Walter Burley Griffin

Walter Burley Griffin (November 24, 1876 – February 11, 1937) was an American architect and landscape architect. He is known for designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. He has been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use of reinforced concrete.

Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin developed a unique modern style. He worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In 28 years they designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.

Walter Burley Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin 1912
Walter Burley Griffin in 1912
Born24 November 1876
DiedFebruary 11, 1937 (aged 60)
Alma materUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
OccupationLandscape architect
Years active1890s–1930s
Known forPrairie School
Notable work
Design/plan of Canberra, Australia
Spouse(s)Marion Mahony Griffin (m. 1911)

Early life

Griffin was born in 1876 in Maywood, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. He was the eldest of the four children of George Walter Griffin, an insurance agent, and Estelle Burley Griffin. His family moved to Oak Park and later to Elmhurst. As a boy he had an interest in landscape design and gardening, and his parents allowed him to landscape the yard at their new home in Elmhurst. Griffin went to Oak Park High School. He considered studying landscape design but was advised by the landscape gardener O. C. Simonds to pursue a more lucrative profession.

Griffin chose to study architecture, and, in 1899, completed his bachelor's degree in architecture at the University of Illinois. The University of Illinois program was run by Nathan Clifford Ricker, a German-educated architect, who emphasized the technical aspects of architecture. During his studies, he also took courses in horticulture and forestry.

Chicago career

After his studies, Griffin moved to Chicago and was employed as a draftsman for two years in the offices of progressive architects Dwight H. Perkins, Robert C. Spencer, Jr., and H. Webster Tomlinson in "Steinway Hall". Griffin's employers worked in the distinctive Prairie School style. This style is marked by horizontal lines, flat roofs with broad overhanging eaves, solid construction, craftsmanship, and strict discipline in the use of ornament. Louis Sullivan was influential among Prairie School architects and Griffin was an admirer of his work, and of his philosophy of architecture which stressed that design should be free of historical precedent. Other architects of that school include George Grant Elmslie, George Washington Maher, William Gray Purcell, William Drummond and most importantly, Frank Lloyd Wright.

In July 1901 Griffin passed the new Illinois architects' licensing examination and this permitted him to enter private practice as an architect. He began to work in Frank Lloyd Wright's famous Oak Park, Illinois, studios. Although he was never made a partner, Griffin oversaw the construction on many of Wright's noted houses including the Willits House in 1902 and the Larkin Administration Building built in 1904. From 1905 he also began to supply landscape plans for Wright's buildings. Wright allowed Griffin and his other staff to undertake small commissions of their own. The William Emery house, built in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1903 was such a commission. While working for Wright, Griffin fell in love with Mr. Wright's sister, Maginel Wright. He proposed marriage to her, but his affections for her were not returned, and she refused.

In 1906 he resigned his position at Wright's studio and established his own practice at Steinway Hall. Griffin and Wright had fallen out over events following Mr. Wright's trip to Japan in 1905. While Wright was away for five months, Griffin ran the practice. When Wright returned, he told Griffin that he had overstepped his responsibilities, completing several of Wright's jobs, and sometimes substituting his own building designs. Further, Wright had borrowed money from Griffin to pay for his travels abroad, and then he tried to pay off his debts to Griffin with prints he had acquired in Japan. It became clear to Griffin then that Wright would not make Griffin a partner in his business.

Griffin's first independent commission was a landscape design for the State Normal School at Charleston, Illinois, now known as the Eastern Illinois University. In the fall of 1906, he received his first residential job from Harry Peters. The Peters' House was the first house designed with an L-shaped or open floor plan. The L-shape was an economical design and easily constructed. From 1907, 13 houses in this style were built in the Chicago neighborhood now known as Beverly-Morgan Park. Seven of these houses are on W. 104th Place in Beverly, Chicago. This street is now named Walter Burley Griffin Place, and forms a municipal historical district within the national Ridge Historic District, as it contains the largest collection of small scale Griffin designs.

Portrait of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Castlecrag, Sydney, July 27, 1930, National Library of Australia

In 1911 Griffin married Marion Lucy Mahony, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in architecture. She was employed first in Wright's office, and then by Hermann V. von Holst, who had taken over Wright's work in America when Wright left for Europe in 1909. Marion Mahony recommended to von Holst that he hire Griffin to develop a landscape plan for the area surrounding the three houses on Milliken Place for which Wright had been hired in Decatur, Illinois. Mahony and Griffin worked closely on the Decatur project immediately before their marriage.

After their marriage, Mahony went to work in Griffin's practice.[1] A Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony-designed development with several homes, Rock Crest – Rock Glen in Mason City, Iowa, is seen as their most dramatic American design development of the decade and remains the largest collection of Prairie Style homes surrounding a natural setting.[2]

From 1899 to 1914, Griffin created more than 130 designs in his Chicago office for buildings, urban plans and landscapes; half of these were built in mid-western states of Illinois, Iowa, Michigan and Wisconsin. In 1981, the city of Chicago granted landmark status to the Prairie-style bungalows designed between 1909 and 1914 by Griffin in the 1700 block of West 104th Place (also known as the Griffin Place Historic District), as well as 12 blocks on Longwood Drive and three blocks along Seeley Avenue between 98th and 110th Streets.

The relationship between Griffin and Frank Lloyd Wright cooled in the years following Griffin's departure from Wright's firm in 1906. With Walter and Marion's wedding, Wright started to feel they were "against him". After the Griffins' win in the Canberra design competition, and resultant front page coverage in the New York Times, Wright and Griffin never spoke to each other again. In later years, whenever Griffin was brought up in conversation Wright would downplay his achievements and refer to him as a draftsman.[3]

William H. Emery, Jr. House 01

William H. Emery, Jr. House, 1903

Frederick Carter House

Frederick Carter House 1910


Page House, 1912


Blythe-Rule House, 1913

Ralph Griffin House

Ralph Griffin House, 1913


Melson House, 1914


Blythe House, 1914


Canberra plan-WBG
Griffin's contour survey for Canberra
Canberra Prelim Plan by WB Griffin 1913
Final accepted plan for Canberra
Pialligo Redwood Forest view south
Forest of Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum), planted in 1918, Pialligo Avenue.

In April 1911 the Australian Government held an international competition to produce a design for Canberra, its new capital city. Griffin produced a design with impressive renderings of the plan produced by Mahony Griffin. They first heard about the competition in July, while on honeymoon, and worked feverishly to prepare the plans. On May 23, 1912, Griffin's design was selected as the winner from among 137 entries. This created significant press coverage at the time and brought him professional and public recognition. Of his plan, he famously remarked:

I have planned a city that is not like any other in the world. I have planned it not in a way that I expected any government authorities in the world would accept. I have planned an ideal city – a city that meets my ideal of the city of the future.

In 1913 he was invited to Australia to inspect the site.[4] He left Mahony Griffin in charge of the practice and travelled to Australia in July. His letters reveal his appreciation for the Australian landscape. The Griffins joined the Naturalists' Society of New South Wales in 1914, where they enjoyed organised bush walks and field studies. The Society facilitated their contact with the Australian scientific community, especially botanists. This appreciation for Australia flora was reflected in Griffin's 1914 town plan for Leeton in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, and later in a design for Newman College at the University of Melbourne.[5] He also utilised Australian flora botanical names as places names for suburbs and streets in Canberra, such as Grevillea Park, Telopea Park, Clienthus Circle and Blandfordia.[6]

Griffin was offered the position of head of the department of architecture at the University of Illinois. At the same time he was negotiating a three-year contract with the Australian Government to remain in Australia and oversee the implementation of his plan, which he felt had already been compromised. He was appointed the Federal Capital Director of Design and Construction. In this role, Griffin oversaw the design of North and South Canberra, though he struggled with political and bureaucratic obstacles.

With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Griffin was under pressure to reduce the scope and scale of his plans due to the Government diverting funds towards the war effort. Several parts of his basic design underwent change. Plans to create Westbourne, Southbourne and Eastbourne Avenues to complement Canberra's Northbourne Avenue were eliminated, as did a proposed railway connecting South Canberra to North Canberra, and then in a northwesterly direction to Yass. A market area that would have been at Russell Hill in North Canberra was moved south to what is now Fyshwick, next to South Canberra.

The pace of building was slower than expected, partly because of a lack of funds and partly because of a dispute between Griffin and Federal government bureaucrats. Many of Griffin's design ideas were attacked by both the architectural profession and the press. In 1917 a Royal Commission determined that they had undermined Griffin's authority by supplying him with false data which he had used to carry out his work. Ultimately, Griffin resigned from the Canberra design project in December 1920 when he discovered that several of these bureaucrats had been appointed to an agency that would oversee Canberra's construction. The Commonwealth Government under the leadership of Prime Minister Hughes had removed Griffin as director of construction at Canberra after disagreements over his supervisory role, and in 1921 created the Federal Capital Advisory Committee, with John Sulman as chair. Griffin was offered membership, but declined and withdrew from further activity in Canberra.[7]

Griffin designed several buildings for Canberra, none of which were built. The grave of General Bridges on Mount Pleasant was the only permanent structure designed by Griffin to be built in Canberra.

Aside from the city's design, his longest-living legacy is the forest of Redwood trees (both Sequoia sempervirens and Sequoiadendron giganteum) planted in 1918 by Walter Burley Griffin and arborist Thomas Charles Weston on Pialligo, ACT on Pialligo Avenue between Canberra and Queanbeyan.

Later career

Knitlock diagram-MJC
The Knitlock construction system designed by Griffin.

The Griffins' office in Chicago closed in 1917; however, they had successful practices in Melbourne and Sydney, which were a strong motivation for their continuing to live in Australia. The Griffins had received commissions for work outside Canberra since Walter first arrived in the country in 1913, designing town plans, subdivisions, and one of his highly regarded buildings, Newman College, the Catholic residential college of the University of Melbourne while employed in Canberra.[8] While supervising activities in Canberra, Griffin spent much time in Melbourne and, in 1918, became a founder, with Royden Powell, of the Henry George Club, an organisation devoted to providing a home for the Single Tax movement.[9] The Griffins' first major commission after leaving Canberra was the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne; it opened on November 7, 1924. In 1964 architectural writer Robin Boyd described the Capitol as "the best cinema that was ever built or is ever likely to be built".

In 1916 and 1917 Griffin developed a patented modular concrete construction system known as "Knitlock" for use in the construction of Canberra. No Knitlock buildings were ever built in Canberra, although several were built in Australia. The first were built on Griffin's property in Frankston in 1922, where he constructed two holiday houses called "Gumnuts". The best examples of Knitlock include the S.R. Salter House in Toorak and the Paling House. Frank Lloyd Wright designed a similar system and used Griffin's design to support the arguments for his design.

Newman College - Mannix wing walkway
Mannix Wing walkway at Newman College, University of Melbourne

In 1919 the Griffins founded the Greater Sydney Development Association (GSDA), and in 1921 purchased 259 ha of land in North Sydney. The GSDA's goal was the development of an idyllic community with a consistent architectural feel and bushland setting. Walter Burley Griffin as managing director of the GSDA designed all the buildings built in the area until 1935. Castlecrag was the first suburb to be developed by the GSDA. The Redding House and several others in Castelcrag were also built in Knitlock. Almost all the houses Griffin designed in Castlecrag were small and had flat roofs, and he included an internal courtyard in many of them. Griffin used what was at that time the novel concept of including native bushland in these designs. He came to be referred to as "The Wizard of Castlecrag".

Other work the Griffins did during this time included the Melbourne subdivisions of Glenard and Mount Eagle at Eaglemont. Prior to 1920 the Griffins also designed the New South Wales towns of Leeton and Griffith.[10] Griffin and architect J Burcham Clamp designed a large tomb built at Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, between 1914 and 1916 for James Stuart, which still stands as a good example of Griffin's sense of 'human-scale monumentality'.[11]

The Griffins participated in the celebrated Chicago Tribune Tower Competition in 1922. Having won one famous international competition, as architects who were both well acquainted with Chicago and recognized as practical visionaries, they offered a solution that was positive, forward-looking and elegant. Indeed, their entry appears to be about a decade ahead of its time, with emphatic verticality along the lines of the Art Deco or Art Moderne. It anticipated and would have been a near neighbor of Chicago's 333 North Michigan by Holabird & Roche (1928); with stylistic echos in John and Donald Parkinson's Bullocks Wilshire, in Los Angeles (1929), as well as Adah Robinson and Bruce Goff's Boston Avenue Methodist Church, Tulsa (1929).[12]

In the 1920s they prepared plans for the Milleara Estate (also known as City View) at Avondale Heights, and the Ranelagh Estate at Mount Eliza, in conjunction with surveyors Tuxen and Miller.


Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator, Ipswich, Queensland

During the financial hardship of the Depression in the 1930s Griffin designed incinerators, collaborating with the Reverberatory Incinerator and Engineering Company (RIECo), in conjunction with his friend and partner, Eric Nicholls.[13] He was responsible for twelve incinerator designs between 1930 and 1938, of which seven still survive. They are located at:

The Willoughby incinerator is a good example of this work. It has been listed by the National Trust of Australia and the Royal Australian Institute of Architects as a building of significance. In 1999 it was listed in the New South Wales State Heritage Register.[14] It has since been restored and converted to commercial use by Willoughby Council.

The Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator in Ipswich, Queensland is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register and has been converted into a theatre.[15] Another incinerator was built in the suburb of Pyrmont, not far from the centre of Sydney. This incinerator was considered for heritage listing but was demolished in 1992 because it was in irredeemably bad condition.[16]


During their time at the GSDA, the Griffins became more involved in anthroposophy,[17] and in 1935 through contacts in the movement Griffin won a commission to design the library at the University of Lucknow in Lucknow, India.

Although he had planned to stay in India only to complete the drawings for the library, he soon received more than 40 commissions, including the University of Lucknow Student Union building; a museum and library for the Raja of Mahmudabad; a zenana (women's quarters) for the Raja of Jahangirabad; Pioneer Press building, a bank, municipal offices, many private houses, and a memorial to King George V. He also won complete design responsibility for the 1936–1937 United Provinces Exhibition of Industry and Agriculture. His 53 projects for the 160-acre (0.65 km2) site featured a stadium, arena, mosque, imambara, art gallery, restaurant, bazaar, pavilions, rotundas, arcades, and towers,[18][19] however, only part of his elaborate plans were fully executed.[20]

Griffin was inspired by the architecture and culture of India, modifying forms as "he sought to create a modern Indian architecture ... Griffin was able to expand his aesthetic vocabulary to create an exuberant, expressive architecture reflecting both the 'stamp of the place' and the 'spirit of the times'".[21] While in India, Griffin also published numerous articles for the Pioneer, writing about architecture, in particular about ventilation design improvements. His wife Marion traveled to Lucknow in April 1936 to assist and contributed to several projects.

Death and burial in India

Griffin died of peritonitis in early 1937, five days after gall bladder surgery at King George's Hospital, Lucknow in Lucknow city in state of Uttar Pradesh, India, and was buried in Christian Cemetery in Lucknow. Marion Mahony Griffin oversaw the completion of the Pioneer Building that he had been working on at the time of his death. She closed down their Indian offices, then left their Australian practice in the hands of Griffin's partner, Eric Milton Nicholls, and returned to Chicago.[19]


Griffin was largely under-appreciated during his time in Australia, but since his death there has been a growing recognition of his work. In 1964 when Canberra finally got its central lake (as Griffin had intended), Prime Minister Robert Menzies declined to have the lake named after himself, and he instead named it Lake Burley Griffin, and this became the first monument in Canberra dedicated to the city's designer ("Burley" was included in the name because of the misconception that it was part of Griffin's surname).

Architectural drawings and other archival materials by and about the Griffins are held by numerous institutions in the United States, including the Drawings and Archives Department of Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University; the Block Gallery at Northwestern University; the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago; and the New York Historical Society, as well as in several repositories in Australia, including the National Library of Australia, National Archives of Australia, and the Newman College Archives of the University of Melbourne. At the centenary of the Griffins' design work for Canberra, some believe they are owed a permanent memorial.[22]

In his own words

. ... "I am what may be termed a naturalist in architecture. I do not believe in any school of architecture. I believe in architecture that is the logical outgrowth of the environment in which the building in mind is to be located". ... From the New York Times, Sunday 2 June 1912[23]

Major works


United States



Newman College - Dining from courtyard

Newman College

Newman College - Dining interior archway wider

Newman College interior of the dining room

Capitol Theatre, Swanston Street, Melbourne

Capitol Theatre


Grave for General Bridges designed by Griffin

Hindmarsh Incinerator

Hindmarsh Incinerator at Brompton

Thebarton Incinerator

Thebarton Incinerator at Thebarton


Eric Pratten House, also called Coppins, in Pymble, Sydney


  1. ^ Marion Mahony at
  2. ^ Walter Burley Griffin – Mason City at
  3. ^ Paul kruty at
  4. ^ Vernon, Christopher; National Archives of Australia; National Library of Australia (2013), The dream of a century : the Griffins in Australia's capital, Canberra National Library of Australia, retrieved 9 April 2018
  5. ^ Vernon, C., (2002), 'Griffin, Walter Burley', in R. Aitken and M. Looker (eds), Oxford Companion to Australian Gardens, South Melbourne, Oxford University Press, pp. 275–76.
  6. ^ Vernon, C., (1997), 'Griffin and Australian flora', Australian Garden History, 8 (5), pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ An Ideal City – Timeline Archived October 15, 2005, at the Wayback Machine at
  8. ^ Birrell, James (1986), "Vision and bureaucracy: the Walter Burley Griffin experience", Heritage (Australian Heritage Society), 5 (3): 33–36, ISSN 0155-2716
  9. ^ Henry George Club – Home Page Archived February 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine at
  10. ^ "The City Plan of Griffith". Irrigation Record. 3, (6). New South Wales, Australia. 1 June 1915. p. 1. Retrieved 9 April 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ "Tomb by Burley Griffin sheds darkness and light", Sydney Morning Herald, July 21, 1998
  12. ^ Solomonson, Katherine, "The Chicago Tribune Tower Competition", 2001; page 155
  13. ^ The Architecture of Walter Burley Griffin, Donald Leslie Johnson (Macmillan Company of Australia) 1977, p.116 ISBN 0 333 22928 2
  14. ^ "Willoughby Council Website". Archived from the original on April 2, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator (former) (entry 600596)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  16. ^ "City of Sydney Website". Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  17. ^ Paull, John (2012) "Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahoney Griffin, Architects of Anthroposophy", Journal of Bio-dynamics Tasmania, 106:20-30.
  18. ^ National Library of Australia Digital Collections Pictures: nla.pic-vn3674084
  19. ^ a b Walter Burley Griffin Society, Inc., Walter Burley Griffin
  20. ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography, Griffin, Walter Burley (1876–1937)
  21. ^ Kruty, Paul & Maldre, Mati, Walter Burley Griffin in America, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996, pp. 76–81
  22. ^ Vernon, Christopher 'Let's Not Forget the Griffins', The Canberra Times, Panorama magazine, 17 May 2014 p6, from Australian Design Review, April 2013.
  24. ^ "Fishwick House, The". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01751. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00084. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Duncan House". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H00742. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Eric Pratten House". New South Wales State Heritage Register. Office of Environment and Heritage. H01443. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  28. ^ Building Details - Architects of South Australia > Hindmarsh Incinerator Accessed 13 May 2014.
  29. ^ Building Details - Architects of South Australia > Thebarton Incinerator Accessed 13 May 2014.
  • Birrell, James. 1964. Walter Burley Griffin. University of Queensland Press
  • Gebhard, David & Gerald Mansheim, Buildings of Iowa, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993
  • Gebhard, David. "The Suburban House and the Automobile." The Car and the City: The Automobile, the Built Environment and Daily Urban Life. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991: 106,123.
  • Kruty, Paul. 2000. Griffin, Walter Burley. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press
  • MacMahon, Bill (2001). The Architecture of East Australia. Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 3-930698-90-0.
  • Mason City Iowa, An Architectural Heritage, Department of Community Development, City of Mason, Iowa, 1977
  • Maldre, Mati and Paul Kruty, Walter Burley Griffin in America, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1996
  • McGregor, Alasdair, 'Grand Obsessions: The life and work of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Penguin/Lantern, Camberwell, Victoria, 2009
  • Walker, M., Kabos, A. and Weirick, J. (1994) Building for nature : Walter Burley Griffin and Castlecrag, Castlecrag, N.S.W. : Walter Burley Griffin Society (ISBN 0-646-18133-5)
  • Wilson, Richard Guy and Sidney K. Robinson, The Prairie School in Iowa, Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1977

Further reading

  • Brooks, H. Allen, Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School, Braziller (in association with the Cooper-Hewitt Museum), New York 1984; ISBN 0-8076-1084-4
  • Brooks, H. Allen, The Prairie School, W.W. Norton, New York 2006; ISBN 0-393-73191-X
  • Brooks, H. Allen (editor), Prairie School Architecture: Studies from "The Western Architect", University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Buffalo 1975; ISBN 0-8020-2138-7
  • Brooks, H. Allen, The Prairie School: Frank Lloyd Wright and his Midwest Contemporaries, University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1972; ISBN 0-8020-5251-7
  • Griffin, Dustin (editor), The Writings of Walter Burley Griffin, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne 2008; ISBN 978-0-521-89713-6
  • Townsend, Danielle, ed. (December 2008). "Walter Burley Griffin Lodge". Australian Period Style. Universal Magazines (3): 80–85. ISSN 1441-5259.
  • Page, Walter Hines; Page, Arthur Wilson (July 1914). "The March of the Cities: A Young American Architect Building A New Capital For Australia". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XLIV (2): 351–352. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
  • McGregor, Alasdair, 'Grand Obsessions: The life and work of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin', Penguin/Lantern, Camberwell, Victoria, 2009 ISBN 978-1-920989-38-5
  • Turnbull, J. and Navaretti, P. (eds), The Griffins in Australia and India: the complete works of Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin, Miegunyah Press, Melbourne 1998; ISBN 0-5228-4830-3

External links

National Library of Australia:

Online exhibitions

B.J. Ricker House

The B.J. Ricker House is a historic dwelling located in Grinnell, Iowa, United States. The significance of this house is that it is an early example of Walter Burley Griffin's work. Construction on the house began in 1911, but millwork and labor problems pushed its completion to 1912. The two-story brick house features a rectangular plan, a high cement basement, four broad brick piers on the corners, and a gable roof that appears to hover over the main block. The veranda on the south side of the house follows a Greek cross plan. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.

Burley Griffin Way

Burley Griffin Way is a New South Wales state route, is located in south eastern Australia. Named after the American architect, Walter Burley Griffin, designer of the cities of Canberra and Griffith, the highway links the two cities via Yass and the Barton Highway.

It provides a major link between the towns of Griffith and Yass, and then further north by the Hume Highway, including Sydney and beyond. Economically it provides a link between the agricultural produce of the western Riverina and Murrumbidgee regions and markets such as Sydney. The area it passes through is one of the richest agricultural areas in Australia. Hence, trucks make up a significant proportion of traffic using the road.

Recently, a bypass was constructed west of Bowning, and the Burley Griffin Way was realigned along this road to a new at-grade intersection with the Hume Highway.

Capitol Theatre, Melbourne

The Capitol Theatre is a single screen cinema located on Swanston Street in Melbourne, Australia (opposite the Melbourne Town Hall). The theatre, part of the Capitol House building, was opened in 1924, and is renowned for its geometric plaster ceiling. The theatre was renovated in the 1960s to reduce its size and convert the stalls area into a shopping arcade.

After a period of inactivity in the early 1990s, the Capitol Theatre was purchased in May 1999 by Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University). It is currently used for university lectures and cultural events such as film and comedy festivals.

Castlecrag, New South Wales

Castlecrag is a suburb on the lower North Shore of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 8 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Willoughby.

Castlecrag is a suburb of historical significance that is bounded to the north, east and south by Middle Harbour and to the west by Eastern Valley Way. Castlecrag shares its postcode, 2068, with the surrounding suburbs of Willoughby, Middle Cove and North Willoughby.

Duncan House, Castlecrag

Duncan House is an heritage-listed residence located at 8 The Barbette, Castlecrag, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin. It is also known as Duncan House Number 2. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Eaglemont, Victoria

Eaglemont is an established suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 10 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Banyule. At the 2016 Census, Eaglemont had a population of 3,873.

Formerly known as Mount Eagle, Eaglemont is a picturesque enclave situated between Ivanhoe East and Heidelberg. The heritage-laden garden suburb was designed by Walter Burley Griffin, playing home to many of Australia's most famous artists at the Heidelberg School of Art.

Walking distance to first class private schools, the Yarra River, parks, walking trails, shopping centers and a public golf course, the median house prices in Eaglemont remain amongst the highest in Melbourne, with the market for properties notoriously tough to break and few properties up for sale.

Gauler Twin Houses

The Gauler Twin Houses are two specular Prairie style houses located at 5917 and 5921 North Magnolia Avenue in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The houses were built in 1908 by Walter Burley Griffin for John Gauler, a land speculator. They were added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 17, 1977 and designated a Chicago Landmark on June 28, 2000.

Griffith, New South Wales


is a major regional city in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area that is located in the north-western part of the Riverina region of New South Wales, known commonly as the food bowl of Australia. It is also the seat of the City of Griffith local government area. Like the Australian capital, Canberra, and the nearby town of Leeton, Griffith was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin. Griffith was named after Arthur Hill Griffith, the first New South Wales Minister of Public Works. Griffith was proclaimed a city in 1987, and had a population of 19,144 in 2016.It can be accessed by road from Sydney and Canberra via the Hume Highway and the Burley Griffin Way and from Melbourne, Victoria, via the Newell Highway and either by using the Kidman Way or the Irrigation Way. Griffith can be accessed from other places like Adelaide, Orange, New South Wales, and Bathurst through the Mid-Western Highway and the Rankins Springs road from Rankins Springs and the Kidman Way from Goolgowi.

Hindmarsh Incinerator

The Hindmarsh Incinerator is an incinerator located in the Adelaide suburb of Brompton in South Australia, Australia. Designed by Walter Burley Griffin, the architect and designer of Canberra, the incinerator was built in 1935 by the Reverberatory Incinerator and Engineering Co. Pty Ltd. as a means of disposing of household refuse.

The incinerator was included on the South Australian Heritage Register on 24 July 1980. It is listed as a nationally significant work of 20th-century architecture by the Australian Institute of Architects.

Leeton, New South Wales

Leeton is a town located in the Riverina region of southern New South Wales, Australia. Situated approximately 550 km west of Sydney and 450 km north of Melbourne in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, it is the administerative centre of the Leeton Shire Council local government area. Leeton's urban population in 2016 was 8,623. Situated in one of the most productive farming regions in the state, the town was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and purpose-built for the irrigation schemes announced by the New South Wales government in the early 1900s. Citrus, rice, cotton, grapes, walnuts and wheat farms can all be found throughout the Leeton Shire. Leeton is renowned as Australia's Rice Capital and as The Heart of SunRice Country, as it is home to the SunRice headquarters. Other industry includes Freedom Foods, the Daily Drinks Co., JBS Australia, Webster Limited (walnuts and cotton) and Murrumbidgee Irrigation Limited.

Marion Mahony Griffin

Marion Mahony Griffin (February 14, 1871 – August 10, 1961) was an American architect and artist. She was one of the first licensed female architects in the world, and is considered an original member of the Prairie School. Her work in the United States developed and expanded the American Prairie School. Her work in India and Australia reflected Prairie School ideals of indigenous landscape and materials in the newly formed democracies. The scholar Deborah Wood has stated that Griffin "did the drawings people think when they think Frank Lloyd Wright (one of her collaborating architects)." During her career, she produced some of the best architectural drawing in America and was instrumental in envisioning the design plans for then new capital city of Australia, Canberra.

Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area

The Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) is geographically located within the Riverina area of New South Wales. It was created to control and divert the flow of local river and creek systems for the purpose of food production. The main river systems feeding and fed by the area are the Murrumbidgee and the Tumut. It is one of the most diverse and productive regions in Australia contributing over A$5 billion annually to the Australian economy. The MIA was first established in 1912 after the commissioning of Burrinjuck Dam. Further expansion occurred in the 1970s with the completion of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and construction of Blowering Dam on the Tumut River, which meets the Murrumbidgee near Gundagai.

The system is still regarded as a major engineering achievement comprising an elaborate series of weirs, canals and holding ponds (fed by upstream rivers and dams).

Many of the towns within the area which include Leeton and Griffith were purpose built and designed for the project and remain as thriving communities today. The two towns are growing at a rapid rate due to sustainable employment. The growth of inland centres is unusual for central New South Wales which displays the uniqueness of the MIA.

The layout of the towns of Giffith and Leeton were designed in 1914 by Walter Burley Griffin, an american architect and town planner who had just won the competition for the plan for Canberra in 1912.

Orth House

The Orth House is a historic house located at 42 Abbotsford Road in Winnetka, Illinois. Walter Burley Griffin designed the Prairie School house, which was built in 1908. Griffin was a student of Frank Lloyd Wright, and he designed the Orth House shortly after starting his own studio; the house consequently resembles Wright's work more closely than Griffin's later work does. The ​1 1⁄2-story house's design features a stucco exterior with decorative stained wood, casement windows divided into geometric patterns, and an overall horizontal emphasis, all characteristic features of the Prairie School.The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 8, 1976.

University of Lucknow

University Of Lucknow or Lucknow University (LU) is a government owned Indian research university based in Lucknow. LU's old campus is located at Badshah Bagh, University Road area of the city with a new campus at Jankipuram. Founded in 1867, LU is one of the oldest government owned institutions of Indian higher education.

LU is a teaching, residential and affiliating University, organised into more than 146 colleges, and institutes, located throughout the city and other surrounding areas.It is affiliated to University Grants Commission; Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU); Association of Indian Universities (AIU); Distance Education Council (DEC). Other accreditations include National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC); National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE); Bar Council of India (BCI). It was affiliated to UGC in the year 1921.

Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator, Ipswich

Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator is a heritage-listed former incinerator at 10A Milford Street, Ipswich, City of Ipswich, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and built from 1936 to 1940. It is also known as The Incinerator Theatre. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.

Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator, Willoughby

The Walter Burley Griffin Incinerator is an heritage-listed former restaurant, offices and incinerator and now art gallery, artists studios and public recreation area at 2 Small Street, Willoughby, City of Willoughby, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed in partnership between Walter Burley Griffin and Eric Nicholls and built from 1933 to 1934 by Reverberatory Incinerator and Engineering Company and Nisson Leonard-Kanevsky. It is also known as Willoughby Municipal Incinerator. The property is owned by the Willoughby City Council. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Walter Burley Griffin Lodge

The Walter Burley Griffin Lodge is an heritage-listed former residence, holiday house and weekender and now residence located at 32 Plateau Road, Avalon, Northern Beaches Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Walter Burley Griffin and built from 1933 to 1934. It is also known as Burley Griffin Lodge or Stella James House. The property is owned by the New South Wales branch of the National Trust of Australia. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 March 2002.

Walter Burley Griffin Place District

The Walter Burley Griffin Place District is a historic district in Chicago, Illinois, United States. The district was built between 1909 and 1914. Seven of the homes were built by Walter Burley Griffin, one by Spencer and Powers, and the rest by various architects. It was designated a Chicago Landmark on November 13, 1981.

William H. Emery Jr. House

William H. Emery Jr. House is a Prairie School residence in Elmhurst, Illinois. It was one of the first independent commissions for Walter Burley Griffin.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.