the United States

This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.

Quitman, Mississippi

Quitman is a city in Clarke County, Mississippi, United States, along the Chickasawhay River. The population was 2,323 at the 2010 census. Quitman is the county seat of Clarke County.

Richard Olney

Richard Olney (September 15, 1835 – April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. He served as United States Attorney General and Secretary of State under President Grover Cleveland, and in the latter position, briefly, under Cleveland's successor, William McKinley. As attorney general, Olney used injunctions against striking workers in the Pullman strike, setting a precedent, and advised the use of federal troops, when legal means failed to control the strikers. As secretary of state, he raised the status of America in the world by elevating U.S. diplomatic posts to the status of embassy.

Timothy O. Howe

Timothy Otis Howe (February 24, 1816 – March 25, 1883) was a member of the United States Senate, representing the state of Wisconsin from March 4, 1861 to March 3, 1879. He also served as U.S. Postmaster General from 1881 until his death in 1883.

United States Assistant Secretary of State

Assistant Secretary of State (A/S) is a title used for many executive positions in the United States Department of State, ranking below the Under Secretaries. A set of six Assistant Secretaries reporting to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs manage diplomatic missions within their designated geographic regions, plus one Assistant Secretary dealing with international organizations. Assistant Secretaries usually manage individual bureaus of the Department of State. When the manager of a bureau or another agency holds a title other than Assistant Secretary, such as "Director," it can be said to be of "Assistant Secretary equivalent rank." Assistant Secretaries typically have a set of deputies, referred to as Deputy Assistant Secretaries (DAS).

From 1853 until 1913, the Assistant Secretary of State was the second-ranking official within the U.S. Department of State. Prior to 1853, the Chief Clerk was the second-ranking officer, and after 1913, the Counselor was the second-ranking position, though the Assistant Secretary continued to be a position until 1924. From 1867, the Assistant Secretary of State was assisted by a Second Assistant Secretary of State, and from 1875, by a Third Assistant Secretary of State. Specific duties of the incumbents varied over the years and included such responsibilities as supervising the Diplomatic and Consular Bureaus, general supervision of correspondence, consular appointments, administration of the Department, and supervision of economic matters and various geographic divisions.

Today, the title of the second-ranking position is the Deputy Secretary of State, with the next tier of State Department officials bearing the rank of Under Secretary of State.

The following is a list of current offices bearing the title of "Assistant Secretary of State":

Reporting directly to the United States Secretary of State:

Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research

Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs:

Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Management:

Assistant Secretary of State for Administration

Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment:

Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Energy Resources

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs:

Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for International Information Programs

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs:

Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation

Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance

Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights:

Assistant Secretary of State for Conflict and Stabilization Operations

Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs

Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and MigrationThe following roles also possess a rank equivalent to Assistant Secretary:

Chief of Protocol of the United States

Coordinator for Counterterrorism

Executive Secretary of the Department of State

Inspector General of the Department of State

Legal Adviser of the Department of State

Director General of the Foreign Service

Director of Policy Planning

United States Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues

United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues

United States Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

United States Global AIDS Coordinator

United States postal notes

This article is about The US Postal Notes of 1883-1894. You might be looking for information on Post-it notes.

Postal notes were the specialized money order successors to the United States Department of the Treasury's postage and fractional currency. They were created so Americans could safely and inexpensively (for a three cent fee) send sums of money under $5 to distant places.Postal Notes were privately produced by three different firms in six design types during three four-year contracts. Developed under Postmaster General Walter Q. Gresham, they were first issued at the nation's post offices on Monday, September 3, 1883. Numerous "first day" souvenir notes have survived.Government officials, wary of the continuing problem of postal theft, initially mandated that the notes could be cashable only in the city named by the purchaser. Engraved and printed by the Homer Lee Bank Note Company, the first two designs (Types I and II) had a space for the postal clerk to indicate where the note was being sent. If stolen en route, the note had no value, as it could not be cashed in any other city. All Postal Notes were printed on a watermarked security paper produced by Crane & Co. that features a unique watermark. Type I notes were printed on a yellow security paper blank that was about 10% larger than all subsequent issues. Type II and later notes were printed on a creamy white security paper.

In January 1887, Congress changed the applicable law. Rather than being cashable at only one named post office, it decided that newly issued Postal Notes could be cashable at any money order office – the system's larger and busier offices. To comply with the new law, "Any Money Order Office" was rubber-stamped or hand written in place of a specific paying city on the Type II forms. These notes are called Type II-A.

To comply with the law, Homer Lee's engravers added the words "ANY MONEY ORDER OFFICE" in a level line into the second design's printing plates. Due to the short period of time between the passage of the new law and the start of the second production contract (which Homer Lee did not receive), few post offices ordered and issued Type III Postal Notes.

The American Bank Note Company of New York was the winning bidder for the second Postal Note engraving and printing contract. Thomas F. Morris, creator of the acclaimed designs for U.S. currency and stamps, as well as stock and bond certificates, etc., was assigned to design and engrave the new Postal Note (Type IV). No major changes were required during American's four-year contract. The only change noted during ABNCo's contract was the decade change on the date line from "188___" to "189___." All Postal Notes issued with the American Bank Note Company logotype are Type IV.The third and final Postal Note engraving and printing contract extended from September 1891 to June 30, 1894. Dunlap & Clarke of Philadelphia won the competition. Their design, unchanged during the length of their contract, is catalogued as Type V.

Between 1883 and 1894, some 70.8 million Postal Notes were issued, used as intended, then destroyed. Approximately 1,500 have survived for modern collectors and historians. Thanks to the government's publicity, the first and final designs are the most "common" notes. No publicity was produced for the other design changes. Type III notes are the design rarities of the series.

Walter Gresham

Walter Gresham may refer to:

Walter Q. Gresham, American statesman and jurist

Walter Gresham (Texas politician)

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