Walter Kasper (born 5 March 1933) is a German Roman Catholic Cardinal and theologian. He is President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, having served as its president from 2001 to 2010.
|President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity|
|Appointed||3 March 2001|
|Installed||21 April 2005|
|Term ended||1 July 2010|
|Predecessor||Edward Idris Cassidy|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova|
|Ordination||6 April 1957|
by Carl Joseph Leiprecht
|Consecration||17 June 1989|
by Oskar Saier
|Created cardinal||21 February 2001|
by Pope John Paul II
|Birth name||Walter Kasper|
|Born||5 March 1933|
Heidenheim an der Brenz, Germany
|Motto||Veritatem in caritate ("truth in charity")|
|Coat of arms|
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
From 1957 to 1958 he was a parochial vicar in Stuttgart. He returned to his studies and earned a doctorate in dogmatic theology from the University of Tübingen. He was a faculty member at Tübingen from 1958 to 1961 and worked for three years as an assistant to Leo Scheffczyk and Hans Küng, who was banned from teaching by Vatican authorities because of his views on contraception and papal infallibility.
He later taught dogmatic theology at the University of Münster (1964–1970), rising to become dean of the theological faculty in 1969 and then the same in Tübingen in 1970. In 1983 Kasper taught as a visiting professor at The Catholic University of America. He was editor of the Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche.
Kasper was named Bishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart, Germany's fourth largest Catholic diocese, on 17 April 1989. He was consecrated as a bishop on 17 June that same year by Archbishop Oskar Saier of Freiburg im Breisgau; Bishops Karl Lehmann and Franz Kuhnle served as co-consecrators. In 1993 he and other members of the German episcopate signed a pastoral letter which urged allowing divorced and civilly remarried German Catholics to return to the sacraments, to the disapproval of then Cardinal Ratzinger and Pope John Paul II. In 1994, he was named co-chair of the International Commission for Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue.
Kasper was one of a dozen or more like-minded cardinals and bishops who met annually from 1995 to 2006 in St. Gallen, Switzerland, to discuss reforms with respect to the appointment of bishops, collegiality, bishops' conferences, and the primacy of the papacy as well as the Church's approach to sexual morality. They differed among themselves in varying degrees, but shared the view that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was not the candidate they hoped to see elected at the next conclave.
Upon the death of John Paul II on 2 April 2005, Kasper and all major Vatican officials automatically lost their positions pending the election of a new pope. He was a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave. On the following 21 April, Pope Benedict XVI confirmed him as President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.
On 21 February 2011, he was promoted to Cardinal-Priest, having made the option for such. Therefore, the church of Ognissanti became pro hac vice title, but will again be a cardinal diaconate for his future successor there.
Kasper was the oldest cardinal eligible to vote in the Papal conclave of 2013, having been 79 when the Papacy became vacant. His 80th birthday was on 5 March 2013, a few days after the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI. His eligibility to serve as an elector ended when that conclave concluded.
On 3 March 1999, Kasper was appointed Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity – and as such, President of the Pontifical Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews – and resigned from his post in Rottenburg-Stuttgart.
In 2003, he wrote a text called Anti-semitism: A wound to be healed for the European Day of Jewish Culture. On 10 July 2004, at the Latin-American Rabbinical Seminary of Buenos Aires, the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation and the Angelo Roncalli Committee presented Kasper the "Memorial Mural Award" for his lifetime dedication to the causes of understanding and reconciliation between Jews and Catholics.
Kasper was a member of the International Theological Commission, an advisory body to the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith. On several occasions, in his capacity of President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, he led the annual official delegation of the Holy See to the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople for the Feast of St Andrew the Apostle. In August 2007, he led the Catholic delegation to the funeral of Patriarch Teoctist of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
In January 2009, Kasper told The New York Times that he had little, if any, input on whether to lift the excommunication of four bishops of the Society of Saint Pius X. Kasper was distancing himself from the scandal that ensued when it transpired that one of the bishops, Richard Williamson, was found to have claimed that reports about the Holocaust were exaggerated and that no Jews died in Nazi gas chambers. As the Vatican official responsible for relations with the Jewish religion, Kasper felt it necessary to comment on the action and the process leading up to the lifting of the excommunications. He said that: "Up to now people in the Vatican have spoken too little with each other and have not checked where problems might arise." He said that in lifting the excommunications "there were misunderstandings and management errors in the Curia."
In September 2010, Cardinal Kasper withdrew from the papal visit to Great Britain, after reportedly saying that Heathrow Airport gives the impression of a Third World country and that the United Kingdom is marked by "a new and aggressive atheism". In an interview with a German magazine, he was quoted as saying: "When you land at Heathrow you think at times you have landed in a Third World country". Kasper's secretary explained it as "a description of the many different people that live in Britain at the moment". He said that when one wears a cross on the British Airways "you are discriminated against", a reference to the British Airways cross controversy. British Airways said that Kasper had been "seriously misinformed" in his claims about the airline, and that "It is completely untrue that we discriminate against Christians or members of any faith".
A spokesman for the Church in Britain said that Kasper's remarks were not the views of the Vatican or of the Church. The cardinal's secretary said that Kasper had decided not to travel because gout made it difficult for him to walk. He also explained the cardinal used "aggressive atheism" to describe people like Richard Dawkins, a prominent atheist, who have been very critical of the Pope and talked about making a "citizens arrest" of the Pope while in Britain.
Cardinal Kasper has criticized the Church of England policies in relation to female priests and the elevation of women to the episcopate. He expressed his views in the address given to the Church of England Bishops' Meeting at 5 June 2006. He said that the ordination of women as bishops would "call into question what was recognized by the Second Vatican Council (Unitatis Redintegratio, 13), that the Anglican Communion occupied 'a special place' among churches and ecclesial communities of the West." He warned that the "restoration of full church communion... would realistically no longer exist following the introduction of the ordination of women to episcopal office." He spoke at the 2008 Lambeth Conference, criticizing sharply the departures from Christian orthodoxy taken on women clergy and episcopate and even more by some member churches of the Anglican Communion on allowing the blessing of same-sex unions and non-celibate homosexual clergy. He called at the occasion for a new Oxford Movement to rise among Anglicanism.
Pope Francis, on 17 March 2013, four days after his election as Pope, called Kasper "a clever theologian, a good theologian" in the course of a sermon in which he reported that Kasper's book on mercy "did me a lot of good".
Cardinal Kasper's proposal to admit to communion the Roman Catholic couples who have remarried, while still being legally married according to the Church's doctrine, is the most controversial question in which he has been involved in so far during the pontificate of Pope Francis. On 21 February 2014, Kasper said at the cardinals Consistory held in Rome that "The Church cannot question the words of Jesus on the indissolubility of marriage. Whoever expects the Consistory and the Synod to come up with “easy”, general solutions that apply to everyone, are mistaken. But given the difficulties which families today face and the huge rise in the number of failed marriages, new paths can be explored in order to respond to the deep needs of divorced people who have remarried as part of a civil union, who recognise their failure, convert and after a period of penance ask to be re-admitted to the sacraments." The proposal was met with hostility by some members of the College of cardinals, including Gerhard Müller, Raymond Burke, Walter Brandmüller, Carlo Caffarra and Velasio De Paolis, who co-authored the book Remaining in the Truth of Christ: Marriage and Communion in the Catholic Church, released in English on October 2014, to refute Kasper's proposal. Kasper later admitted that he didn't have Pope Francis' support on his proposal. He praised Pope Francis encyclica Amoris Laetitia, saying that the correct interpretation is that it allows the admission of divorced and remarried people to communion in some individual cases.
During the Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops in 2014, Cardinal Kasper told reporters that since African, Asian, and Middle Eastern countries have a "taboo" against homosexuality, "they should not tell us too much what we have to do." Once the story broke, he denied that he made any such comment. The reporter who wrote the story, Edward Pentin, subsequently produced a recording of the conversation, which verified that the Cardinal had made those statements. Cardinal Raymond Burke called Kasper's remarks "profoundly sad and scandalous". Kasper subsequently confirmed that he had had the conversation, and offered this response for one of his remarks:
If one of my remarks about Africans was perceived as demeaning or insulting, then I am honestly sorry. That was and is not my intention, and not my view at all. No one will deny that Africa's culture is different from Europe's in many respects. But I have been in Africa too often not to esteem African culture highly.
Kasper also said parts of the Catholic media were engaged in a "deliberate dirty tricks" campaign against him, and said that "The fact that Catholic media (and unfortunately a cardinal in person) should participate in it, in order to tear down another position morally, is shameful."
Cardinal Kasper published a book entitled Sacrament of Unity: The Eucharist and the Church, in 2005, a reflection on the Eucharist partly inspired by John Paul II's encyclical Ecclesia de Eucharistia. He insisted on the sacrificial character of the Eucharist, an aspect somewhat overshadowed after the Council.
Cardinal Kasper's book Jesus The Christ (1974) treats Christology in three manners: a contemporary approach, a historical approach and a factual approach. After these three approaches have been exhausted, the Christological themes of resurrection, mystery, and priesthood are treated. Ecclesiology is seen as part of Christology in this book because the Church is oriented towards Christ in his person, since Christ did not only say things, but he also did things.
Cardinal Kasper has published 17 books on subjects related to theology and Christology.
|Catholic Church titles|
| Bishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart
Edward Idris Cassidy
| President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
3 March 2001 – 1 July 2010
Roger Schütz, popularly known as Brother Roger (French: Frère Roger; May 12, 1915 – August 16, 2005), was a Swiss Christian leader and monastic brother. In 1940 Schütz founded the Taizé Community, an ecumenical monastic community in Burgundy, France, serving as its first prior until his murder in 2005. Towards the end of his life, the Taizé Community was attracting international attention, welcoming thousands of young pilgrims every week, which it has continued to do after his death.Cardinal electors for the 2013 papal conclave
The papal conclave of 2013 was convened to elect a pope, the head of the Catholic Church, to succeed Pope Benedict XVI following his resignation on 28 February 2013. According to the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, which governed the vacancy of the Holy See, only cardinals who had not passed their 80th birthday on the day on which the Holy See fell vacant (i.e. cardinals who were born on or after 28 February 1933) were eligible to participate in the papal conclave. Although not a formal requirement, the cardinal electors invariably elect the pope from among their number. The election is carried out by secret ballot (Latin: per scrutinium).Of the 207 members of the College of Cardinals at the time of the vacancy of the Holy See, there were 117 cardinal electors who were eligible to participate in the subsequent conclave. Two cardinal electors did not participate, decreasing the number in attendance to 115 (98.3 per cent of all cardinal electors, 55.6 per cent of all cardinals). The number of votes required to be elected pope with a two-thirds supermajority was 77.Of the 115 attending cardinal electors, 4 were cardinal bishops, 81 were cardinal priests and 30 were cardinal deacons; 48 were created cardinals by Pope John Paul II and 67 were created cardinals by Pope Benedict XVI; 74 were in charge of pastoral duties outside of Rome, while 41 worked in the service of the Holy See, such as in the Roman Curia. The oldest cardinal elector in the conclave was Walter Kasper, at the age of 79, while the youngest cardinal elector was Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal, at the age of 53. Another 90 cardinals were ineligible to participate in the conclave, for reasons of age.The cardinal electors entered the Sistine Chapel to begin the conclave on 12 March 2013. On 13 March 2013, after five ballots over two days, they elected Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, who took the papal name Francis.Catholic moral theology
Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics. Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory. It can be distinguished as dealing with "how one is to act", in contrast to dogmatic theology which proposes "what one is to believe".Communio
Communio is a federation of theological journals, founded in 1972 by Joseph Ratzinger, Hans Urs von Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper, Marc Ouellet, Louis Bouyer, and others. Communio, now published in fifteen editions (including German, English and Spanish), has become one of the most important journals of Catholic thought. The journals are independently edited, but also publish translations of each other's articles.
It is often considered to be the sister publication and theological rival to the journal Concilium, which was founded in 1965 intending to keep the "spirit of Vatican II" in the church after the sessions of the Second Vatican Council had ended and the council fathers returned to their respective dioceses.Ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary
Ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary is a review of the status of Mariology in the Orthodox, Protestant, Anglican, and Roman Catholic Churches, as a result of ecumenical commissions and working groups.General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns
The General Commission on Christian Unity and Interreligious Concerns (GCCUIC) addresses the interreligious and ecumenical concerns of The United Methodist Church. The GCCUIC's office is located at The Interchurch Center in New York City. The Commission's President is Bishop Mary Ann Swenson and the General Secretary is Rev. Dr. Stephen J. Sidorak, Jr.. The Ecumenical Officer of the Council of Bishops is Bishop Sharon Zimmerman Rader and serves as the corporate ecumenical officer of The United Methodist Church, working in collaboration with GCCUIC.
This organization is the United Methodist Church's face in the ecumenical community developing relationships with other church bodies and is diligently seeking relationships with other faith bodies such as Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Jewish communities to manifest the unity God has already given and for which Christ prayed (John 17:20-21). It also diligently seeks relationships with other faith bodies, heeding the prophets’ and Jesus’ call to live lives of compassion, peace, justice, and stewardship of our natural world.
The GCCUIC’s leadership role in ecumenism extends to facilitating deeper relationships and understandings within the United Methodist connection and with other churches in the Methodist family. For example, the GCCUIC and United Methodist Communications developed a DVD/CD, Can We Talk? Christian Conversations About Homosexuality, that facilitates the building of understanding among United Methodist Church members who may disagree on the controversial issue of homosexuality. The resource does not advocate a position, but teaches methods of holy conferencing around potentially divisive issues and provides material for church groups to explore their positions within theological and biblical parameters. The Commission’s relationships with other Methodist bodies are mainly facilitated through its membership in the World Methodist Council and the Pan-Methodist Commission.
The GCCUIC has engaged in bilateral dialogues to further United Methodist relationships with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), the Episcopal Church, and the Roman Catholic Church. The UMC and ELCA are now in full communion. An agreement of Interim Eucharistic Sharing has also been reached between the UMC and the Episcopal Church. A statement with a study manual, Make Us One With Christ, has been distributed for joint study in local congregations. Dialogues with the Catholic Church included a visit to Vatican City in April 2006, where Pope Benedict XVI and Cardinal Walter Kasper of the Pontifical Council for the Promoting Christian Unity received an official United Methodist delegation and discussed aspects of dialogue and relationship and the global nature of the two communions. In addition, GCCUIC continues to initiate and pursue dialogues with other faith communities.
The United Methodist Church’s relationships with other church bodies are also strengthened through the GCCUIC’s membership in the National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States of America (NCCCUSA) and the World Council of Churches (WCC). Recently, NCCCUSA initiatives have included a focus on addressing poverty and church development through the Special Commission for the Just Rebuilding of the Gulf Coast. Plus, the eradication of poverty, malaria, and HIV-AIDS has been a focus of the WCC.
Interfaith relations have been addressed by affiliations with the NCCCUSA’s Interfaith Relations Commission, Religions for Peace, as well as several Muslim and Jewish organizations. The Interfaith Relations Commission has developed print and electronic educational and resource materials to be used by local congregations and regional groups for interfaith encounters. The Commission also prints resources for its congregations, including “Basic Facts About Islam”, “Guidelines for Interfaith Dialogue”, a study guide entitled The Holocaust: A Christian Reckoning of the Soul, and Yom HaShoah worship materials.
The GCCUIC is committed to ecumenism, interfaith dialogue, and unity within The United Methodist Church. It is unified through the one body and one Spirit to witness to “one Lord, one faith, one baptism” (Ephesians 4:5). Working to discover how divine grace is evident in other faith communities, the Commission helps discern how to be Christian neighbors and witnesses. As a result, the GCCUIC fully commits to representing The United Methodist Church in fulfilling Christ’s mission.Kasper (surname)
Kasper is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Adam Kasper, American record producer
Antonín Kasper (disambiguation), several people with this name
Dave Kasper, American soccer player
Debbie Kasper, American television writer and comedian
Gail Kasper, American television host
Gian-Franco Kasper (born 1944), Swiss ski official
Herbert Kasper (born 1926), American fashion designer
Jan Kasper (1932–2005), Czech ice hockey player
John Kasper (1929–1998), American activist
Kevin Kasper (born 1977), American football player in the National Football League
Kalle Käsper, Estonian writer
Len Kasper (born 1971), American television broadcaster for the Chicago Cubs
Ludwig Kasper (1893–1945), Austrian sculptor
Lynne Rossetto Kasper, American food writer and radio journalist
Manuela Kasper-Claridge (born 1959), German journalist
Nolan Kasper (born 1989), American alpine skier
Philip H. Kasper (1866-1942), American farmer and businessman
Rick Kasper, Canadian mason and politician
Steve Kasper (born 1961), Canadian ice hockey player
Walter Kasper (born 1933), German clergymanKurt Koch
Kurt Koch (born 15 March 1950) is a Swiss prelate of the Catholic Church. He has been a cardinal since November 2010 and President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity since 1 July 2010. He was the bishop of Basel from 1996 until 2010.Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche
Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche (Lexicon of Theology and the Church; commonly abbreviated LThK) is a German-language Catholic theological encyclopedia. Three editions have appeared so far, all published by Herder-Verlag in Freiburg im Breisgau.Martin Roos
Martin Roos (born October 17, 1942) is a Romanian cleric, bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Timişoara. Born into a Banat Swabian family in Satchinez (Knees), Timiş County, he attended the cantors' school in Alba Iulia from 1957 to 1961. He began studying theology at the Roman Catholic Theological Institute of Alba Iulia in 1961, continuing from 1962 to 1969 at Königstein im Taunus in West Germany. In 1971, Carl Joseph Leiprecht ordained him a priest of the Rottenburg Diocese. From that year until 1973, he was assistant priest in Stuttgart. From 1973 to 1974 he was parish administrator in Stimpfach, becoming parish priest in 1974. Following the Romanian Revolution of 1989, his bishop, Walter Kasper, allowed him to return to his native country. In 1990, Timișoara Bishop Sebastian Kräuter named him director of the diocesan chancery. He became a Monsignor in 1991 and in 1999, following Kräuter's retirement, he was named bishop by Pope John Paul II.Nikolaos P. Xionis
Nikolaos P. Xionis (Greek: Νικόλαος Π. Ξιώνης) is Professor of Systematic Theology in the Faculty of Theology of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Born in Volos, he studied Theology at the Aristotle University of Thessalonica. He pursued postgraduate studies at the Jesuit Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology at Frankfurt and at the Centre for Eastern Christian Studies in Ratisbon (Ostkirchliches Institut, Regensburg).
Amongst his published works are:
Ουσία και ενέργεια του Θεού κατά τον Άγιο Γρηγόριο Νύσσης Ousia kai energeia tou Theou kata ton Gregorio Nusses (A study of essence and energy of God in Gregory of Nyssa), Athens, 1999.
Die Erkenntnis Gottes nach Walter Kasper, in Θεολογία (2001), ΟΒ´(1), pp. 167-282.
Θεολογικά και φιλοσοφικά στοιχεία στην σκέψη του Μπλεζ Πασκάλ και στον Υπαρξισμό(Blaise Pascal and Existentialism), Αθήνα, 2001.
Προλεγόμενα Θεολογικής Ανθρωπολογίας. Προχριστιανική, ετερόδοξη και ορθόδοξη θεώρηση του ανθρώπου ως προσώπου, Εκδόσεις Γρηγόρη, Αθήνα, 2007.
Contribution to: Markus Mühling (ed.) Gezwungene Freiheit? Personale Freiheit in pluralistischen Europa, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2009.Papal consistory
In the Roman Catholic Church a consistory is a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope. There are two kinds of consistories, extraordinary and ordinary. An "extraordinary" consistory is held to allow the pope to consult with the entire membership of the College of Cardinals. An "ordinary" consistory is ceremonial in nature and attended by cardinals resident in Rome. For example, the pope elevates new cardinals to the College at a consistory; Pope Francis has called consistories for ceremonies of canonization.A meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect a new pope is not a consistory, but a conclave.Paul Couturier
Paul Irénée Couturier (29 July 1881 – 24 March 1953) was a French priest and a promoter of the concept of Christian unity. He was instrumental in the establishment of the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity.Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (PCPCU) is a pontifical council whose origins are associated with the Second Vatican Council which met intermittently from 1962 to 1965.
Pope John XXIII wanted the Catholic Church to engage in the contemporary ecumenical movement. He established a Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity on 5 June 1960 as one of the preparatory commissions for the council, and appointed Cardinal Augustin Bea as its first president. The secretariat invited other churches and world communions to send observers to the council.Propitiation
Propitiation, also called by some expiation, is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution.Regina Caeli
Regina caeli (Ecclesiastical Latin: [reˈdʒina ˈtʃeli]; English: Queen of Heaven) is a musical antiphon addressed to the Blessed Virgin Mary that is used in the liturgy of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church during the Easter season, from Easter Sunday until Pentecost. During this season, it is the Marian antiphon that ends Compline (Night Prayer) and it takes the place of the traditional thrice-daily Angelus prayer.
The spelling Regina coeli is sometimes found, but not in the official liturgical books. Formerly, like Pater noster qui es in coelis, this spelling was frequently but not exclusively used in some liturgical and other books.Sister church
Sister churches is a term used in 20th-century ecclesiology to describe ecumenical relations between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and more rarely and unofficially, between the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican communion. The term is also used among Protestants to refer to different denominations of the same religious tradition.Supersessionism
Supersessionism, also called replacement theology or fulfillment theology, is a Christian doctrine which asserts that the New Covenant through Jesus Christ supersedes the Old Covenant, which was made exclusively with the Jewish people.
In Christianity, supersessionism is a theological view on the current status of the church in relation to the Jewish people and Judaism. It holds that the Christian Church has succeeded the Israelites as the definitive people of God or that the New Covenant has replaced or superseded the Mosaic covenant. From a supersessionist's "point of view, just by continuing to exist [outside the Church], the Jews dissent". This view directly contrasts with dual-covenant theology which holds that the Mosaic covenant remains valid for Jews.
Supersessionism has formed a core tenet of the Christian Churches for the majority of its existence. Christian traditions that have traditionally championed Covenant Theology (including the Roman Catholic, Reformed and Methodist teachings of this doctrine), have taught that the moral law continues to stand.Subsequent to and because of the Holocaust, some mainstream Christian theologians and denominations have rejected supersessionism.The Islamic tradition views Islam as the final and most authentic expression of Abrahamic prophetic monotheism, superseding both Jewish and Christian teachings. The doctrine of tahrif teaches that earlier monotheistic scriptures or their interpretations have been corrupted, while the Quran presents a pure version of the divine message that they originally contained.Unitatis redintegratio
Unitatis redintegratio (Latin for "Restoration of unity") is the Second Vatican Council's decree on ecumenism. It was passed by a vote of 2,137 to 11 of the bishops assembled, and was promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 21 November 1964. Its title is taken from the opening words of the Latin text. The opening of the document's English translation is: "The restoration of unity among all Christians is one of the principal concerns of the Second Vatican Council."
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|High Middle Ages|
|Mysticism and reforms|