Walter Kaufmann (philosopher)

Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet. A prolific author, he wrote extensively on a broad range of subjects, such as authenticity and death, moral philosophy and existentialism, theism and atheism, Christianity and Judaism, as well as philosophy and literature. He served more than 30 years as a professor at Princeton University.

He is renowned as a scholar and translator of Friedrich Nietzsche. He also wrote a 1965 book on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and published a translation of Goethe's Faust.

Walter Arnold Kaufmann
A black-and-white photo of Kaufmann looking to the camera
Walter Kaufmann, undated
BornJuly 1, 1921
DiedSeptember 4, 1980 (aged 59)
Alma materWilliams College
Harvard University
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Main interests
Existentialism, philosophy of religion, tragedy


Kaufmann was raised a Lutheran. At age 11, finding that he believed neither in the Trinity nor in the divinity of Jesus, he converted to Judaism.[2] Kaufmann subsequently discovered that his grandparents were all Jewish. Kaufmann left Germany and emigrated to the United States in 1939 and began studying at Williams College, where he majored in philosophy and took many religion classes. Although he had the opportunity to move immediately into his graduate studies in philosophy, and despite advice not to do so by his professors, he ultimately joined the war effort against the Nazis by serving in U.S. intelligence. During World War II, he fought on the European front for 15 months. After the war, he completed a PhD in the philosophy of religion at Harvard in a mere two years. His dissertation was titled "Nietzsche's Theory of Values" and eventually became a chapter in his Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (1950).

He spent his entire career thereafter, from 1947 to 1980, teaching philosophy at Princeton University, where his students included the Nietzsche scholars Frithjof Bergmann, Richard Schacht, Alexander Nehamas, and Ivan Soll. Kaufmann became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1960.

Philosophical work

In a 1959 article in Harper's Magazine, he summarily rejected all religious values and practice, especially the liberal Protestantism of continental Europe that began with Schleiermacher and culminated in the writings of Paul Tillich and Rudolf Bultmann.[3] In their place, he praised moralists such as the biblical prophets, the Buddha, and Socrates. He argued that critical analysis and the acquisition of knowledge were liberating and empowering forces. He forcefully criticized the fashionable liberal Protestantism of the 20th century as filled with contradictions and evasions, preferring the austerity of the book of Job and the Jewish existentialism of Martin Buber. Kaufmann discussed many of these issues in his 1958 Critique of Religion and Philosophy.

Kaufmann wrote a good deal on the existentialism of Søren Kierkegaard and Karl Jaspers. Kaufmann had great admiration for Kierkegaard's passion and his insights on freedom, anxiety, and individualism.[4] Kaufmann wrote: "Nobody before Kierkegaard had seen so clearly that the freedom to make a fateful decision that may change our character and future breeds anxiety."[4] Although Kaufmann did not share Kierkegaard's religious outlook and was critical of his Protestant theology, Kaufmann was nevertheless sympathetic and impressed with the depth of Kierkegaard's thinking:

I know of no other great writer in the whole nineteenth century, perhaps even in the whole of world literature, to whom I respond with less happiness and with a more profound sense that I am on trial and found wanting, unless it were Søren Kierkegaard.[5]

Kaufmann edited the anthology Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre. Kaufmann disliked Martin Heidegger's thinking, along with his unclear writing.[6]

Kaufmann is renowned for his translations and exegesis of Nietzsche, whom he saw as gravely misunderstood by English speakers, as a major early existentialist, and as an unwitting precursor, in some respects, to Anglo-American analytic philosophy. Michael Tanner called Kaufmann's commentaries on Nietzsche "obtrusive, self-referential, and lacking insight",[7] but Llewellyn Jones wrote that Kaufmann's "fresh insights into ... Nietzsche ... can deepen the insights of every discriminating student of literature,"[8] and The New Yorker wrote that Kaufmann "has produced what may be the definitive study of Nietzsche's ... thought—an informed, scholarly, and lustrous work."[9]

Kaufmann wrote that superficially

it also seems that as a philosopher [Nietzsche] represents a very sharp decline [from Kant and Hegel] ... because [Nietzsche] has no 'system.' Yet this argument is hardly cogent. ... Not only can one defend Nietzsche on this score ... but one must add that he had strong philosophic reasons for not having a system.[10]

Kaufmann also sympathized with Nietzsche's acerbic criticisms of Christianity. However, Kaufmann faulted much in Nietzsche, writing that "my disagreements with [Nietzsche] are legion."[11] Regarding style, Kaufmann argued that Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, for example, is in parts badly written, melodramatic, or verbose, yet concluded that the book "is not only a mine of ideas, but also a major work of literature and a personal triumph."[12]

Kaufmann described his own ethic and his own philosophy of living in his books, including The Faith of a Heretic: What Can I Believe? How Should I Live? What Do I Hope? (1961) and Without Guilt and Justice: From Decidophobia to Autonomy (1973). He advocated living in accordance with what he proposed as the four cardinal virtues: ambition/humility, love, courage, and honesty.[13]

Partial bibliography

Original works

  • Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist
  • From Shakespeare to Existentialism
  • Existentialism: From Dostoevsky to Sartre
  • Critique of Religion and Philosophy
  • Tragedy and Philosophy
  • Hegel: A Reinterpretation
  • The Faith of a Heretic: What Can I Believe? How Should I Live? What Do I Hope?
  • Without Guilt and Justice: From Decidophobia to Autonomy
  • Cain and Other Poems
  • Existentialism, Religion, and Death: Thirteen Essays
  • The Future of the Humanities
  • Religions in Four Dimensions
  • Discovering the Mind, a trilogy consisting of
    • Goethe, Kant, and Hegel
    • Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Buber
    • Freud Versus Adler and Jung
  • Man's Lot: A Trilogy, consisting of
    • Life at the Limits
    • Time is an Artist
    • What is Man?


As written or published by Friedrich Nietzsche in chronological order:

Anthologies/edited works

  • The Portable Nietzsche. Viking.
  • Basic Writings of Nietzsche, designed to complement the preceding.
  • Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre
  • Religion from Tolstoy to Camus, a companion to the preceding.
  • Philosophic Classics, in two volumes: 1, 2
  • Hegel's Political Philosophy

Articles, book chapters, and introductions

  • 'Nietzsche's Admiration for Socrates", Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 9, October 1948, pp. 472–491. Earlier version: "Nietzsche's Admiration for Socrates" (Bowdoin Prize, 1947; pseud. David Dennis)
  • "Goethe and the History of Ideas", Journal of the History of Ideas, v. 10, October 1949, pp. 503–516.
  • "The Hegel Myth and Its Method", Philosophical Review v.60, No. 4 (October 1951), pp. 459–486.
  • Review of Nietzsche and Christian Ethics by R. Motson Thompson, Philosophical Review v. 61, no. 4 (October 1952), pp. 595–599.
  • "Hegel's Early Antitheological Phase", Philosophical Review v. 63, no. 1 (January 1954), pp. 3–18.
  • "Nietzsche and Rilke", Kenyon Review, XVII (1955), pp. 1–23.
  • "Toynbee and Superhistory", Partisan Review, vol. 22, no. 4, Fall 1955, pp. 531–541. Reprinted in Ashley Montagu (ed.). Toynbee and History: Critical Essays and Reviews (1956 Cloth ed.). Boston: Extending Horizons, Porter Sargent. ISBN 0-87558-026-2.
  • "A Hundred Years after Kierkegaard", Kenyon Review, XVIII, pp. 182–211.
  • "Jaspers' Relation to Nietzsche", in Paul Schilpps, ed., The Philosophy of Karl Jaspers (New York: Tudor, 1957), pp. 407–436.
  • "The Faith of a Heretic", Harper's Magazine, February 1959, pp. 33–39. Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "Existentialism and Death", Chicago Review, XIII, 1959, pp. 73–93. Revised version reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "" in The Meaning of Death, Herman Feifel, New York: The Blakiston Division / McGraw-Hill, 1959.
  • Preface to Europe and the Jews: The Pressure of Christendom on the People of Israel for 1900 Years, 2d ed, by Malcolm Hay. Boston: Beacon Press, 1961.
  • "A Philosopher's View", in Ethics and Business: Three Lectures. University Park, Pa., 1962, pp. 35–54. Originally presented at a seminar sponsored by the College of Business Administration of the Pennsylvania State University on March 19, 1962.
  • "Nietzsche Between Homer and Sartre: Five Treatments of the Orestes Story", Revue Internationale de Philosophie v. 18, 1964, pp. 50–73.
  • "Nietzsche in the Light of his Suppressed Manuscripts", Journal of the History of Philosophy v. 2, October 1964, pp. 205–226.
  • "Buber's Religious Significance", from The Philosophy of Martin Buber, ed. P. A. Schilpp and Maurice Friedman (London: Cambridge University Press, 1967) Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "The Reception of Existentialism in the United States", Midway, vol. 9 (1) (Summer 1968), pp. 97–126. Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • Foreword to Frau Lou: Nietzsche's Wayward Disciple, by Rudolph Binion. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969.
  • Introductory essay, Alienation Richard Schacht, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1970
  • "The Future of Jewish Identity", The Jerusalem Post Magazine August 1, 1969, pp. 607. Reprinted in Congressional Bi-Weekly, April 3, 1970; in Conservative Judaism, Summer 1970; in New Theology no. 9, 1972, pp. 41–58, and in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976.)
  • Foreword to An Introduction to Hegel's Metaphysics, by Ivan Soll. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1969.
  • "The Origin of Justice", Review of Metaphysics v. 23, December 1969, pp. 209–239.
  • "Beyond Black and White", Midway, v. 10(3) (Winter 1970), pp. 49–79. Also Survey no. 73 (Autumn 1969), pp. 22–46. Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "Hegel's Ideas about Tragedy" in New Studies in Hegel's Philosophy, ed. Warren E. Steinkraus (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1971), pp. 201–220.
  • "The Death of God and the Revaluation", in Robert Solomon, ed., Nietzsche: A Collection of Critical Essays (New York: Anchor Press, 1973), pp. 9–28.
  • "The Discovery of the Will to Power", in Robert Solomon, ed., Nietzsche: A Collection of Critical Essays (New York: Anchor Press, 1973), pp. 226–242.
  • Foreword in Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology by John T. Wilcox. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1974
  • "Nietzsche and Existentialism", Symposium: A Quarterly Journal in Modern Foreign Literatures, v. 28(1) (Spring 1974), pp. 7–16. Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "Hegel's Conception of Phenomenology" in Phenomenology and Philosophical Understanding, Edo Pivcevič, ed., pp. 211–230 (1975).
  • "Unknown Feuerbach Autobiography", Times Literary Supplement 1976 (3887): 1123–1124.
  • "A Preface to Kierkegaard", in Søren Kierkegaard, The Present Age and Of the Difference Between a Genius and an Apostle, trans. Alexander Dru, Harper Torchbooks, pp. 9–29. Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "On Death and Lying", Reprinted in Existentialism, Religion, and Death (New York: New American Library, 1976).
  • "Letter on Nietzsche", Times Literary Supplement 1978 (3960): 203.
  • "Buber's Failures and Triumph", Revue Internationale de Philosophie v. 32, 1978, pp. 441–459.
  • "Buber: Of His Failures and Triumph", Encounter 52(5): 31–38 1979.
  • Reply to letter, Encounter 55(4): 95 1980.
  • "Art, Tradition, and Truth", Partisan Review, XVII, pp. 9–28.

Sound recordings

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Walter Kaufmann". Walter Kaufmann Web Site Project. Grand Valley State University. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  2. ^ "After my conversion, we went to the synagogue together for many years ... . " Kaufmann, W., 1961. The Faith Of A Heretic. Doubleday & Co., p.18.
  3. ^ Kaufmann, Walter (February 1959). "Faith of a Heretic" (PDF). Harper's Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Kaufmann, W., 1980. Discovering the Mind. McGraw-Hill, page 26.
  5. ^ Kaufmann, W., 1961. Religion From Tolstoy To Camus. Harper and Brothers, page 3.
  6. ^ Denis Dutton, "Kaufmann, Heidegger, and Nazism" Philosophy and Literature 12 (1988): 325–36
  7. ^ Tanner, Michael (1994). Nietzsche. Oxford University Press. pp. 82, 84. ISBN 0-19-287680-5.
  8. ^ Kaufmann, Walter Arnold, From Shakespeare to Existentialism (Princeton University Press 1979), on back cover
  9. ^ Kaufman, Walter Arnold, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (Princeton University Press 1974), on back cover, ISBN 0-691-01983-5, accessed 2012-Jul-29
  10. ^ Kaufman, Walter (1974). Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist. Princeton University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-691-01983-5. Retrieved December 17, 2008.
  11. ^ Kaufman, Walter (1980). Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Buber: Discovering the Mind, Volume 2. Princeton University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-88738-394-7. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
  12. ^ Kaufmann, Walter (1976), "Editor's Preface" to Thus Spoke Zarathustra, in The Portable Nietzsche, New York: Penguin Books, pp. 120–124. ISBN 0-14-015062-5
  13. ^ Kaufmann, W., 1961. The Faith of a Heretic. Doubleday & Co., pages 317–338.

Further reading


  • Corngold, Stanley (2019). Walter Kaufmann: Philosopher, Humanist, Heretic. Princeton (N. J.): Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16501-1.

Critical assessments

  • Pickus, David. "The Walter Kaufmann Myth: A Study in Academic Judgment", Nietzsche-Studien 32 (2003), 226–58.
  • Ratner-Rosenhagen, Jennifer. "'Dionysian Enlightenment': Walter Kaufmann's Nietzsche in Historical Perspective", Modern Intellectual History 3 (2006), 239–269.
  • Sokel, Walter. "Political Uses and Abuses of Nietzsche in Walter Kaufmann's Image of Nietzsche", Nietzsche-Studien 12 (1983), 436–42.

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William Brantley Aycock

William Breeze

William C. Gribble, Jr.

William C. Lawe

William C. Lee

William C. Marshall

William Carr (rower)

William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington

William Clay Ford, Sr.

William Colby

William Colepaugh

William Conolly-Carew, 6th Baron Carew

William Conrad

William Cox (athlete)

William Craig (Northern Ireland politician)

William D. Browne

William D. Ford

William D. Halyburton, Jr.

William D. Hawkins

William D. Houser

William D. Leahy

William D. McGee

William Davidson Bissett

William Demko

William Dickson (RAF officer)

William Diehl

William Dobbie

William Donald Schaefer

William Donne

William Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside

William E. Dyess

William E. Barber

William E. DePuy

William E. Fairbairn

William E. Hall

William E. Metzger, Jr.

William Ecker

William Edwin Minshall, Jr.

William Ehrlich

William Ellis Newton

William Ellison Pennewill

William Elphinstone

William Evan Allan

William Ewart Hiscock

William F. Barnes

William F. Buckley, Jr.

William F. Cassidy

William F. Friedman

William F. Knowland

William F. Quinn

William F. Train

William Fechteler

William Findlay (soccer)

William Finnic Cates

William Fitts Ryan

William Frank Seiverling, Jr.

William G. Bainbridge

William G. East

William G. Fournier

William G. Harrell

William G. Sebold

William G. Thrash

William G. Walsh

William G. Windrich

William Jackson (British Army officer)

William Gaines

William Garfield Thomas, Jr.

William George Foster

William George Nicholas Manley

William Gerard Barry

William Gordon (bishop)

William Gosling (footballer)

William Gosling (VC)

William Gott

William Grover-Williams

William Guarnere

William Guy Carr

William H. Bates

William H. Blanchard

William H. Brockman, Jr.

William H. Gass

William H. Gates, Sr.

William H. Nation

William H. P. Blandy

William H. Rupertus

William H. Smith (boxer)

William H. Thomas (Medal of Honor recipient)

William H. Tunner

William H. Wilbur

William Halsey, Jr.

William Hamling

William Hanes Ayres

William Hartnell

William Havelock Ramsden

William Henry Johnson (VC)

William Henry Kibby

William Herskovic

William Higinbotham

William Holden

William Holland (athlete)

William Holmes (British Army officer)

William Holmes Crosby, Jr.

William Hood Simpson

William Hopper

William Howard Livens

William Hutt (actor)

William J. Bordelon

William J. Brennan, Jr.

William J. Casey

William J. Crawford

William J. Crow

William J. Grabiarz

William J. Johnston

William J. O'Brien (Medal of Honor recipient)

William J. Simmons

William Jason Maxwell Borthwick

William Jefferson Blythe, Jr.

William Jennings Bryan Dorn

William John Lyon

William John Wolfgram

William John Yendell

William Joseph Donovan

William Joyce

William K. Nakamura

William King (Royal Navy officer)

William Kingsmill (MP)

William Kirschbaum

William Kunstler

William L. Calhoun (admiral)

William L. Clayton

William L. Dickinson

William L. Eagleton

William L. Hungate

William L. Laurence

William L. Nelson (Medal of Honor recipient)

William L. Shirer

William Lederer

William Lewis (athlete)

William Lyon Mackenzie King

William M. Callaghan

William M. Hoge

William M. Miley

William Madocks

William Manchester

William Marsden Eastman

William McGonagle

William McIntyre

William Menster

William Milbourne James

William Modell

William Moloney

William Moore Benidickson

William Moore McCulloch

William Murray-Wood

William Napier, 13th Lord Napier

William Neil McKechnie

William O. Brice

William O. Eareckson

William O. Gallery

William O. Wooldridge

William of Paris (saint)

William Onslow, 6th Earl of Onslow

William Orlando Darby

William Oswald Mills

William Parr (footballer)

William P. Rogers

William P. Yarborough

William Patrick Hitler

William Penney, Baron Penney

William Perl

William Perry

William Pershing Benedict

William Platt

William Quash

William R. Caddy

William R. Dunn

William R. Lawley, Jr.

William R. Lloyd

William R. Lucas

William R. Peers

William R. Shockley

William R. Snodgrass

William Raborn

William Rehnquist

William Reid (VC)

William Remington (athlete)

William Rogers (rugby player)

William Rose (screenwriter)

William S. Mailliard

William S. Massey

William S. Morris

William S. Stone

William Salcer

William Saward

William Scranton

William Seagrove

William Seawell

William Shakespeare (football)

William Shepherd

William Sheridan Allen

William Sidney Smith

William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle

William Silkworth

William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim

William Staveley (Royal Navy officer)

William Steger

William Steinberg

William Sterling Parsons

William Joseph Stern

William Stewart Simkins

William Strang, 1st Baron Strang

William T Y'Blood

William T. Clement

William T. Hanna

William T. Ingram

William T. Owen

William T. Young

William Tubman

William Usery, Jr.

William W. Momyer

William Wallace (rower)

William Walter Kouts

William Wasbrough Foster

William Welsh (RAF officer)

William Westmoreland

William Whipple Jr.

William Winter (politician)

William Wolfe Wileman

William Wood (rower)

William Wylie Galt

William Yates (politician)

Williamis de Souza Silva

Willibald C. Bianchi

Willie Crilley

Willie Edwards

Willie Gillis

Willis A. Lee

Willis Carto

Willis D. Crittenberger

Willis Lent

Willis Ricketts

Williston B. Palmer

Williston Municipal Airport

Willward Alexander Sandys-Clarke

Willy F. James, Jr.

Willy Favre

Willy Grondin

Willy Lages

Willy Rösingh

Willy Schärer

Willys MB

Wilm Hosenfeld

Wilma Leona Jackson

Wilmeth Sidat-Singh

Wilson D. Watson

Wincenty Kowalski

Winchester Model 1897

Winchester Model 1912

Windfall Indiana WWII POW Camp

Window (radar countermeasure)

Winds Code

Windsor-class attack transport


Winfield S. Cunningham

Winged Victory (play)

Winged Victory of Samothrace

Wingmen (The Boondocks)

Wings for This Man

Wings of Fury

Wings of Power II: WWII Fighters

Wings of Power: WWII Heavy Bombers and Jets

Wings Up

Winkler County Airport

Winnie Gibson

Winning Your Wings

Winrich Behr

Winston's Hiccup

Winston's War

Winston & Strawn

Winston Churchill as historian

Winston Churchill as writer

Winston Churchill High School (Eugene, Oregon)

Winston Churchill High School (Lethbridge)

Winston Churchill High School (Montgomery County, Maryland)

Winston Churchill in politics: 1900-1939

Winston Churchill Memorial Trust

Winston Churchill

Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport

Winter Line

Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

Winter War


Winthrop Rockefeller

Winton M. Blount


Wireless Experimental Centre

Wireless Set No. 19


Wish Me Luck

Wishes: A Magical Gathering of Disney Dreams

Wissem Ben Yahia

Witalis Wieder

With the Marines at Tarawa

With the Old Breed

Withers A. Burress

Without Love

Witold Łokuciewski

Witold Dzierżykraj-Morawski

Witold Pilecki

Witold Urbanowicz

Witold Zalewski

Wivan Pettersson


Wladimir Aïtoff

Wladimir Vogel


Würzburg radar

Wołyńska Cavalry Brigade

Woeste Hoeve

Wojciech Kossak

Wojciech Rostafiński

Wola massacre

Woldemar Brinkmann

Wolei-class minelayer

Wolf-Dietrich Wilcke

Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf

Wolf Graf von Baudissin

Wolf of Soissons

Wolf pack Blücher

Wolf pack Eisbär

Wolf pack Endrass

Wolf pack Hai

Wolf pack Hecht

Wolf pack Leuthen

Wolf pack Pfadfinder

Wolf pack Steinbrock

Wolf pack Tümmler

Wolf pack Vorwärts

Wolf pack Wolf

Wolf pack

Wolfenstein 3D

Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory

Wolfgang Borchert

Wolfgang Danne

Wolfgang Droege

Wolfgang Falck

Wolfgang Heyda

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky

Wolfgang Lettl

Wolfgang Liebeneiner

Wolfgang Lüth

Wolfgang Mommsen

Wolfgang Muff

Wolfgang Schellmann

Wolfgang Schwarz

Wolfgang Sievers

Wolfgang Späte

Wolfgang Stöhr

Wolfgang Tonne

Wolfram Sievers

Wolfram von Richthofen



Wolverine (comics)

Wolves of Paris

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps

Women's Army Corps Service Medal

Women's Army Corps

Women's Auxiliary Air Force

Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force

Women's Auxiliary Service (Burma)

Women's Land Army

Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz

Women's roles in the World Wars

Women's Royal Australian Naval Service

Women's Royal Naval Service

Women Airforce Service Pilots

Women in Bondage

Women in Defense

Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery

Wonder weapons

Wood for War

Woodrow Parfrey

Woodrow W. Keeble

Woodrow Wilson Barr

Woodrow Wyatt

Woody Hayes

Woolenook (Wood Camp)

Woolton pie

Worek Plan

World in Flames

World Jewish Congress lawsuit against Swiss banks

World Union of National Socialists

World War II-era population transfers

World War II aircraft production

World War II casualties

World War II Combat: Iwo Jima

World War II Combat: Road to Berlin

World War II combatives

World War II crimes in Poland

World War II cryptography

World War II evacuation and expulsion

World War II in contemporary culture

World War II in the Basque Country

World War II Online

World War II persecution of Serbs

World War II Victory Medal (United States)

World War II Victory Medal

World War II: Frontline Command

World War II

World war

World War

Worldwar series

Worldwar: In the Balance

Worldwar: Striking the Balance

Worldwar: Tilting the Balance

Worldwar: Upsetting the Balance


Wormhoudt massacre

Wort und Tat

Wound Badge


Wu Qiwei

Wu Yicheng

Wuli Campaign


Wurfrahmen 40

WW2 aircraft production

WWII (album)

WWII Postal Acronyms

Wyndham Portal, 1st Viscount Portal

List of Jewish American philosophers

This is a list of famous Jewish American philosophers.

For other famous Jewish Americans, see Lists of Jewish Americans.

Peter Achinstein, philosopher of science

Mortimer Adler, philosopher (converted to Episcopalianism in 1984 and then to Catholicism in 2000)

Paul Benacerraf, philosopher

Max Black, analytic philosopher

Joseph Blau, philosopher

Ned Block, philosopher of mind

Allan Bloom, political philosopher

George Boolos, logician

Justus Buchler

Judith Butler

Stanley Cavell, philosopher

Noam Chomsky, linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, and activist

Morris Raphael Cohen, philosopher

Norman Daniels, political philosopher

Arthur Danto, philosophy of aesthetics

Hubert Dreyfus, critic of cognitivism

Ronald Dworkin, legal philosopher

Irwin Edman

Paul Edwards

Jonathan Epstein, philosopher

Marvin Farber, philosopher, phenomenology

Solomon Feferman, logician

Herbert Feigl, philosopher of science

Stanley Fish, literary theorist

Jerry Fodor, philosopher of mind

Philipp Frank, logical positivist

Tamar Szabo Gendler, philosopher of mind

Eugene Gendlin, philosopher of the implicit

Bernard Gert, ethicist

Alvin Goldman, epistemology, Goldman's barn example

Nelson Goodman, philosopher, metaphysical relativism, new riddle of induction

Paul Gottfried, political philosopher

Sam Harris, philosopher, author, neuroscientist

Sidney Hook, philosopher

Hans Jonas, philosopher

Walter Kaufmann, philosopher

Saul Kripke, logician

Thomas S. Kuhn, philosopher of science

Abraham Low, critic of psychoanalysis

Ruth Barcan Marcus, logician

Joseph Margolis, philosopher, pragmatism

Sidney Morgenbesser, philosopher

Ernest Nagel, philosopher of science

Thomas Nagel, philosophy of mind

Robert Nozick, libertarianism

Martha Nussbaum, ethics

Richard Popkin, philosopher

Hilary Putnam, philosopher, functionalism

Ayn Rand, founder of the Objectivist philosophy (a refugee from communist Russia)

Murray Rothbard, political philosopher

Daniel Rynhold, philosopher of religion

Michael Sandel, communitarianism

Menachem Mendel Schneerson, religious philosopher

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, queer theorist

Susanna Siegel, philosopher of mind

Joseph Soloveitchik, religious philosopher

Leo Strauss, political philosopher

Alfred Tarski, logician, mathematician, philosopher

Judith Jarvis Thomson, moral philosopher

Michael Walzer, philosopher

Jack Russell Weinstein, philosopher

Dan Wikler, ethicist

Harry Austryn Wolfson, philosopher

Edith Wyschogrod, philosopher

Stephen Yablo, philosopher

Walter Kaufmann

Walter Kaufmann may refer to:

Walter Kaufmann (physicist) (1871–1947), German physicist

Walter Kaufmann (composer) (1907–1984), composer, conductor, musicologist, and educator

Walter Kaufmann (philosopher) (1921–1980), German-American philosopher, translator, and poet

Walter Kaufmann (author) (born 1924), German writer

Concepts in religion
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Religious language
Problem of evil
Philosophersof religion

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Related topics
By religion
Religious texts
Religious figures
Religious violence

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