Walter Laqueur

Walter Ze'ev Laqueur (26 May 1921 – 30 September 2018) was an American historian, journalist and political commentator. He was an influential scholar on the subjects of terrorism and political violence.[1][2]

Walter Ze'ev Laqueur
Born26 May 1921
Died30 September 2018 (aged 97)
NationalityAmerican
OccupationHistorian and political commentator

Biography

Walter Laqueur was born in Breslau, Lower Silesia, Germany (today Wrocław, Poland), into a Jewish family. In 1938, he left Germany, immigrating to the British Mandate of Palestine. His parents, who were unable to leave, were murdered in the Holocaust. After a year of study at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Laqueur joined a kibbutz and worked as an agricultural laborer from 1939 to 1944.[3] Between 1939 and 1944, he lived at Kibbutz Sha'ar HaGolan, Kibbutz Ein Shemer, and, as a member, Kibbutz HaZore'a. In 1955, Laqueur moved to London.

Laqueur died at his home in Washington, DC, on 30 September 2018.[4]

Journalism and academic career

From 1944, when he moved to Jerusalem, until his departure in 1955 he worked as a journalist for the Hashomer Hatzair newspaper, Mishmar (later, Al HaMishmar), and for The Palestine Post (later, The Jerusalem Post). In addition, he was the Middle East correspondent for journals in the United States and a commentator on world politics for Israel radio.[3]

After moving to London, Laqueur founded and edited Soviet Survey, a journal focusing on Soviet and East European culture. Survey was one of the numerous publications of the CIA-funded Congress for Cultural Freedom.

He was Director of the Institute of Contemporary History and the Wiener Library in London from 1965 to 1994. He was founder and editor, with George Mosse, of the Journal of Contemporary History. From 1969 he was a member, and later Chairman (until 2000), of the International Research Council of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington. He was also founding editor of The Washington Papers. He was Professor of the History of Ideas at Brandeis University from 1968 to 1972, and University Professor at Georgetown University from 1976 to 1988. He was also a visiting professor of history and government at Harvard, the University of Chicago, Tel Aviv University and Johns Hopkins University.

Laqueur wrote extensively about the middle east, the German Youth Movement, Zionism, the cultural history of the Weimar Republic, Communism and the Soviet Union, the Holocaust, the Cold War, fascism, post-WW2 Europe and the decline of Europe. He pioneered the study of guerrilla warfare and terrorism. After the fall of the Soviet Union, he accurately predicted that Russia would not become a democracy but an authoritarian system based on nationalist populism. His books have been translated into many languages. His articles on international affairs appeared in many American and European newspapers and periodicals.

Published works

  • Communism and Nationalism in the Middle East, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1956
  • Nasser's Egypt, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1957
  • The Soviet Cultural Scene, 1956–1957, co-edited with George Lichtheim, New York: Praeger, 1958
  • The Middle East in Transition: Studies in Contemporary History, New York: Praeger, 1958.
  • The Soviet Union and the Middle East, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959
  • Polycentrism: The New Factor in International Communism, co-edited with Leopold Labedz, New York: Praeger, 1962
  • Young Germany: A History of the German Youth Movement, New York: Basic Books, 1962
  • Heimkehr: Reisen in der Vergangenheit, Berlin, Propylaen Verlag, 1964
  • Neue Welle in der Sowjetunion: Beharrung und Fortschritt in Literatur und Kunst, Vienna: Europa Verlag, 1964
  • Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1965
  • 1914: The Coming of the First World War, co-edited with George L. Mosse, New York: Harper & Row, 1966
  • Education and Social Structure in the Twentieth Century, co-edited with George L. Mosse, New York: Harper & Row, 1967
  • The Fate of the Revolution: Interpretations of Soviet History, London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967
  • The Road to Jerusalem: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1967, New York: Macmillan, 1968 (published in the UK as The Road to War, 1967: The Origins of the Arab-Israel Conflict, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969)
  • Linksintellektuelle zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen, co-written with George Mosse, Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1969
  • The Struggle for the Middle East: The Soviet Union in the Mediterranean, 1958–1968, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969
  • Europe Since Hitler, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970
  • A Dictionary of Politics, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1971 ISBN 0-297-00091-8
  • Out of the Ruins of Europe, New York: Library Press, 1971 ISBN 0-912050-01-2
  • A Reader's Guide to Contemporary History, co-edited with Bernard Krikler, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972 ISBN 0-297-99465-4.
  • A History of Zionism, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1972 ISBN 0-03-091614-3
  • Neo-Isolationism and the World of the Seventies, New York: Library Press, 1972 ISBN 0-912050-38-1
  • Confrontation: The Middle East War and World Politics', London: Wildwood House, 1974 ISBN 0-7045-0096-5
  • Historians in Politics, co-edited with George L. Mosse, London: Sage Publications, 1974 ISBN 0-8039-9930-5
  • Weimar: A Cultural History, 1918–1933, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1974 ISBN 0-297-76574-4
  • Fascism: A Reader's Guide: Analyses, Interpretations, Bibliography, editor, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976 ISBN 0-520-03033-8
  • Terrorism, Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1977 ISBN 0-316-51470-5
  • Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1977 ISBN 0-297-77184-1
  • The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology, editor, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1977 ISBN 0-87722-095-6
  • The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology, editor, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978 ISBN 0-87722-119-7
  • The Human Rights Reader, co-edited with Barry Rubin, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979 ISBN 0-87722-170-7
  • A Continent Astray: Europe, 1970–1978, London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1979 ISBN 0-19-502510-5
  • The Missing Years [a novel], London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980 ISBN 0 297 77707 6
  • Farewell to Europe [a novel], London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson,1981 ISBN 0 297 77870 6
  • The Terrible Secret: Suppression of the Truth about Hitler's Final Solution, Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1980 ISBN 0-316-51474-8
  • The Political Psychology of Appeasement: Finlandization and Other Unpopular Essays, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1980 ISBN 0-87855-336-3
  • "Hollanditis: A New Stage in European Neutralism", Commentary, August 1981
  • The Second World War: Essays in Military and Political History, London: Sage Publications, 1982 ISBN 0-8039-9780-9
  • America, Europe, and the Soviet Union: Selected Essays, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1983 ISBN 0-87855-362-2
  • The Pattern of Soviet Conduct in the Third World, editor, New York: Praeger, 1983 ISBN 0-03-063944-1
  • Looking Forward, Looking Back: A Decade of World Politics, New York: Praeger, 1983 ISBN 0-03-063422-9
  • The Israel-Arab Reader: A Documentary History of the Middle East Conflict, co-edited with Barry Rubin, London and New York: Penguin Books, 1984 ISBN 0-14-022588-9
  • Germany Today: A Personal Report, Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1985 ISBN 0-316-51453-5
  • A World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence, New York: Basic Books, 1985 ISBN 0-465-09237-3
  • European Peace Movements and the Future of the Western Alliance, co-edited with Robert Hunter, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1985 ISBN 0-88738-035-2
  • Breaking The Silence, co-written with Richard Breitman, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986 ISBN 0-671-54694-5
  • The Fate of the Revolution: Interpretations of Soviet History from 1917 to the Present, New York: Scribner's, 1987 ISBN 0-684-18903-8
  • America in the World, 1962–1987: A Strategic and Political Reader, co-edited with Brad Roberts, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987 ISBN 0-312-01318-3
  • The Age of Terrorism, Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1987 ISBN 0-316-51478-0
  • The Long Road to Freedom: Russia and Glasnost, Collier Books, 1989, ISBN 0-02-034090-7
  • Soviet Realities: Culture and Politics from Stalin to Gorbachev, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1990 ISBN 0-88738-302-5
  • Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations, New York : Scribner's, 1990 ISBN 0-684-19203-9
  • Soviet Union 2000: Reform or Revolution?, co-written with John Erickson, New York : St. Martin's Press, 1990 ISBN 0-312-04425-9
  • Thursday's Child Has Far to Go: A Memoir of the Journeying Years, New York: Scribner's, 1992 ISBN 0-684-19421-X
  • Europe in Our Time: A History, 1945–1992, New York: Viking, 1992 ISBN 0-670-83507-2
  • Black Hundreds: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia, New York : Harper Collins, 1993 ISBN 0-06-018336-5
  • The Dream That Failed: Reflections on the Soviet Union, London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 ISBN 0-19-508978-2
  • Fascism: Past, Present, Future, London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996 ISBN 0-19-509245-7
  • Fin de Siècle and Other Essays on America & Europe, New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Transaction Publishers, 1997 ISBN 1-56000-261-1
  • Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical and Critical Study, New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Transaction Publishers, 1997 ISBN 0-7658-0406-9
  • Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998 ISBN 0-943875-89-7
  • The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, London and New York : Oxford University Press, 1999 ISBN 0-19-511816-2
  • Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees From Nazi Germany, Hanover, NH, and London: University Press of New England [for] Brandeis University Press, 2001 ISBN 1-58465-106-7
  • The Holocaust Encyclopedia, co-edited with Judith Tydor Baumel, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-300-08432-3
  • A History of Terrorism, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2001 ISBN 0-7658-0799-8
  • Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages, Sourcebooks, Inc., 2004 ISBN 1-59429-035-0
  • No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004
  • Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City, Sourcebooks, Inc., 2006 ISBN 1-4022-0632-1
  • The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day, London and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-19-530429-2
  • The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent, Thomas Dunne Books, 2007 ISBN 0-312-36870-4
  • Disraelia: A Counterfactual History, 1848-2008, Middle East Strategy at Harvard, 2008, http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/mesh/pages/laqueur_disraelia/
  • Best of Times, Worst of Times, The Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry Series, 2009, ISBN 978-1584657989
  • After the Fall: The End of the European Dream and the Decline of a Continent, New York: Macmillan, 2011, ISBN 978-1250000088
  • Harvest of a Decade: Disraelia and Other Essays, Transaction Publishers, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4128-4232-7
  • Optimism in Politics : Reflections on Contemporary History, Transaction Publishers, 2014, ISBN 978-1-4128-5266-1
  • Putinism : Russia and its Future with the West, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2015
  • The Future of Terrorism: ISIS, Al-Qaeda, and the Alt-Right, co-authored with Christopher Wall, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2018

References

  1. ^ Hoffman, Bruce (2011). "In Celebration of Walter Laqueur's 90th Birthday: Reflections on His Contributions to the Study of Terrorism and Guerrilla Warfare". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 34 (9): 667–671. doi:10.1080/1057610x.2011.594942. ISSN 1057-610X.
  2. ^ Hoffman, Bruce (2 November 2018). "Walter Laqueur, 26 May 1921–30 September 2018". Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 41 (11): 847–849. doi:10.1080/1057610x.2018.1532175. ISSN 1057-610X.
  3. ^ a b Biography Archived 18 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Langer, Emily (30 September 2018). "Walter Laqueur, eminent scholar who probed the 20th century, dies at 97". Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved 30 September 2018.

External links

Antisemitism (authors)

This is a list of authors in the field of antisemitism in alphabetical order.

Canadian Institute for the Study of Antisemitism

The Canadian Institute for the Study of Antisemitism (CISA) is one of seven institutes in the world dedicated to the scholarly study of antisemitism. Founded in 2010 by Canadian historian Dr. Catherine Chatterley, the Institute is a national organization based in Winnipeg.CISA's Annual Shindleman Family Lecture has been delivered by US State Department Special Envoy Hannah Rosenthal, Deborah Lipstadt, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Alvin Rosenfeld, Jeffrey Herf, and Irwin Cotler.

CISA is designed to facilitate research, scholarship, and teaching on the nature and history of antisemitism, in both its classical and contemporary forms, and to provide public education programming on this subject matter for Canadians. In 2016, CISA established the first academic journal for the study of antisemitism, Antisemitism Studies, published by Indiana University Press. The editorial board includes prominent scholars such as Yehuda Bauer, Walter Laqueur, and Dina Porat, and the Editor-in-Chief is Catherine Chatterley.

The organization's website states that it "is a registered Canadian charity committed to the uprooting of hatred and stereotypes through progressive education and by working cooperatively to build a more humane future for all people." Letters from the Canadian public in response to this work are accessible here.

CISA's Director and Chairman were invited to accompany the Canadian government to Israel as part of its official delegation in January 2014.

Dmitry Yurasov

Dmitry Gennadievich Yurasov (Russian: Дмитрий Геннадиевич Юрасов) (born 25 June 1964 in Moscow) is a Russian historian and human rights defender. Starting from age sixteen, he has been gathering information about victims of Soviet political repressions, those who were imprisoned, executed, died in detention, or went missing. He began his research in 1981 while working in the state archives as a paleaographer, second rank. He secretly studied the files of those who had been killed, collecting eventually 123,000 cards from a register that, according to his estimate, amounted to 16 million files. While still only a student, he first publicly mentioned his results at a historical seminar in the central writers' building in Moscow on April 30, 1987. They caused quite a sensation, which resulted in his access to the archives being blocked, but also in many offers of help from volunteers all over the Soviet Union.

After graduating from the History Department, he has been working in various archives, including those of the USSR Supreme Court. This work provided him with more opportunities to expand his research. In February 1993, he was said to have as many as 430,000 files on people imprisoned or executed.

Dimitry Yurasov is mentioned in David Remnick's Lenin's Tomb book, where Remnick offers a hike to Yurasov.

According to Walter Laqueur, who mentions him in his 1990 book Stalin - The Glasnost Revelations, Yurasov gave TV interviews on the programs Vzglyad and with Sobesednik and Sovetskaya molodyozh on December 24, 1988. He was also published in Sovetskaya bibliografiya 5, pp. 61–67, in 1988.

Evelyn Anderson

Evelyn N. Anderson (1909–1977), was a journalist in the UK. Born Lore Seligmann on 13 May 1909 to a German Jewish family, she joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) while a student in Frankfurt in 1927. She abandoned the KPD two years later over its sectarian attacks on the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), and subsequently joined a small left-wing SPD fraction, the Leninist Organisation, later known as Neu Beginnen. After Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, she left Germany for Great Britain, where she and her husband Paul Anderson (1908–1972) became prominent members of the small group of socialist exiles from Nazi Germany in Britain that included Julius Braunthal and Franz Borkenau.

Her long article "The Underground Struggle in Germany", published under the pseudonym Evelyn Lend, occupied nearly the whole of an issue of Fact, edited by Raymond Postgate, in 1938. She revisited the subject in Hammer or Anvil?: the Story of the German Working Class Movement, which George Orwell’s wife Eileen helped edit and Orwell reviewed in the Manchester Evening News.

She and her husband worked for British black propaganda radio station, Sender der Europäischen Revolution which broadcast news and anti-Nazi propaganda to Germany between 1940 and 1942. She joined the left-wing weekly, Tribune in 1943 as assistant editor, covering foreign affairs. She became a close friend of Orwell when he joined the paper later the same year, and her strong antipathy to communism played a major role in determining the paper’s political stance in the late 1940s, though she was considered obsessive about eastern Europe by some members of staff. She was joint editor of the Tribune from 1946 to 1952, sharing the job first with Jon Kimche and then with Michael Foot. She later collaborated with the historian Walter Laqueur on a political dictionary.

George Mosse

George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918 – January 22, 1999) was an emigre from Nazi Germany, first to Great Britain and then to the United States, who taught history as a professor at the University of Iowa, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and the Hebrew University. Best known for his studies of Nazism, he authored more than 25 books on topics as diverse as constitutional history, Protestant theology, and the history of masculinity. In 1966, he and Walter Laqueur founded The Journal of Contemporary History, which they co-edited.

Hapoel Hatzair

Hapoel Hatzair (The Young Worker) was a Zionist group active in Palestine from 1905 until 1930. It was founded by A.D. Gordon, Yosef Aharonovich, Yosef Sprinzak and followed a non-Marxist, Zionist, socialist agenda. Hapoel Hatzair was a pacifist, anti-militarist group that sought to establish a Jewish foothold in Palestine through manual labor and agricultural settlement.

Hitler Youth conspiracy

The Hitler Youth conspiracy was a case investigated by the Soviet secret police, during the Great Purge in the late 1930s. Essentially a theory in search of evidence, it nonetheless resulted in the arrest of numerous German teenagers and some in their twenties and beyond, who were accused of having been fascist, anti-communist members of the Hitler Youth and of working against the Soviet Union. Teenagers from the Karl Liebknecht School, from Children's Home No. 6, and adults from factories and elsewhere were arrested, tortured and imprisoned. Many were executed or died in custody. Some were the children of leading communists. Within years, the investigation was found to have been faulty and a number of the investigators were also arrested, with sentences ranging from imprisonment to execution. In the 1950s, following the death of Joseph Stalin, a new examination of the files revealed many of the accusations to have been baseless and a number of the victims were rehabilitated.

Hollanditis

Hollanditis was a term coined in 1981 by the American historian Walter Laqueur. It was used to describe the wave of pacifist neutralism that swept through the Netherlands in the first half of the 1980s and which influenced similar grass roots movements in other European countries. It was the biggest popular movement in the Netherlands in the post-war era and it came as a response to the confrontational politics of the Reagan administration in the US that were seen as a threat to the peaceful co-existence of the 1970s.

The movement gathered pace after a 1981 manifestation against the nuclear arms race in Amsterdam attracted an unexpected 400,000 demonstrators. A motley coalition of anti-military and peace groups of different persuasions came together and collected over 3.75 million signatures (a quarter of the population) against the deployment on Dutch soil of US cruise missiles that were destined to carry nuclear warheads, in particular neutron bombs, but by the time the petition was presented, the Dutch centre-right government had already given in to the diplomatic pressure from NATO. The Hollanditis fever peaked in 1983 with a mass demonstration in The Hague aimed against the deployment. The demonstration drew a record 550,000 participants and was entirely non-violent, unlike other anti-nuclear protests of the era.

Hotel Lux

Hotel Lux (Люксъ) was a hotel in Moscow that, during the early years of the Soviet Union, housed many leading exiled Communists. During the Nazi era, exiles from all over Europe went there, particularly from Germany. A number of them became leading figures in German politics in the postwar era. Initial reports of the hotel were very good, although its problem with rats was mentioned as early as 1921. Communists from more than 50 countries came for congresses and for training or to work. By the 1930s, Joseph Stalin had come to regard the international character of the hotel with suspicion and its occupants as potential spies. His purges created an atmosphere of fear among the occupants, who were faced with mistrust, denunciations, and nightly arrests. The purges at the hotel peaked between 1936 and 1938. Germans who fled Hitler for safety in the Soviet Union found themselves interrogated, arrested, tortured, and sent to forced labor camps. Most of the 178 leading German communists who were killed in Stalin's purges were residents of Hotel Lux.

Institute for New Democracies

The Institute for New Democracies is a United States-based nonprofit organization established to promote good governance, human rights and the rule of law in countries undergoing political transformation.The organization's founders included former U.S. Ambassador Victor Jackovich, historian Walter Laqueur, U.S. foreign policy expert Martha Brill Olcott, philosopher/journalist/diplomat Michael Novak, Margarita Assenova, Mjusa Sever, journalist Mike Stone, Ilona Teleki of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Aimee Breslow, Marek Michalewski, Ruth Greenspan Bell, and Polish politician and journalist Radosław Sikorski. Lawrence DeNardis, a former U.S. Congressman and university president, is currently chairman of its governing board; Margarita Assenova is its executive director.

Journal of Contemporary History

The Journal of Contemporary History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of history in all parts of the world since the end of the First World War. It was established in 1966 by Walter Laqueur and George L. Mosse and is now published quarterly by Sage Publications and edited by Richard J. Evans (University of Cambridge) and Stanley Payne (University of Wisconsin–Madison).

Leopold Labedz

Leopold Łabędź (22 January 1920 – 22 March 1993) was an anti-communist Anglo-Polish commentator on the Soviet Union.

Łabędź was born to a Polish Jewish doctor in Russia. The family soon returned to Warsaw and the young Łabędź decided to follow his father into the medical profession. He studied medicine in Paris. In 1939, he fled to the Soviet zone of occupation and was imprisoned by the Soviets in the Gulag.

He left the Soviet Union in 1942 as part of the Polish Army led by General Władysław Anders. After the war he studied at Bologna University before settling in London, where he studied at the London School of Economics. Strongly anti-communist, Łabędź edited Survey journal and headed the London office of Committee for the Defense of Workers known by its Polish abbreviation as KOR.

Łabędź often campaigned for the Solidarity union in Poland, and for political prisoners in the Soviet Union. Łabędź was one of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's principal champions in the West and often defended the Russian writer against the charge of anti-semitism.

Max Eitingon

Max Eitingon (26 June 1881 – 30 July 1943) was a Belarusian-German medical doctor and psychoanalyst, instrumental in establishing the institutional parameters of psychoanalytic education and training.Eitingon was cofounder and president from 1920 to 1933 of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Polyclinic. He was also director and patron of the Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag (1921-1930), president of the International Psychoanalytic Association (1927-1933), founder and president of the International Training Committee (1925-1943), and founder of the Palestine Psychoanalytic Society (1934) and of the Psychoanalytic Institute of Israel.

Persecution of Christians in the New Testament

The persecution of Christians in the New Testament is an important part of the Early Christian narrative which depicts the early Church as being persecuted for their heterodox beliefs by a Jewish establishment in what was then the Roman province of Judea.

The New Testament, especially the Gospel of John (c. 90–100 AD), has traditionally been interpreted as relating Christian accounts of the Pharisee rejection of Jesus and accusations of the Pharisee responsibility for his crucifixion. The Acts of the Apostles depicts instances of early Christian persecution by the Sanhedrin, the Jewish religious court at the time. However, the historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles is disputed.

Walter Laqueur argues that hostility between Christians and Jews grew over the generations. By the 4th century, John Chrysostom was arguing that the Pharisees alone, not the Romans, were responsible for the murder of Christ. However, according to Laqueur: "Absolving Pilate from guilt may have been connected with the missionary activities of early Christianity in Rome and the desire not to antagonize those they want to convert."

Prizyv

Prizyv was a daily newspaper published in Berlin, Germany from June 22, 1919 to March 14, 1920. It is notorious for having translated and republished A Protocol of 1919 from the Estonian newspaper Postimees. The 1934 300-page compilation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion allegedly quotes from this paper this antisemitic item. Says Walter Laqueur:

On these ideological rubbish dumps, Prizyu, a daily newspaper published in Berlin, flourished for a brief period in 1919-1920. The German right-wing extremist press was supplied for years with information first published in Prizyv during its nine months of existence.

Thomas W. Laqueur

Thomas Walter Laqueur (born September 6, 1945) is an American historian, sexologist and writer. He is the author of Solitary Sex : A Cultural History of Masturbation and Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud as well as many articles and reviews. He is the winner of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation's 2007 Distinguished Achievement Award, and is currently the Helen Fawcett Distinguished Professor of History at the University of California, Berkeley, located in Berkeley, California.

Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism is a political concept of a mode of government that prohibits opposition parties, restricts individual opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high degree of control over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. Political power in totalitarian states has often been held by rule by one leader which employ all-encompassing propaganda campaigns broadcast by state-controlled mass media. Totalitarian regimes are often marked by political repression, personality cultism, control over the economy, restriction of speech, mass surveillance and widespread use of state terrorism. Historian Robert Conquest describes a "totalitarian" state as one recognizing no limits to its authority in any sphere of public or private life and which extends that authority to whatever length feasible.The concept was first developed in the 1920s by both Weimar jurist (and later Nazi academic) Carl Schmitt and, concurrently, by the Italian fascists. Italian fascist Benito Mussolini said "Everything within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state". Schmitt used the term Totalstaat in his influential 1927 work on the legal basis of an all-powerful state, The Concept of the Political. The term gained prominence in Western anti-communist political discourse during the Cold War era as a tool to convert pre-war anti-fascism into postwar anti-communism.Totalitarian regimes are different from other authoritarian ones. The latter denotes a state in which the single power holder – an individual "dictator", a committee or a junta or an otherwise small group of political elite – monopolizes political power. "[The] authoritarian state [...] is only concerned with political power and as long as that is not contested it gives society a certain degree of liberty". Authoritarianism "does not attempt to change the world and human nature". In contrast, a totalitarian regime attempts to control virtually all aspects of the social life, including the economy, education, art, science, private life and morals of citizens. Some totalitarian governments may promote an elaborate ideology: "The officially proclaimed ideology penetrates into the deepest reaches of societal structure and the totalitarian government seeks to completely control the thoughts and actions of its citizens". It also mobilizes the whole population in pursuit of its goals. Carl Joachim Friedrich writes that "a totalist ideology, a party reinforced by a secret police, and monopoly control of [...] industrial mass society" are the three features of totalitarian regimes that distinguish them from other autocracies.

Voices of Terror

Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Other Terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages is a book edited by scholar and historian Walter Laqueur .

The book is a comprehensive anthology of 82 primary source documents examining the morality, psychology, and ethics of ideological violence. Each document is presented with a brief introduction and short explanatory text. This book is designed as a reference for the more serious students of history and the use of terror.

The book documents the emotions, principles, and rhetoric used by those who espouse violence whether for tyranny, revolution, guerrilla warfare, and terrorism. Primary source documents are presented from infamous figures such as Clausewitz, Lenin, Karl Marx, Emma Goldman, Mao Zedong, Che Guevara, and Menachem Begin, as well as English Puritan Edward Sexby and Greek satirist Lucian of Samosata.

The book includes 26 documents of contemporary Islamic terrorist leaders and groups such as Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda, Hamas and the PLO.

Zodiac and Swastika

Zodiac and Swastika: How Astrology Guided Hitler's Germany (German: Tierkreis und Hakenkreuz: Als Astrologe an Himmlers Hof) is a 1968 book by Wilhelm Wulff. It was released in 1973 in the United States by Coward, McCann & Geoghegan and in the United Kingdom by Arthur Barker Limited of London. The English edition has a foreword by Walter Laqueur.

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke takes the book as evidence that Wulff was consulted by Heinrich Himmler in the last weeks of the war. However, Goodrick-Clarke does not deal with Wulff's claim that as early as 1943 he got the assignment to locate Benito Mussolini, who had disappeared after being ousted from power.

Wulff claims that Arthur Nebe and Walter Schellenberg had assigned him various astrological tasks. He also mentions that they had used pendulum dowsers like Ludwig Straniak for similar purposes.

At least one other book also makes allegation that a pendulum dowser called Dr. Wilhelm Gutberlet had been one of Adolf Hitler's closest friends. These claims, however, strongly appear to be just another example of the modern mythology of Nazi occultism.

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