Walt Disney

Walter Elias Disney (/ˈdɪzni/;[1] December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer, Disney holds the record for most Academy Awards earned by an individual, having won 22 Oscars from 59 nominations. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and an Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are included in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress.

Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to California in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first highly popular success; he also provided the voice for his creation in the early years. As the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras. The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Pinocchio, Fantasia (both 1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942), furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including the critically successful Cinderella (1950) and Mary Poppins (1964), the latter of which received five Academy Awards.

In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, and in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney's Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club; he was also involved in planning the 1959 Moscow Fair, the 1960 Winter Olympics, and the 1964 New York World's Fair. In 1965, he began development of another theme park, Disney World, the heart of which was to be a new type of city, the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT). Disney was a heavy smoker throughout his life, and died of lung cancer in December 1966 before either the park or the EPCOT project were completed.

Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona. He had high standards and high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him. His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He nevertheless remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon. His film work continues to be shown and adapted; his namesake studio and company maintains high standards in its production of popular entertainment, and the Disney amusement parks have grown in size and number to attract visitors in several countries.

Walt Disney
Walt Disney 1946
Disney in 1946
Born
Walter Elias Disney

December 5, 1901
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedDecember 15, 1966 (aged 65)
Occupation
  • Entrepreneur
  • animator
  • voice actor
  • film producer
Board member ofThe Walt Disney Company (1923–1966)
RelativesSee Disney family
Awards
Signature
Walt Disney 1942 signature

Biography

Early life: 1901–1920

Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, at 1249 Tripp Avenue, in Chicago's Hermosa neighborhood.[a] He was the fourth son of Elias Disney‍—‌born in the Province of Canada, to Irish parents‍—‌and Flora (née Call), an American of German and English descent.[3][4][b] Aside from Disney, Elias and Flora's sons were Herbert, Raymond and Roy; the couple had a fifth child, Ruth, in December 1903.[7] In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, Missouri, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor.[8] Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, and Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker.[9] Disney also began to develop an ability to work with watercolors and crayons.[4] He lived near the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway line and became enamored with trains.[10] He and his younger sister Ruth started school at the same time at the Park School in Marceline in late 1909.[11]

In 1911, the Disneys moved to Kansas City, Missouri.[12] There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers' house than at home.[13] Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for The Kansas City Star and Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated the round for the evening Star after school. The schedule was exhausting, and Disney often received poor grades after falling asleep in class, but he continued his paper route for more than six years.[14] He attended Saturday courses at the Kansas City Art Institute and also took a correspondence course in cartooning.[4][15]

In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, and moved back to the city with his family.[16] Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I;[17][18] he also took night courses at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts.[19] In mid-1918, Disney attempted to join the United States Army to fight against the Germans, but he was rejected for being too young. After forging the date of birth on his birth certificate, he joined the Red Cross in September 1918 as an ambulance driver. He was shipped to France but arrived in November, after the armistice.[20] He drew cartoons on the side of his ambulance for decoration and had some of his work published in the army newspaper Stars and Stripes.[21] Disney returned to Kansas City in October 1919,[22] where he worked as an apprentice artist at the Pesmen-Rubin Commercial Art Studio. There, he drew commercial illustrations for advertising, theater programs and catalogs. He also befriended fellow artist Ub Iwerks.[23]

Early career: 1920–1928

Walt Disney envelope ca. 1921
Walt Disney's business envelope featured a self-portrait c. 1921

In January 1920, as Pesmen-Rubin's revenue declined after Christmas, Disney and Iwerks were laid off. They started their own business, the short-lived Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists.[24] Failing to attract many customers, Disney and Iwerks agreed that Disney should leave temporarily to earn money at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, run by A. V. Cauger; the following month Iwerks, who was not able to run their business alone, also joined.[25] The company produced commercials using the cutout animation technique.[26] Disney became interested in animation, although he preferred drawn cartoons such as Mutt and Jeff and Koko the Clown. With the assistance of a borrowed book on animation and a camera, he began experimenting at home.[27][c] He came to the conclusion that cel animation was more promising than the cutout method.[d] Unable to persuade Cauger to try cel animation at the company, Disney opened a new business with a co-worker from the Film Ad Co, Fred Harman.[29] Their main client was the local Newman Theater, and the short cartoons they produced were sold as "Newman's Laugh-O-Grams".[30] Disney studied Paul Terry's Aesop's Fables as a model, and the first six "Laugh-O-Grams" were modernized fairy tales.[31]

Newman Laugh-O-Gram (1921)

In May 1921, the success of the "Laugh-O-Grams" led to the establishment of Laugh-O-Gram Studio, for which he hired more animators, including Fred Harman's brother Hugh, Rudolf Ising and Iwerks.[32] The Laugh-O-Grams cartoons did not provide enough income to keep the company solvent, so Disney started production of Alice's Wonderland‍—‌based on Alice's Adventures in Wonderland‍—‌which combined live action with animation; he cast Virginia Davis in the title role.[33] The result, a 12-and-a-half-minute, one-reel film, was completed too late to save Laugh-O-Gram Studio, which went into bankruptcy in 1923.[34]

Disney moved to Hollywood in July 1923. Although New York was the center of the cartoon industry, he was attracted to Los Angeles because his brother Roy was convalescing from tuberculosis there,[35] and he hoped to become a live-action film director.[36] Disney's efforts to sell Alice's Wonderland were in vain until he heard from New York film distributor Margaret J. Winkler. She was losing the rights to both the Out of the Inkwell and Felix the Cat cartoons, and needed a new series. In October, they signed a contract for six Alice comedies, with an option for two further series of six episodes each.[36][37] Disney and his brother Roy formed the Disney Brothers Studio‍—‌which later became The Walt Disney Company‍—‌to produce the films;[38][39] they persuaded Davis and her family to relocate to Hollywood to continue production, with Davis on contract at $100 a month. In July 1924, Disney also hired Iwerks, persuading him to relocate to Hollywood from Kansas City.[40]

Early in 1925, Disney hired an ink artist, Lillian Bounds. They married in July of that year, at her brother's house in her hometown of Lewiston, Idaho.[41] The marriage was generally happy, according to Lillian, although according to Disney's biographer Neal Gabler she did not "accept Walt's decisions meekly or his status unquestionably, and she admitted that he was always telling people 'how henpecked he is'."[42][e] Lillian had little interest in films or the Hollywood social scene and she was, in the words of the historian Steven Watts, "content with household management and providing support for her husband".[43] Their marriage produced two daughters, Diane (born December 1933) and Sharon (adopted in December 1936, born six weeks previously).[44][f] Within the family, neither Disney nor his wife hid the fact Sharon had been adopted, although they became annoyed if people outside the family raised the point.[45] The Disneys were careful to keep their daughters out of the public eye as much as possible, particularly in the light of the Lindbergh kidnapping; Disney took steps to ensure his daughters were not photographed by the press.[46]

Trolley Troubles poster
Theatrical poster for Trolley Troubles (1927)

By 1926 Winkler's role in the distribution of the Alice series had been handed over to her husband, the film producer Charles Mintz, although the relationship between him and Disney was sometimes strained.[47] The series ran until July 1927,[48] by which time Disney had begun to tire of it and wanted to move away from the mixed format to all animation.[47][49] After Mintz requested new material to distribute through Universal Pictures, Disney and Iwerks created Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, a character Disney wanted to be "peppy, alert, saucy and venturesome, keeping him also neat and trim".[49][50]

In February 1928, Disney hoped to negotiate a larger fee for producing the Oswald series, but found Mintz wanting to reduce the payments. Mintz had also persuaded many of the artists involved to work directly for him, including Harman, Ising, Carman Maxwell and Friz Freleng. Disney also found out that Universal owned the intellectual property rights to Oswald. Mintz threatened to start his own studio and produce the series himself if Disney refused to accept the reductions. Disney declined Mintz's ultimatum and lost most of his animation staff, except Iwerks, who chose to remain with him.[51][52][g]

Creation of Mickey Mouse to the first Academy Awards: 1928–1933

To replace Oswald, Disney and Iwerks developed Mickey Mouse, possibly inspired by a pet mouse that Disney had adopted while working in his Laugh-O-Gram studio, although the origins of the character are unclear.[54][h] Disney's original choice of name was Mortimer Mouse, but Lillian thought it too pompous, and suggested Mickey instead.[55][i] Iwerks revised Disney's provisional sketches to make the character easier to animate. Disney, who had begun to distance himself from the animation process,[57] provided Mickey's voice until 1947. In the words of one Disney employee, "Ub designed Mickey's physical appearance, but Walt gave him his soul."[58]

Steamboat-willie
The first appearance of Mickey Mouse, in Steamboat Willie (1928)

Mickey Mouse first appeared in May 1928 as a single test screening of the short Plane Crazy, but it, and the second feature, The Gallopin' Gaucho, failed to find a distributor.[59] Following the 1927 sensation The Jazz Singer, Disney used synchronized sound on the third short, Steamboat Willie, to create the first post-produced sound cartoon. After the animation was complete, Disney signed a contract with the former executive of Universal Pictures, Pat Powers, to use the "Powers Cinephone" recording system;[60] Cinephone became the new distributor for Disney's early sound cartoons, which soon became popular.[61]

To improve the quality of the music, Disney hired the professional composer and arranger Carl Stalling, on whose suggestion the Silly Symphony series was developed, providing stories through the use of music; the first in the series, The Skeleton Dance (1929), was drawn and animated entirely by Iwerks. Also hired at this time were several local artists, some of whom stayed with the company as core animators; the group later became known as the Nine Old Men.[62][j] Both the Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies series were successful, but Disney and his brother felt they were not receiving their rightful share of profits from Powers. In 1930, Disney tried to trim costs from the process by urging Iwerks to abandon the practice of animating every separate cel in favor of the more efficient technique of drawing key poses and letting lower-paid assistants sketch the inbetween poses. Disney asked Powers for an increase in payments for the cartoons. Powers refused and signed Iwerks to work for him; Stalling resigned shortly afterwards, thinking that without Iwerks, the Disney Studio would close.[63] Disney had a nervous breakdown in October 1931‍—‌which he blamed on the machinations of Powers and his own overwork‍—‌so he and Lillian took an extended holiday to Cuba and a cruise to Panama to recover.[64]

Walt Disney 1935
Disney in 1935

With the loss of Powers as distributor, Disney studios signed a contract with Columbia Pictures to distribute the Mickey Mouse cartoons, which became increasingly popular, including internationally.[65][66][k] Disney, always keen to embrace new technology, filmed Flowers and Trees (1932) in full-color three-strip Technicolor;[67] he was also able to negotiate a deal giving him the sole right to use the three-strip process until August 31, 1935.[68] All subsequent Silly Symphony cartoons were in color.[69] Flowers and Trees was popular with audiences[67] and won the Academy Award for best Short Subject (Cartoon) at the 1932 ceremony. Disney had been nominated for another film in that category, Mickey's Orphans, and received an Honorary Award "for the creation of Mickey Mouse".[70][71]

In 1933, Disney produced The Three Little Pigs, a film described by the media historian Adrian Danks as "the most successful short animation of all time".[72] The film won Disney another Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category. The film's success led to a further increase in the studio's staff, which numbered nearly 200 by the end of the year.[73] Disney realized the importance of telling emotionally gripping stories that would interest the audience,[74] and he invested in a "story department" separate from the animators, with storyboard artists who would detail the plots of Disney's films.[75]

Golden age of animation: 1934–1941

Walt Disney Snow white 1937 trailer screenshot (13)
Walt Disney introduces each of the seven dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow White theatrical trailer.

By 1934, Disney had become dissatisfied with producing formulaic cartoon shorts,[76] and believed a feature-length cartoon would be more profitable.[77] The studio began the four-year production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, based on the fairy tale. When news leaked out about the project, many in the film industry predicted it would bankrupt the company; industry insiders nicknamed it "Disney's Folly".[78] The film, which was the first animated feature made in full color and sound, cost $1.5 million to produce‍—‌three times over budget.[79] To ensure the animation was as realistic as possible, Disney sent his animators on courses at the Chouinard Art Institute;[80] he brought animals into the studio and hired actors so that the animators could study realistic movement.[81] To portray the changing perspective of the background as a camera moved through a scene, Disney's animators developed a multiplane camera which allowed drawings on pieces of glass to be set at various distances from the camera, creating an illusion of depth. The glass could be moved to create the impression of a camera passing through the scene. The first work created on the camera‍—‌a Silly Symphony called The Old Mill (1937)‍—‌won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film because of its impressive visual power. Although Snow White had been largely finished by the time the multiplane camera had been completed, Disney ordered some scenes be re-drawn to use the new effects.[82]

Snow White premiered in December 1937 to high praise from critics and audiences. The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and by May 1939 its total gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film made to that date.[78][l] Disney won another Honorary Academy Award, which consisted of one full-sized and seven miniature Oscar statuettes.[84][m] The success of Snow White heralded one of the most productive eras for the studio; the Walt Disney Family Museum calls the following years "the 'Golden Age of Animation' ".[85][86] With work on Snow White finished, the studio began producing Pinocchio in early 1938 and Fantasia in November of the same year. Both films were released in 1940, and neither performed well at the box office‍—‌partly because revenues from Europe had dropped following the start of World War II in 1939. The studio made a loss on both pictures and was deeply in debt by the end of February 1941.[87]

In response to the financial crisis, Disney and his brother Roy started the company's first public stock offering in 1940, and implemented heavy salary cuts. The latter measure, and Disney's sometimes high-handed and insensitive manner of dealing with staff, led to a 1941 animators' strike which lasted five weeks.[88] While a federal mediator from the National Labor Relations Board negotiated with the two sides, Disney accepted an offer from the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to make a goodwill trip to South America, ensuring he was absent during a resolution he knew would be unfavorable to the studio.[89][n] As a result of the strike‍—‌and the financial state of the company‍—‌several animators left the studio, and Disney's relationship with other members of staff was permanently strained as a result.[92] The strike temporarily interrupted the studio's next production, Dumbo (1941), which Disney produced in a simple and inexpensive manner; the film received a positive reaction from audiences and critics alike.[93]

World War II and beyond: 1941–1950

Disney drawing goofy
Disney drawing Goofy for a group of girls in Argentina, 1941

Shortly after the release of Dumbo in October 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. Disney formed the Walt Disney Training Films Unit within the company to produce instruction films for the military such as Four Methods of Flush Riveting and Aircraft Production Methods.[94] Disney also met with Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, and agreed to produce short Donald Duck cartoons to promote war bonds.[95] Disney also produced several propaganda productions, including shorts such as Der Fuehrer's Face‍—‌which won an Academy Award‍—‌and the 1943 feature film Victory Through Air Power.[96]

The military films generated only enough revenue to cover costs, and the feature film Bambi‍—‌which had been in production since 1937‍—‌underperformed on its release in April 1942, and lost $200,000 at the box office.[97] On top of the low earnings from Pinocchio and Fantasia, the company had debts of $4 million with the Bank of America in 1944.[98][o] At a meeting with Bank of America executives to discuss the future of the company, the bank's chairman and founder, Amadeo Giannini, told his executives, "I've been watching the Disneys' pictures quite closely because I knew we were lending them money far above the financial risk. ... They're good this year, they're good next year, and they're good the year after. ... You have to relax and give them time to market their product."[99] Disney's production of short films decreased in the late 1940s, coinciding with increasing competition in the animation market from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Roy Disney, for financial reasons, suggested more combined animation and live-action productions.[60][p] In 1948, Disney initiated a series of popular live-action nature films, titled True-Life Adventures, with Seal Island the first; the film won the Academy Award in the Best Short Subject (Two-Reel) category.[100]

Disney grew more politically conservative as he got older. A Democratic Party supporter until the 1940 presidential election, when he switched allegiance to the Republican Party,[101] he became a generous donor to Thomas E. Dewey's 1944 bid for the presidency.[102] In 1946, he was a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an organization who stated they "believ[ed] in, and like, the American Way of Life ... we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of Communism, Fascism and kindred beliefs, that seek by subversive means to undermine and change this way of life".[103] In 1947, during the Second Red Scare, Disney testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), where he branded Herbert Sorrell, David Hilberman and William Pomerance, former animators and labor union organizers, as communist agitators; Disney stated that the 1941 strike led by them was part of an organized communist effort to gain influence in Hollywood.[104][105]

DisneySchiphol1951
Disney family at Schiphol Airport (1951)

In 1949, Disney and his family moved to a new home in the Holmby Hills district of Los Angeles. With the help of his friends Ward and Betty Kimball, who already had their own backyard railroad, Disney developed blueprints and immediately set to work on creating a miniature live steam railroad for his backyard. The name of the railroad, Carolwood Pacific Railroad, came from his home's location on Carolwood Drive. The miniature working steam locomotive was built by Disney Studios engineer Roger E. Broggie, and Disney named it Lilly Belle after his wife;[106] after three years Disney ordered it into storage due to a series of accidents involving his guests.[107]

Theme parks, television and other interests: 1950–1966

In early 1950, Disney produced Cinderella, his studio's first animated feature in eight years. It was popular with critics and theater audiences. Costing $2.2 million to produce, it earned nearly $8 million in its first year.[108][q] Disney was less involved than he had been with previous pictures because of his involvement in his first entirely live-action feature, Treasure Island (1950), which was shot in Britain, as was The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952).[109] Other all-live-action features followed, many of which had patriotic themes.[60][r] He continued to produce full-length animated features too, including Alice in Wonderland (1951) and Peter Pan (1953). From the early to mid-1950s, Disney began to devote less attention to the animation department, entrusting most of its operations to his key animators, the Nine Old Men, although he was always present at story meetings. Instead, he started concentrating on other ventures.[110]

WaltDisneyplansDisneylandDec1954
Disney shows the plans of Disneyland to officials from Orange County in December 1954

For several years Disney had been considering building a theme park. When he visited Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters, he wanted to be in a clean, unspoiled park, where both children and their parents could have fun.[111] He visited the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark, and was heavily influenced by the cleanliness and layout of the park.[112] In March 1952 he received zoning permission to build a theme park in Burbank, near the Disney studios.[113] This site proved too small, and a larger plot in Anaheim, 35 miles (56 km) south of the studio, was purchased. To distance the project from the studio‍—‌which might attract the criticism of shareholders‍—‌Disney formed WED Enterprises (now Walt Disney Imagineering) and used his own money to fund a group of designers and animators to work on the plans;[114][115] those involved became known as "Imagineers".[116] After obtaining bank funding he invited other stockholders, American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres‍—‌part of American Broadcasting Company (ABC)‍—‌and Western Printing and Lithographing Company.[60] In mid-1954, Disney sent his Imagineers to every amusement park in the U.S. to analyze what worked and what pitfalls or problems there were in the various locations and incorporated their findings into his design.[117] Construction work started in July 1954, and Disneyland opened in July 1955; the opening ceremony was broadcast on ABC, which reached 70 million viewers.[118] The park was designed as a series of themed lands, linked by the central Main Street, U.S.A.‍—‌a replica of the main street in his hometown of Marceline. The connected themed areas were Adventureland, Frontierland, Fantasyland and Tomorrowland. The park also contained the narrow gauge Disneyland Railroad that linked the lands; around the outside of the park was a high berm to separate the park from the outside world.[119][120] An editorial in The New York Times considered that Disney had "tastefully combined some of the pleasant things of yesterday with fantasy and dreams of tomorrow".[121] Although there were early minor problems with the park, it was a success, and after a month's operation, Disneyland was receiving over 20,000 visitors a day; by the end of its first year, it attracted 3.6 million guests.[122]

The money from ABC was contingent on Disney television programs.[123] The studio had been involved in a successful television special on Christmas Day 1950 about the making of Alice in Wonderland. Roy believed the program added millions to the box office takings. In a March 1951 letter to shareholders, he wrote that "television can be a most powerful selling aid for us, as well as a source of revenue. It will probably be on this premise that we enter television when we do".[60] In 1954, after the Disneyland funding had been agreed, ABC broadcast Walt Disney's Disneyland, an anthology consisting of animated cartoons, live-action features and other material from the studio's library. The show was successful in terms of ratings and profits, earning an audience share of over 50%.[124][s] In April 1955, Newsweek called the series an "American institution".[125] ABC was pleased with the ratings, leading to Disney's first daily television program, The Mickey Mouse Club, a variety show catering specifically to children.[126] The program was accompanied by merchandising through various companies (Western Printing, for example, had been producing coloring books and comics for over 20 years, and produced several items connected to the show).[127] One of the segments of Disneyland consisted of the five-part miniseries Davy Crockett which, according to Gabler, "became an overnight sensation".[128] The show's theme song, "The Ballad of Davy Crockett", became internationally popular, and ten million records were sold.[129] As a result, Disney formed his own record production and distribution entity, Disneyland Records.[130]

As well as the construction of Disneyland, Disney worked on other projects away from the studio. He was consultant to the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow; Disney Studios' contribution was America the Beautiful, a 19-minute film in the 360-degree Circarama theater that was one of the most popular attractions.[60] The following year he acted as the chairman of the Pageantry Committee for the 1960 Winter Olympics at Squaw Valley, California, where he designed the opening, closing and medal ceremonies.[131]

Walt disney portrait right
Disney in 1954

Despite the demands wrought by non-studio projects, Disney continued to work on film and television projects. In 1955, he was involved in "Man in Space", an episode of the Disneyland series, which was made in collaboration with NASA rocket designer Wernher von Braun.[t] Disney also oversaw aspects of the full-length features Lady and the Tramp (the first animated film in CinemaScope) in 1955, Sleeping Beauty (the first animated film in Technirama 70 mm film) in 1959, One Hundred and One Dalmatians (the first animated feature film to use Xerox cels) in 1961, and The Sword in the Stone in 1963.[133]

In 1964, Disney produced Mary Poppins, based on the book series by P. L. Travers; he had been trying to acquire the rights to the story since the 1940s.[134] It became the most successful Disney film of the 1960s, although Travers disliked the film intensely and regretted having sold the rights.[135] The same year he also became involved in plans to expand the California Institute of the Arts (colloquially called CalArts), and had an architect draw up blueprints for a new building.[136]

Disney provided four exhibits for the 1964 New York World's Fair, for which he obtained funding from selected corporate sponsors. For PepsiCo, who planned a tribute to UNICEF, Disney developed It's a Small World, a boat ride with audio-animatronic dolls depicting children of the world; Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln contained an animatronic Abraham Lincoln giving excerpts from his speeches; Carousel of Progress promoted the importance of electricity; and Ford's Magic Skyway portrayed the progress of mankind. Elements of all four exhibits‍—‌principally concepts and technology‍—‌were re-installed in Disneyland, although It's a Small World is the ride that most closely resembles the original.[137][138]

During the early to mid-1960s, Disney developed plans for a ski resort in Mineral King, a glacial valley in California's Sierra Nevada. He hired experts such as the renowned Olympic ski coach and ski-area designer Willy Schaeffler.[139][140][u] With income from Disneyland accounting for an increasing proportion of the studio's income, Disney continued to look for venues for other attractions. In late 1965, he announced plans to develop another theme park to be called "Disney World" (now Walt Disney World), a few miles southwest of Orlando, Florida. Disney World was to include the "Magic Kingdom"‍—‌a larger and more elaborate version of Disneyland‍—‌plus golf courses and resort hotels. The heart of Disney World was to be the "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT),[142] which he described as:

an experimental prototype community of tomorrow that will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed, but will always be introducing and testing and demonstrating new materials and systems. And EPCOT will always be a showcase to the world for the ingenuity and imagination of American free enterprise.[143]

During 1966, Disney cultivated businesses willing to sponsor EPCOT.[144] He increased his involvement in the studio's films, and was heavily involved in the story development of The Jungle Book, the live-action musical feature The Happiest Millionaire (both 1967) and the animated short Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day.[145]

Illness, death and aftermath

Walt Disney Grave
Grave of Walt Disney at Forest Lawn, Glendale

Disney had been a heavy smoker since World War I. He did not use cigarettes with filters and had smoked a pipe as a young man. In November 1966, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and was treated with cobalt therapy. On November 30 he felt unwell and was taken to St. Joseph Hospital where, on December 15, ten days after his 65th birthday, he died of circulatory collapse caused by lung cancer.[146] Disney's remains were cremated two days later, and his ashes interred at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.[147][v]

His estate included a 14 percent holding in Walt Disney Productions worth $20 million.[w][x] He left 45 percent of his estate to his wife and children‍—‌much in a family trust‍—‌and 10 percent to his sister, nieces and nephews.[150] The remaining 45 percent went into a charitable trust, 95 percent of which was designated for CalArts, to build a new campus (a figure of around $15 million); he also donated 38 acres (0.154 km2) of the Golden Oaks ranch in Valencia for construction of that school. The university moved there in November 1971.[151]

The release of The Jungle Book and The Happiest Millionaire in 1967 raised the total number of feature films that Disney had been involved in to 81.[17] When Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day was released in 1968, it earned Disney an Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category, awarded posthumously.[152] After Disney's death, his studios continued to produce live-action films prolifically but largely abandoned animation until the late 1980s, after which there was what The New York Times describes as the "Disney Renaissance" that began with The Little Mermaid (1989).[153] Disney's companies continue to produce successful film, television and stage entertainment.[154]

Roy O. Disney with Company at Press Conference
Roy O. Disney finished the building of Disney World

Disney's plans for the futuristic city of EPCOT did not come to fruition. After Disney's death, his brother Roy deferred his retirement to take full control of the Disney companies. He changed the focus of the project from a town to an attraction.[155] At the inauguration in 1971, Roy dedicated Walt Disney World to his brother.[156][y] Walt Disney World expanded with the opening of Epcot Center in 1982; Walt Disney's vision of a functional city was replaced by a park more akin to a permanent world's fair.[158] In 2009, the Walt Disney Family Museum, designed by Disney's daughter Diane and her son Walter E. D. Miller, opened in the Presidio of San Francisco.[159] Thousands of artifacts from Disney's life and career are on display, including numerous awards that he received.[160] In 2014, the Disney theme parks around the world hosted approximately 134 million visitors.[161]

Disney has been portrayed numerous times in fictional works. H. G. Wells references Disney in his 1938 novel The Holy Terror, in which World Dictator Rud fears that Donald Duck is meant to lampoon the dictator.[162] Disney was portrayed by Len Cariou in the 1995 made-for-TV film A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story,[163] and by Tom Hanks in the 2013 film Saving Mr. Banks.[164] In 2001, the German author Peter Stephan Jungk published Der König von Amerika (trans: The King of America), a fictional work of Disney's later years that re-imagines him as a power-hungry racist. The composer Philip Glass later adapted the book into the opera The Perfect American (2013).[165]

Honors

Disney Display Case
Display case in the lobby of The Walt Disney Family Museum showing many of the Academy Awards won by Disney

Disney received 59 Academy Award nominations, including 22 awards: both totals are records.[166] He was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards, but did not win, but he was presented with two Special Achievement Awards‍—‌for Bambi (1942) and The Living Desert (1953)‍—‌and the Cecil B. DeMille Award.[167] He also received four Emmy Award nominations, winning once, for Best Producer for the Disneyland television series.[168] Several of his films are included in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant": Steamboat Willie, The Three Little Pigs, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Fantasia, Pinocchio, Bambi and Mary Poppins.[169] In 1998, the American Film Institute published a list of the 100 greatest American films, according to industry experts; the list included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (at number 49), and Fantasia (at 58).[170]

In February 1960, Disney was inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame with two stars, one for motion pictures and the other for his television work;[171] Mickey Mouse was given his own star for motion pictures in 1978.[172] Disney was also inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1986,[173] the California Hall of Fame in December 2006,[174] and was the inaugural recipient of a star on the Anaheim walk of stars in 2014.[175]

The Walt Disney Family Museum records that he "along with members of his staff, received more than 950 honors and citations from throughout the world".[17] He was made a Chevalier in the French Légion d'honneur in 1935,[176] and in 1952 he was awarded the country's highest artistic decoration, the Officer d'Academie.[177] Other national awards include Thailand's Order of the Crown; Brazil's Order of the Southern Cross and Mexico's Order of the Aztec Eagle.[178] In the United States, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom on September 14, 1964,[179] and in 1969, he was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.[180] He received the Showman of the World Award from the National Association of Theatre Owners,[178] and in 1955, the National Audubon Society awarded Disney its highest honor, the Audubon Medal, for promoting the "appreciation and understanding of nature" through his True-Life Adventures nature films.[181] A minor planet discovered in 1980 by astronomer Lyudmila Karachkina, was named 4017 Disneya,[182] and he was also awarded honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, the University of Southern California and the University of California, Los Angeles.[17]

Personality and reputation

Disney1968
1968 U.S. postage stamp

Disney's public persona was very different from his actual personality.[183] Playwright Robert E. Sherwood described him as "almost painfully shy ... diffident" and self-deprecating.[184] According to his biographer Richard Schickel, Disney hid his shy and insecure personality behind his public identity.[185] Kimball argues that Disney "played the role of a bashful tycoon who was embarrassed in public" and knew that he was doing so.[186] Disney acknowledged the façade, and told a friend that "I'm not Walt Disney. I do a lot of things Walt Disney would not do. Walt Disney does not smoke. I smoke. Walt Disney does not drink. I drink."[187] Critic Otis Ferguson, in The New Republic, called the private Disney: "common and everyday, not inaccessible, not in a foreign language, not suppressed or sponsored or anything. Just Disney."[186] Many of those with whom Disney worked commented that he gave his staff little encouragement due to his exceptionally high expectations. Norman recalls that when Disney said "That'll work", it was an indication of high praise.[188] Instead of direct approval, Disney gave high-performing staff financial bonuses, or recommended certain individuals to others, expecting that his praise would be passed on.[189]

Views of Disney and his work have changed over the decades, and there have been polarized opinions.[190] Mark Langer, in the American Dictionary of National Biography, writes that "Earlier evaluations of Disney hailed him as a patriot, folk artist, and popularizer of culture. More recently, Disney has been regarded as a paradigm of American imperialism and intolerance, as well as a debaser of culture."[60] Steven Watts wrote that some denounce Disney "as a cynical manipulator of cultural and commercial formulas",[190] while PBS records that critics have censured his work because of its "smooth façade of sentimentality and stubborn optimism, its feel-good re-write of American history".[191] Although Disney's films have been highly praised, very popular and commercially successful over time,[60][192] there were criticisms by reviewers. Caroline Lejeune comments in The Observer that Snow White (1937) "has more faults than any earlier Disney cartoon. It is vulnerable again and again to the barbed criticisms of the experts. Sometimes it is, frankly, badly drawn."[193] Robin Allen, writing for The Times, notes that Fantasia (1940) was "condemned for its vulgarity and lurches into bathos",[194] while Lejeune, reviewing Alice in Wonderland (1951), feels the film "may drive lovers of Lewis Carroll to frenzy".[195] Peter Pan (1953) was criticized in The Times as "a children's classic vulgarized" with "Tinker Bell ... a peroxided American cutie". The reviewer opined that Disney "has slaughtered good Barrie and has only second-rate Disney to put in its place".[196]

Disney has been accused of anti-Semitism,[197][z] although none of his employees‍—‌including the animator Art Babbitt, who disliked Disney intensely‍—‌ever accused him of making anti-Semitic slurs or taunts.[199] The Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in some early cartoons.[aa] Disney donated regularly to Jewish charities, he was named "1955 Man of the Year" by the B'nai B'rith chapter in Beverly Hills,[200][201] and his studio employed a number of Jews, some of whom were in influential positions.[202][ab] Gabler, the first writer to gain unrestricted access to the Disney archives, concludes that the available evidence does not support accusations of anti-Semitism and that Disney was "not [anti-Semitic] in the conventional sense that we think of someone as being an anti-Semite". Gabler concludes that "though Walt himself, in my estimation, was not anti-Semitic, nevertheless, he willingly allied himself with people who were anti-Semitic [meaning some members of the MPAPAI], and that reputation stuck. He was never really able to expunge it throughout his life".[203] Disney distanced himself from the Motion Picture Alliance in the 1950s.[204]

Disney has also been accused of other forms of racism because some of his productions released between the 1930s and 1950s contain racially insensitive material.[205][ac] The feature film Song of the South was criticized by contemporary film critics, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and others for its perpetuation of black stereotypes,[206] but Disney later campaigned successfully for an Honorary Academy Award for its star, James Baskett, the first black actor so honored.[207][ad] Gabler argues that "Walt Disney was no racist. He never, either publicly or privately, made disparaging remarks about blacks or asserted white superiority. Like most white Americans of his generation, however, he was racially insensitive."[205] Floyd Norman, the studio's first black animator who worked closely with Disney during the 1950s and 1960s, said, "Not once did I observe a hint of the racist behavior Walt Disney was often accused of after his death. His treatment of people‍—‌and by this I mean all people‍—‌can only be called exemplary."[208]

Watts argues that many of Disney's post World War II films "legislated a kind of cultural Marshall Plan. They nourished a genial cultural imperialism that magically overran the rest of the globe with the values, expectations, and goods of a prosperous middle-class United States."[209] Film historian Jay P. Telotte acknowledges that many see Disney's studio as an "agent of manipulation and repression", although he observes that it has "labored throughout its history to link its name with notions of fun, family, and fantasy".[210] John Tomlinson, in his study Cultural Imperialism, examines the work of Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart, whose 1971 book Para leer al Pato Donald (trans: How to Read Donald Duck) identifies that there are "imperialist ... values 'concealed' behind the innocent, wholesome façade of the world of Walt Disney"; this, they argue, is a powerful tool as "it presents itself as harmless fun for consumption by children."[211] Tomlinson views their argument as flawed, as "they simply assume that reading American comics, seeing adverts, watching pictures of the affluent ... ['Yankee'] lifestyle has a direct pedagogic effect".[212]

Several commentators have described Disney as a cultural icon.[213] On Disney's death, journalism professor Ralph S. Izard comments that the values in Disney's films are those "considered valuable in American Christian society", which include "individualism, decency, ... love for our fellow man, fair play and toleration".[214] Disney's obituary in The Times calls the films "wholesome, warm-hearted and entertaining ... of incomparable artistry and of touching beauty".[215] Journalist Bosley Crowther argues that Disney's "achievement as a creator of entertainment for an almost unlimited public and as a highly ingenious merchandiser of his wares can rightly be compared to the most successful industrialists in history."[4] Correspondent Alistair Cooke calls Disney a "folk-hero ... the Pied Piper of Hollywood",[216] while Gabler considers Disney "reshaped the culture and the American consciousness".[192] In the American Dictionary of National Biography, Langer writes:

Disney remains the central figure in the history of animation. Through technological innovations and alliances with governments and corporations, he transformed a minor studio in a marginal form of communication into a multinational leisure industry giant. Despite his critics, his vision of a modern, corporate utopia as an extension of traditional American values has possibly gained greater currency in the years after his death.[60]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ In 1909, in a renumbering exercise, the property's address changed to 2156 North Tripp Avenue.[2]
  2. ^ Disney was a descendant of Robert d'Isigny, a Frenchman who had traveled to England with William the Conqueror in 1066.[5] The family anglicized the d'Isigny name to "Disney" and settled in the English village now known as Norton Disney in the East Midlands.[6]
  3. ^ The book, Edwin G. Lutz's Animated Cartoons: How They Are Made, Their Origin and Development (1920), was the only one in the local library on the subject; the camera he borrowed from Cauger.[27]
  4. ^ Cutout animation is the technique of producing cartoons by animating objects cut from paper, material or photographs and photographing them moving incrementally. Cel animation is the method of drawing or painting onto transparent celluloid sheets ("cels"), with each sheet an incremental movement on from the previous.[28]
  5. ^ One possible exception to the stable relationship was during the making Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), where the stresses and turmoil associated with the production led to the couple discussing divorce.[42]
  6. ^ Lillian had two miscarriages during the eight years between marriage and the birth of Diane; she suffered a further miscarriage shortly before the family adopted Sharon.[44]
  7. ^ In 2006, the Walt Disney Company finally re-acquired Oswald the Lucky Rabbit when its subsidiary ESPN purchased rights to the character, along with other properties from NBCUniversal.[53]
  8. ^ Several stories about the origins exist. Disney's biographer, Bob Thomas, observes that "The birth of Mickey Mouse is obscured in legend, much of it created by Walt Disney himself."[54]
  9. ^ The name Mortimer Mouse was used in the 1936 cartoon Mickey's Rival as a potential love-interest for Minnie Mouse. He was portrayed as a "humorous denigration of the smooth city slicker" with a smart car, but failed to win over Minnie from the more homespun Mickey.[56]
  10. ^ The Nine Old Men consisted of Eric Larson, Wolfgang Reitherman, Les Clark, Milt Kahl, Ward Kimball, Marc Davis, Ollie Johnston, Frank Thomas and John Lounsbery.[60]
  11. ^ By 1931 he was called Michael Maus in Germany, Michel Souris in France, Miguel Ratonocito or Miguel Pericote in Spain and Miki Kuchi in Japan.[65]
  12. ^ $1.5 million in 1937 equates to $26,142,361 in 2019; $6.5 million in 1939 equates to $117,358,513 in 2019, according to calculations based on the Consumer Price Index measure of inflation.[83]
  13. ^ The citation for the award reads: "To Walt Disney for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, recognized as a significant screen innovation which has charmed millions and pioneered a great new entertainment field for the motion picture cartoon."[84]
  14. ^ The trip inspired two combined live-action and animation works Saludos Amigos (1942) and The Three Caballeros (1945).[90][91]
  15. ^ $4 million in 1944 equates to $56,930,057 in 2019, according to calculations based on the Consumer Price Index measure of inflation.[83]
  16. ^ These included Make Mine Music (1946), Song of the South (1946), Melody Time (1948) and So Dear to My Heart (1949).[60]
  17. ^ $2.2 million in 1950 equates to $22,909,820 in 2019; $8 million in 1950 equates to $83,308,437 in 2019, according to calculations based on the Consumer Price Index measure of inflation.[83]
  18. ^ The patriotic films include Johnny Tremain (1957), Old Yeller (1957), Tonka (1958), Swiss Family Robinson (1960), Polyanna (1960).[60]
  19. ^ Even repeats of the program proved more popular than all other television shows—aside from Lucille Ball's I Love Lucy; no ABC program had ever been in the top 25 before Disneyland.[124]
  20. ^ The program, which was produced by Ward Kimball, was nominated for an Academy Award for the Best Documentary (Short Subject) at the 1957 Awards.[132]
  21. ^ Disney's death in 1966, and opposition from conservationists, stopped the building of the resort.[141]
  22. ^ A long-standing urban legend maintains that Disney was cryonically frozen.[148] Disney's daughter Diane later stated, "There is absolutely no truth to the rumor that my father, Walt Disney, wished to be frozen."[149]
  23. ^ Disney held 26,000 shares, Lillian owned 28,000 and they jointly owned 250,000, which amounted to 14 percent.[150]
  24. ^ $20 million in 1966 equates to $154,441,026 in 2019, according to calculations based on the Consumer Price Index measure of inflation.[83]
  25. ^ Roy died two months later, in December 1971.[157]
  26. ^ For example, the animator Art Babbitt, an organizer of the 1941 strike at Disney's studio, claimed that he saw Disney and his lawyer attend meetings of the German American Bund, a pro-Nazi organization, during the late 1930s.[198] Gabler questions Babbitt's claim on the basis that Disney had no time for political meetings and was "something of a political naïf" during the 1930s.[199]
  27. ^ Examples include The Three Little Pigs (in which the Big Bad Wolf comes to the door dressed as a Jewish peddler) and The Opry House (in which Mickey Mouse is dressed and dances as a Hasidic Jew).[200][201]
  28. ^ As pointed out by story artist Joe Grant, which included himself, production manager Harry Tytle, and head of merchandising Kay Kamen, who once quipped that Disney's New York office had "more Jews than The Book of Leviticus"[202]
  29. ^ Examples include Mickey's Mellerdrammer, in which Mickey Mouse dresses in blackface; the black-colored bird in the short Who Killed Cock Robin; the American Indians in Peter Pan; and the crows in Dumbo (although the case has been made that the crows were sympathetic to Dumbo because they knew what it was like to be ostracized).[205]
  30. ^ Baskett died shortly afterward, and his widow wrote Disney a letter of gratitude for his support.[207]

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Sources

External links

Preceded by
none
Voice of Mickey Mouse
1928–1947; 1955–1959
Succeeded by
James MacDonald
Bob Iger

Robert Allen Iger (; born February 10, 1951) is an American media executive and businessman who is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of The Walt Disney Company. Before working for Disney, Iger served as the President of ABC Television from 1994–95, and as President/COO of Capital Cities/ABC, Inc. from 1995 until Disney's acquisition of the company in 1996.

He was named President and COO of Disney in 2000, and later succeeded Michael Eisner as CEO in 2005, after a successful effort by Roy E. Disney to shake up the management of the company. As part of his yearly compensation, Iger earned $44.9 million in 2015. During Iger’s tenure, Disney broadened the company's roster of intellectual properties and its presence in international markets; Iger oversaw the acquisitions of Pixar in 2006 for $7.4 billion, Marvel Entertainment in 2009 for $4 billion, Lucasfilm in 2012 for $4.06 billion, and 21st Century Fox in 2019 for $71.3 billion, as well as the expansion of the company's theme park resorts in East Asia, with the introduction of Hong Kong Disneyland Resort and Shanghai Disney Resort in 2005 and 2016, respectively.

Iger was a driving force behind the reinvigoration of Walt Disney Animation Studios and the branded-release strategy of its film studio's output. Under Iger, Disney has experienced increases in revenue across its various divisions, with the company's market capitalization value increasing from $48.4 billion to $163 billion over a period of eleven years.

Disney Parks, Experiences and Products

Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, Inc., formerly Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Worldwide, Inc. and informally known as Disney Parks, is one of The Walt Disney Company's four major business segments and a subsidiary. It was founded in 1971, following the opening of Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida just outside of Orlando Florida.

Originally, the company was known as Walt Disney Outdoor Recreation Division and later as Walt Disney Attractions. The chairman of Walt Disney Parks and Resorts was Bob Chapek, formerly president of Disney Consumer Products. Chapek reports to Disney CEO Bob Iger. In 2016, the company's theme parks hosted over 140.4 million guests, making Disney Parks the world's most visited theme park company worldwide, with United Kingdom-based Merlin Entertainments coming in second. It is by far Disney's largest business segment according to employee headcount, with approximately 130,000 of the company's 180,000 employees as of 2015. In March 2018, Disney Consumer Products and Interactive Media was merged into Parks and Resorts and renamed Disney Parks, Experiences and Products.

Disney Television Animation

Disney Television Animation is the television animation production arm of the Disney Channels Worldwide dedicated to creating, developing and producing animated television series, films, specials and other projects.

Established in 1984 during the reorganization and subsequent re-incorporation of The Walt Disney Company following the arrival of then-Disney CEO Michael Eisner, the entity was formerly known as the Walt Disney Pictures Television Animation Group before being shortened to Walt Disney Television Animation in 1987, and was shortened again in 2011 to Disney Television Animation.

Epcot

Epcot is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida. It is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks, Experiences and Products division. Inspired by an unrealized concept developed by Walt Disney, the park opened on October 1, 1982, as EPCOT Center, and was the second of four theme parks built at Walt Disney World, after the Magic Kingdom. Spanning 305 acres (123 ha), more than twice the size of the Magic Kingdom park, Epcot is dedicated to the celebration of human achievement, namely technological innovation and international culture, and is often referred to as a "permanent world's fair".Epcot was originally conceived by Walt Disney during the early development of Walt Disney World, as an experimental planned community that would serve as a center for American innovation and urban living. Known as "EPCOT", the idea included an urban city center, residential areas, and a series of mass transportation systems that would connect the community. After Disney's death in 1966, the "EPCOT" concept was abandoned as the company had uncertainty about maintaining an operating city. In the 1970s, WED Enterprises began developing a second theme park for the resort to supplement Magic Kingdom, as that park's popularity grew. The new park maintained the idea of showcasing modern innovation through avant-garde edutainment attractions, as well as the addition of a world nations exposition. The newly-designed park, featuring two sections—Future World and World Showcase—opened as EPCOT Center in 1982.

In 2017, Epcot hosted about 12.2 million guests, ranking it as the fourth-most-visited theme park in North America and the seventh-most-visited theme park in the world. The park is represented by Spaceship Earth, a geodesic sphere.

List of Disney theatrical animated features

This list of theatrical animated feature films consists of animated films produced or released by The Walt Disney Studios, the film division of The Walt Disney Company.

The Walt Disney Studios releases films from Disney-owned and non-Disney owned animation studios. Most films listed below are from Walt Disney Animation Studios which began as the feature animation department of Walt Disney Productions, producing its first feature-length animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937 and as of 2018 has produced a total of 57 feature films. Beginning with Toy Story in 1995, The Walt Disney Studios also released animated films by Pixar Animation Studios, which became a wholly owned subsidiary in 2006. On March 20, 2019, The Walt Disney Studios acquired Blue Sky Studios as a third major animation studio upon its acquisition of 21st Century Fox assets, as well as 20th Century Fox Animation which operates as a label within 20th Century Fox.

Other studio units have also released films theatrically, namely Walt Disney Television Animation's Disney MovieToons/Video Premiere unit (now DisneyToon Studios) and the studio's distribution unit, which acquires film rights from outside animation studios to release films under the Walt Disney Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, or previously owned Miramax film labels. In 1996, The Walt Disney Studios signed a deal with Tokuma Shoten for distribution rights to the theatrical works of Studio Ghibli worldwide (excluding Asia except for Japan and Taiwan and excluding Grave of the Fireflies which was not published by Tokuma), including what then was the most recent film, Princess Mononoke. The deal later grew to include DVD rights and newer Ghibli movies; the English language Disney release of Spirited Away won the 2002 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Studio Ghibli remains wholly independent of Disney and maintains strict creative control over the handling of the foreign language localization Disney produces. All of the theatrical Ghibli back catalog originally included in the deal have since been released to DVD in North America and several other countries. Other studios globally have released films through Walt Disney Pictures which maintains distribution rights in certain territories.

List of Walt Disney Animation Studios films

This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank, California. It creates animated feature films and is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The studio has produced 57 feature films, beginning with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)—one of the first full-length animated feature films and the first one made in the United States—and most recently Ralph Breaks the Internet (2018). Four feature films are in development, with Frozen 2 on November 22, 2019, and three untitled films set to be released on November 25, 2020, November 24, 2021 and November 23, 2022.

List of Walt Disney Pictures films

This is a list of films produced by and released under the Walt Disney Pictures banner (known as that since 1983, with Never Cry Wolf as its first release) and films released before that under the former name of the parent company, Walt Disney Productions (1929–1983). Most films listed here were distributed theatricaly in the United States by the company's distribution division, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (formerly known as Buena Vista Distribution Company [1953–1987] and Buena Vista Pictures Distribution [1987–2007]). The Disney features produced before Peter Pan (1953) were originally distributed by RKO Radio Pictures, and are now distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Some films produced by Walt Disney Pictures are also set to be released under the parent company's streaming service, Disney+.This list is organized by release date and includes live-action feature films (including theatrical and streaming releases), animated feature films (including films developed and produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios), and documentary films (including titles from the True-Life Adventures series and films produced by the Disneynature label). For an exclusive list of animated films released by Walt Disney Pictures and its previous entities see List of Disney theatrical animated features.

This list is only for films released under the main Disney banner. The list does not include films released by other existing, defunct or divested labels or subsidiaries owned by Walt Disney Studios (i.e. Marvel StudiosMVL, LucasfilmLFL, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, Miramax Films, Dimension Films, ESPN Films etc.; unless they are credited as co-production partners) nor any direct-to-video releases, TV films, theatrical re-releases, or films originally released by other non-Disney studios.

List of assets owned by The Walt Disney Company

The following is a list of assets owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, unless otherwise indicated.

Magic Kingdom

Magic Kingdom is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks, Experiences and Products division, the park opened on October 1, 1971, as the first of four theme parks at the resort. The park was initialized by Walt Disney and designed by WED Enterprises. Its layout and attractions are based on Disneyland Park in Anaheim, California, and are dedicated to fairy tales and Disney characters.

The park is represented by Cinderella Castle, inspired by the fairy tale castle seen in the 1950 film. In 2017, the park hosted 20.450 million visitors, making it the most visited theme park in the world for the twelfth consecutive year and the most visited theme park in North America for at least the past eighteen years.

The Walt Disney Company

The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Walt Disney or simply Disney (), is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia, which are owned by telecommunications giants Comcast and AT&T respectively.Disney was originally founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; it also operated under the names The Walt Disney Studio and Walt Disney Productions before officially changing its name to The Walt Disney Company in 1986. The company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production, television, and theme parks.

Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is typically associated with its flagship family-oriented brands. The company is known for its film studios which include Walt Disney Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Pixar, and Walt Disney Animation Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, Disney Media Networks, and Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International. Disney also owns and operates the ABC broadcast network; cable television networks such as Disney Channel, ESPN, Freeform, FX, National Geographic network, and A&E Networks; publishing, merchandising, music, and theater divisions; and Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, a group of 14 theme parks around the world. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is the company's mascot and one of the world's most recognizable characters.

Walt Disney Animation Studios

Walt Disney Animation Studios (WDAS), also referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films and television specials for The Walt Disney Company. Founded on October 16, 1923, it is a division of Walt Disney Studios. The studio has produced 57 feature films, from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) to Ralph Breaks the Internet (2018).It was founded as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in 1923 and incorporated as Walt Disney Productions in 1929. The studio was exclusively dedicated to producing short films until it expanded into feature production in 1934. In 1983, Walt Disney Productions named its live action film studio Walt Disney Pictures. During a corporate restructuring in 1986, Walt Disney Productions was renamed The Walt Disney Company and the animation division, renamed Walt Disney Feature Animation, became a subsidiary of its film division, The Walt Disney Studios. In 2007, Walt Disney Feature Animation took on its current name, Walt Disney Animation Studios after Pixar was acquired by Disney in the same year.

For much of its existence, the studio was recognized as the premier American animation studio; it developed many of the techniques, concepts and principles that became standard practices of traditional animation. The studio also pioneered the art of storyboarding, which is now a standard technique used in both animated and live-action filmmaking. The studio's catalog of animated features is among Disney's most notable assets, with the stars of its animated shorts – Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Daisy Duck, Goofy and Pluto – becoming recognizable figures in popular culture and mascots for The Walt Disney Company as a whole.

Walt Disney Animation Studios continues to produce films using both traditional animation and computer-generated imagery (CGI).

Walt Disney Pictures

Walt Disney Pictures (also known as Disney Live Action, branded on-screen as Disney since 2011) is an American film studio and a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company. The subsidiary is the main producer of live-action feature films within the Walt Disney Studios unit, and is based at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It took on its current name in 1983. Today, in conjunction with the other units of Walt Disney Studios, Walt Disney Pictures is regarded as one of Hollywood's "Big Five" film studios. Films produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and Pixar Animation Studios are also released under this brand.

Pirates of the Caribbean is the studio's most successful franchise, with two of its sequels, released in 2006 and 2011, earning over $1 billion in worldwide box office gross.

Walt Disney Studios (division)

The Walt Disney Studios is an American film studio, one of the four major businesses of The Walt Disney Company and the main component of its Studio Entertainment segment. The studio, best known for its multi-faceted film division, which is one of Hollywood's major film studios, is based at the eponymous Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. Founded in 1923, it is the fourth-oldest among the major studios.Under the Walt Disney Studios division are notable film studios including Walt Disney Pictures, Disneynature, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures and Blue Sky Studios. The Studios generated an estimated income of $2.355 billion during the 2017 fiscal year. The studio entertainment business alone (live-action and animated motion pictures, direct-to-video content, musical recordings and live stage plays) brought in $8.379 billion in 2017.The Walt Disney Studios is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment (incorporated as Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Inc. since 1997, and formerly known as Walt Disney Telecommunications & Non-Theatrical Company from 1980 to 1987 and eventually Buena Vista Home Video until 1997) is the home video distribution division of The Walt Disney Company. Disney began distributing videos under its own label in 1980 under the name Walt Disney Home Entertainment.

Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures

Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures (originally established as Buena Vista Film Distribution Company, Inc., Buena Vista Distribution Company, Inc. and Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc.) is an American film distributor owned by The Walt Disney Company. Established in 1953 as Buena Vista Film Distribution Company, the company handles theatrical distribution, marketing and promotion for films produced and released by the Walt Disney Studios, including Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, and Disneynature. The division took on its current name in April 2007, which before that had been Buena Vista Pictures Distribution since 1987.

Walt Disney Television

Walt Disney Television is a division of Disney Media Networks that oversees television assets owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company. It was formerly called Disney–ABC Television Group, until Disney's acquisition of 21st Century Fox assets on March 20, 2019. Assets in the group include ABC Network; cable networks: (Freeform, Disney Channels, FX, National Geographic channels); and Disney Television Studios: (ABC Studios, 20th Century Fox Television, Fox 21 Television Studios); ABC News and ABC Owned Television Stations. The division also manages Disney's 50% equity stake in A&E Networks. Along with ESPN, Walt Disney Television are the two primary divisions of Disney Media Networks. The Walt Disney Television chairman and president is Peter Rice, who also serves as co-chairman of Disney Media Networks.

Walt Disney World

The Walt Disney World Resort, also called Walt Disney World and Disney World, is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, in the United States, near the cities Orlando and Kissimmee. Opened on October 1, 1971, the resort is owned and operated by Disney Parks, Experiences and Products, a division of The Walt Disney Company. It was first operated by Walt Disney World Company. The property, which covers nearly 25,000 acres (39 sq mi; 101 km2), only half of which has been used, comprises four theme parks, two water parks, twenty-seven themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, several golf courses, a camping resort, and other entertainment venues, including the outdoor shopping center Disney Springs.

Designed to supplement Disneyland, in Anaheim, California, which had opened in 1955, the complex was developed by Walt Disney in the 1960s. "The Florida Project", as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of attractions. Walt Disney's original plans also called for the inclusion of an "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow" (EPCOT), a planned community intended to serve as a test bed for new city-living innovations. Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966, during construction of the complex. Without him spearheading the construction, the company built a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning the experimental concepts for a planned community. Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot (1982), Disney's Hollywood Studios (1989), and Disney's Animal Kingdom (1998).

Today, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, with average annual attendance of more than 52 million. The resort is the flagship destination of Disney's worldwide corporate enterprise and has become a popular staple in American culture.

Walt Disney anthology television series

Walt Disney Productions (later The Walt Disney Company) has produced an anthology television series under several different titles since 1954.

The original version of the series premiered on ABC on Wednesday, October 27, 1954. The show was broadcast weekly on one of the Big Three television networks until 1990, a 36-year span with only a two-year hiatus in 1984-85. The series was broadcast on Sunday for 25 of those years. From 1991 until 1997, the series aired infrequently.

The program resumed a regular schedule in 1997 on the ABC fall schedule, coinciding with Disney's recent purchase of the network. From 1997 until 2008, the program aired regularly on ABC. Since then, ABC has continued the series as an occasional special presentation from 2008 onward.The show has had only two hosts, Walt Disney and former Disney Chairman Michael Eisner.The show is the second-longest-running primetime program on American television, behind its rival film anthology series, the Hallmark Hall of Fame, which is still on the air as of 2018.

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