Wally Wood

Wallace Allan Wood (June 17, 1927 – November 2, 1981)[1] was an American comic book writer, artist and independent publisher, best known for his work on EC Comics's Mad and Marvel's Daredevil. He was one of Mad's founding cartoonists in 1952. Although much of his early professional artwork is signed Wallace Wood, he became known as Wally Wood, a name he claimed to dislike.[2] Within the comics community, he was also known as Woody, a name he sometimes used as a signature.

In addition to Wood's hundreds of comic book pages, he illustrated for books and magazines while also working in a variety of other areas – advertising; packaging and product illustrations; gag cartoons; record album covers; posters; syndicated comic strips; and trading cards, including work on Topps's landmark Mars Attacks set.

EC publisher William Gaines once stated, "Wally may have been our most troubled artist ... I'm not suggesting any connection, but he may have been our most brilliant".[3]

He was the inaugural inductee into the comic book industry's Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1989, and was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1992.

Wally Wood
Wally Wood self portrait
Self-portrait by Wally Wood
BornWallace Allan Wood
June 17, 1927
Menahga, Minnesota
DiedNovember 2, 1981 (aged 54)
Los Angeles, California
  • Cartoonist
  • Writer
  • Penciller
  • Inker
  • Publisher
  • Pseudonym(s)Woody


    Early life and career

    Wally Wood was born in Menahga, Minnesota, and he began reading and drawing comics at an early age. He was strongly influenced by the art styles of Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon, Milton Caniff's Terry and the Pirates, Hal Foster's Prince Valiant, Will Eisner's The Spirit and especially Roy Crane's Wash Tubbs. Recalling his childhood, Wood said that his dream at age six, about finding a magic pencil that could draw anything, foretold his future as an artist.[2] Wood graduated from high school in 1944, signed on with the United States Merchant Marine at the close of World War II and enlisted in the U.S. Army's 11th Airborne Division in 1946. He went from training at Fort Benning, Georgia, to occupied Japan, where he was assigned to the island of Hokkaidō.

    In 1947, at age 20, Wood enrolled in the Minneapolis School of Art but only lasted one term.[4] Arriving in New York City with his brother Glenn and mother Alma (of Finnish[5] descent), after his military discharge in July 1948, Wood found employment at Bickford's restaurant as a busboy. During his time off he carried his thick portfolio of drawings all over midtown Manhattan, visiting every publisher he could find. He briefly attended the Hogarth School of Art but dropped out after one semester.

    By October, after being rejected by every company he visited, Wood met fellow artist John Severin in the waiting room of a small publisher. After the two shared their experiences attempting to find work, Severin invited Wood to visit his studio, the Charles William Harvey Studio, where Wood met Charlie Stern, Harvey Kurtzman (who was working for Timely/Marvel) and Will Elder. At this studio Wood learned that Will Eisner was looking for a Spirit background artist. He immediately visited Eisner and was hired on the spot.

    Over the next year, Wood also became an assistant to George Wunder, who had taken over the Milton Caniff strip Terry and the Pirates. Wood cited his "first job on my own" as Chief Ob-stacle, a continuing series of strips for a 1949 political newsletter. He entered the comic book field by lettering, as he recalled in 1981: "The first professional job was lettering for Fox romance comics in 1948. This lasted about a year. I also started doing backgrounds, then inking. Most of it was the romance stuff. For complete pages, it was $5 a page ... Twice a week, I would ink ten pages in one day".[6]

    Artists' representative Renaldo Epworth helped Wood land his early comic-book assignments, making it unclear if that connection led to Wood's lettering or to his comics-art debut, the ten-page story "The Tip Off Woman" [sic] in the Fox Comics Western Women Outlaws No. 4 (cover-dated January 1949, on sale late 1948). Wood's next known comic-book art did not appear until Fox's My Confession No. 7 (August 1949), at which time he began working almost continuously on the company's similar My Experience, My Secret Life, My Love Story and My True Love: Thrilling Confession Stories. His first signed work is believed to be in My Confession #8 (October 1949), with the name "Woody" half-hidden on a theater marquee. He penciled and inked two stories in that issue: "I Was Unwanted" (nine pages) and "My Tarnished Reputation" (ten pages).

    Wood began at EC co-penciling and co-inking with Harry Harrison the story "Too Busy For Love" (Modern Love #5), and fully penciling the lead story, "I Was Just a Playtime Cowgirl", in Saddle Romances No. 11 (April 1950), inked by Harrison.[7]


    Working from a Manhattan studio at West 64th Street and Columbus Avenue, Wood began to attract attention in 1950 with his science-fiction artwork for EC and Avon Comics, some in collaboration with Joe Orlando. During this period, he drew in a wide variety of subjects and genres, including adventure, romance, war and horror; message stories (for EC's Shock SuspenStories); and eventually satirical humor for writer/editor Harvey Kurtzman in Mad including a satire of the lawsuit Superman's publisher DC filed against Captain Marvel's publisher Fawcett called "Superduperman!" battling Captain Marbles.[8]

    Wood was instrumental in convincing EC publisher William Gaines to start a line of science fiction comics, Weird Science and Weird Fantasy (later combined under the single title Weird Science-Fantasy). Wood penciled and inked several dozen EC science fiction stories. Wood also had frequent entries in Two-Fisted Tales and Tales from the Crypt, as well as the later EC titles Valor, Piracy, and Aces High.[7]

    Working over scripts and pencil breakdowns by Jules Feiffer, the 25-year-old Wood drew two months of Will Eisner's Sunday-supplement newspaper comic book The Spirit, on the 1952 story arc "The Spirit in Outer Space". Eisner, Wood recalled, paid him "about $30 a week for lettering and backgrounds on The Spirit. Sometimes he paid $40 when I did the drawings, too".[9]

    Books illustrated by Wood

    Feiffer, in 2010, recalled Wood's studio, "which was at that time in the very slummy Upper West Side [of Manhattan] in the [West] 60s, years before it was [the] Lincoln Center [area]. It was a cartoonist and science-fiction writers' ghetto – just a huge room where the walls were knocked down, dark, smelly, roach-infested, and all these cartoonists and writers bent over their tables. One was [science-fiction writer] Harry Harrison."[10]

    Between 1957 and 1967, Wood produced both covers and interiors for more than 60 issues of the science-fiction digest Galaxy Science Fiction, illustrating such authors as Isaac Asimov, Philip K. Dick, Jack Finney, C.M. Kornbluth, Frederik Pohl, Robert Silverberg, Robert Sheckley, Clifford D. Simak and Jack Vance. He painted six covers for Galaxy Science Fiction Novels between 1952 and 1958. His gag cartoons appeared in the men's magazines Dude, Gent and Nugget. He inked the first eight months of the 1958–1961 syndicated comic strip Sky Masters of the Space Force, penciled by Jack Kirby.[11]

    Wood expanded into book illustrations, including for the picture-cover editions (though not the dust-jacket editions) of titles in the 1959 Aladdin Books reissues of Bobbs Merrill's 1947 "Childhood of Famous Americans" series.[12]

    Silver Age and Bronze Age

    Wood additionally did art and stories for comic-book companies large and small – from Marvel (and its 1950s iteration Atlas Comics), DC (including House of Mystery and Jack Kirby's Challengers of the Unknown), and Warren (Creepy, Eerie, 1984), to such smaller firms as Avon (Eerie, Strange Worlds), Charlton (War and Attack, Jungle Jim), Fox (Martin Kane, Private Eye), Gold Key (M.A.R.S. Patrol Total War, Fantastic Voyage), Harvey (Unearthly Spectaculars), King Comics (Jungle Jim), Atlas/Seaboard (The Destructor), Youthful Comics (Capt. Science) and the toy company Wham-O (Wham-O Giant Comics).[7] In 1965, Wood, Len Brown, and possibly Larry Ivie[13] created T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents for Tower Comics.[14] He wrote and drew the 1967 syndicated Christmas comic strip, Bucky's Christmas Caper.[15] During the 1960s, Wood did many trading cards and humor products for Topps Chewing Gum, including concept roughs for Topps' famed 1962 Mars Attacks cards prior to the final art by Bob Powell and Norman Saunders.[16]

    Daredevil cover - number 7
    Daredevil #7 (April 1964): Wood's best-known work for Marvel, debuting Daredevil's modern red costume.

    For Marvel during the Silver Age of Comic Books, Wood's work as penciler-inker of Daredevil #5–8 and inker over Bob Powell of issues #9-11 established the title character's distinctive red costume (in issue #7).[17] Wood and Stan Lee introduced the Stilt-Man in Daredevil #8 (June 1965).[18] When Daredevil guest-starred in Fantastic Four #39–40, Wood inked that character, over Jack Kirby pencils, on the covers and throughout the interior.[19]

    Wood penciled and inked the first four 10-page installments of the company's "Dr. Doom" feature in Astonishing Tales #1–4 (Aug. 1970-Feb. 1971),[20] and both wrote and drew anthological horror/suspense tales in Tower of Shadows #5–8 (May–Nov. 1970), as well as sporadic other work.[21]

    In circles concerned with copyright and intellectual property issues, Wood is known as the artist of the unsigned satirical Disneyland Memorial Orgy poster, which first appeared in Paul Krassner's magazine The Realist.[22] The poster depicts a number of copyrighted Disney characters in various unsavory activities (including sex acts and drug use), with huge dollar signs radiating from Cinderella's Castle. Wood himself, as late as 1981, when asked who did that drawing, said only, "I'd rather not say anything about that! It was the most pirated drawing in history! Everyone was printing copies of that. I understand some people got busted for selling it. I always thought Disney stuff was pretty sexy ... Snow White, etc."[23] Disney took no legal action against either Krassner or The Realist but did sue a publisher of a "blacklight" version of the poster, who used the image without Krassner's permission. The case was settled out of court.

    At DC Comics, he and Jim Shooter launched the Captain Action comic book series in 1968.[24] The following year, Wood briefly served as inker of the Superboy series.[25] Discovering from Roy Thomas that Jack Kirby had returned to DC in 1970, Wood called editor Joe Orlando in an attempt to get the assignment to ink Kirby's new work, but that role was already filled by Vince Colletta.[26] That same year, Wood was a ghost artist for an episode of Prince Valiant.[27] Wood worked on various series for DC between 1975 and 1977, producing several covers for Plop![28] and inking the pencil artwork of Steve Ditko and Jack Kirby on Stalker[29] and The Sandman respectively.[7] He worked on the Hercules Unbound series as well, providing inks for José Luis García-López[30] and Walt Simonson.[31] Wood penciled and inked All Star Comics and contributed to the creation of Power Girl[32] by exaggerating the size of her breasts.[33] Active with the 1970s Academy of Comic Book Arts, Wood contributed to several editions of the annual ACBA Sketchbook. In one of his final assignments, Wood returned to a character he helped define, inking Frank Miller's cover of Daredevil #164 (May 1980). His last known mainstream credit was inking Wonder Woman #269 (July 1980).[7]

    Over several decades, numerous artists worked at the Wood Studio. Associates and assistants included Dan Adkins,[34] Richard Bassford, Howard Chaykin,[35] Tony Coleman, Nick Cuti,[36] Leo and Diane Dillon, Larry Hama,[37] Russ Jones, Wayne Howard,[38] Paul Kirchner, Joe Orlando, Bill Pearson, Al Sirois, Ralph Reese,[39] Bhob Stewart, Tatjana Wood,[4] and Mike Zeck.


    In 1966, Wood launched the independent magazine witzend (originally to be titled et cetera, a name which had to be withdrawn when Wood was told another magazine had already used this) one of the first alternative comics, a decade before Mike Friedrich's Star Reach or Flo Steinberg's Big Apple Comix for which Wood drew the cover and contributed a story. Wood offered his fellow professionals the opportunity to contribute illustrations and graphic stories that detoured from the usual conventions of the comics industry. After the fourth issue, Wood turned witzend over to Bill Pearson, who continued as editor and publisher through the 1970s and into the 1980s. Wood additionally collected his feature Sally Forth, published in the U.S. servicemen's periodicals Military News and Overseas Weekly in 1968–1974, in a series of four oversize (10"x12") magazines. Pearson, in 1993–95, reformatted the strips into a series of comics published by Eros Comix, an imprint of Fantagraphics Books, which in 1998 collected the entire run into a single 160-page volume.[40]

    In 1969, Wood created another independent comic, Heroes, Inc. Presents Cannon, intended for his "Sally Forth" military readership as indicated in the ads and indicia. Artists Steve Ditko and Ralph Reese and writer Ron Whyte are credited with primary writer-artist Wood on three features: "Cannon", "The Misfits",[41] and "Dragonella". A second magazine-format issue was published in 1976 by Wood and CPL Gang Publications. Larry Hama, one of Wood's assistants, said, "I did script about three Sally Forth stories and a few of the Cannon's. I wrote the main Sally Forth story in the first reprint book, which is actually dedicated to me, mostly because I lent Woody the money to publish it".[42]

    In 1980 and 1981, Wood did two issues of a completely pornographic comic book, titled Gang Bang. It featured two sexually explicit Sally Forth stories, and sexually explicit versions of Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, titled So White and the Six Dorks; Terry and The Pirates, titled Perry and the Privates; Prince Valiant, titled Prince Violate; Superman and Wonder Woman, titled Stuporman Meets Blunder Woman; Flash Gordon, titled Flasher Gordon; and Tarzan titled Starzan. A third volume, published in 1983, contained three more sexually explicit parodies of Alice in Wonderland, titled Malice in Blunderland; a second Flash Gordon sendup titled Flesh Fucker Meets Women's Lib!; and The Wizard of Oz, titled The Blizzard of Ooze.

    "Panels That Always Work"

    Wood struggled to be as efficient as possible in the often low-paying comics industry.[43] Over time he created a series of layout techniques sketched on pieces of paper which he taped up near his drawing table. These "visual notes," collected on three pages,[44] reminded Wood (and select assistants he showed the pages to)[45] of various layouts and compositional techniques to keep his pages dynamic and interesting.[43] (In the same vein, Wood also taped up another note to himself: "Never draw anything you can copy, never copy anything you can trace, never trace anything you can cut out and paste up.")[44]

    In 1980, Wood's original, three-page, 24 panel (not 22) version of "Panels" was published with the proper copyright notice in The Wallace Wood Sketchbook (Crouch/Wood 1980).[46] Around 1981,[44] Wood's ex-assistant Larry Hama, by then an editor at Marvel Comics, pasted up photocopies of Wood's copyrighted drawings on a single page, which Hama titled "Wally Wood's 22 Panels That Always Work!!" (It was subtitled, "Or some interesting ways to get some variety into those boring panels where some dumb writer has a bunch of lame characters sitting around and talking for page after page!") Hama left out two of the original 24 panels as his photocopies were too faint to make out some of the lightest sketches.[46] Hama distributed Wood's "elegantly simple primer to basic storytelling"[47] to artists in the Marvel bullpen, who in turn passed them on to their friends and associates.[45] Eventually, "22 Panels" made the rounds of just about every cartoonist or aspiring comic book artist in the industry and achieved its own iconic status.[47]

    Wood's "Panels That Always Work" is copyright Wallace Wood Properties, LLC as listed by the United States Copyright Office which assigned the work Registration Number VA0001814764.[48]

    Homages and tributes to "22 Panels"

    In 2006, writer/artist Joel Johnson bought the Larry Hama paste-up of photocopies at auction and made it available for wide distribution on the Internet.[45] In 2010 Anne Lukeman of Kill Vampire Lincoln Productions produced a short film adapting the "22 Panels That Always Work" into a film noir-style experimental piece called 22 Frames That Always Work.[49] Artist Rafael Kayanan created a revised version of "22 Panels" that used actual art from published Wood comics to illustrate each frame.[50] In 2006, cartoonist and publisher Cheese Hasselberger created "Cheese's 22 Panels That Never Work," featuring bizarre situations and generally poor storytelling techniques.[51] In 2012, Michael Avon Oeming created a Powers-themed update/homage to "22 Panels," making it available for distribution.[52] In July 2012, Cerebus TV producer Max Southall brought together materials and released a documentary[53] that featured Dave Sim's homage to Wally Wood and a focus on his 22 Panels, including a tribute that features a creation using the motif of one of them, depicting Daredevil and Wood himself, in Wally Wood style – and the Wally Wood Estate's official print of the panels.

    Personal life and final years

    Wood was married three times. His first marriage was to artist Tatjana Wood, who later did extensive work as a comic-book colorist. Their marriage ended in the late 1960s. His second marriage, to Marilyn Silver, also ended in divorce.[4]

    For much of his adult life, Wood suffered from chronic, unexplainable headaches. In the 1970s, following bouts with alcoholism, Wood suffered from kidney failure. A stroke in 1978 caused a loss of vision in one eye. Faced with declining health and career prospects, he committed suicide by gunshot in Los Angeles on November 2, 1981.[1][4] Toward the end of his life, an embittered Wood would say, according to one biography, "If I had it all to do over again, I'd cut off my hands."[54]

    In 1972, EC editor Harvey Kurtzman, who worked closely with Wood during the 1950s, said:

    Wally had a tension in him, an intensity that he locked away in an internal steam boiler. I think it ate away his insides, and the work really used him up. I think he delivered some of the finest work that was ever drawn, and I think it's to his credit that he put so much intensity into his work at great sacrifice to himself.[55]

    Biographies, criticism, collections

    In 2017 and 2018, Fantagraphics Books published The Life and Legend of Wallace Wood a set of two hardcover books (ISBN 978-1-60699-815-1, ISBN 978-1-68396-068-3), mainly compiled by his former assistant Bhob Stewart over a 30-year period that featured personal recollections of Wood's friends, colleagues, and assistants, including John Severin, Al Williamson, Paul Krassner, Trina Robbins, Larry Hama, and Paul Levitz; previously unpublished artwork and photographs; and a detailed examination of his life and career. It was Stewart's last publishing project, but he did not live to see it in print.[56]



    DC Comics

    EC Comics

    Marvel Comics

    Tower Comics

    Warren Publishing

    • 1984 #1–2, 5 (1978–1979)
    • Blazing Combat #3–4 (1966)
    • Comix International #1 (1975)
    • Creepy #38, 41, 55, 75, 78, 91 (1971–1977)
    • Eerie #5, 11, 14, 60–61 (1966–1974)
    • Famous Monsters of Filmland #58 (1969)
    • Galactic Wars Comix #1 (1978)
    • Monster World #1 (1964)
    • Vampirella #9–10, 12, 19, 27, Annual #1 (1971–1973)
    • Warren Presents #1, 3 (1979)


    1. ^ a b "Wallace Wood". Lambiek Comiclopedia. 2014. Archived from the original on June 5, 2014.
    2. ^ a b Stewart, Bhob, ed. (2003). Against the Grain: Mad Artist Wallace Wood. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1893905283.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
    3. ^ Evanier, Mark (2002). Mad Art : A Visual Celebration of the Art of Mad Magazine and the Idiots Who Create It. Watson-Guptill Publications. p. 47. ISBN 978-0823030804.
    4. ^ a b c d McLauchlin, Jim (July 2010). "Tragic Genius: Wally Wood". Wizard (228). Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.
    5. ^ David Saunders: WALLY WOOD
    6. ^ Wally Wood interview, originally published in The Buyer's Guide No. 403 (August 1, 1981), reprinted in Comic Book Artist No. 14 (July 2001); p. 18 of the latter.
    7. ^ a b c d e Wallace Wood at the Grand Comics Database and Wally Wood at the Grand Comics Database
    8. ^ Daniels, Les (1995). "The Comics Code Crunch". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 115. ISBN 0821220764. In the fourth issue [of Mad] (April–May 1953), writer Harvey Kurtzman and artist Wallace Wood make light of the lawsuit between Superman and Captain Marvel.
    9. ^ Wood interview, Comic Book Artist No. 14, p. 19
    10. ^ Transcript of March 24, 2010, Feiffer interview at the Museum of Comic and Cartoon Art, published as "Backing into Jules Feiffer: An Exclusive Q&A", p.2, FilmFestivalTraveler.com, April 18, 2010. WebCitation archive.
    11. ^ Evanier, Mark (2008). Kirby: King of Comics. New York, New York: Abrams Books. p. 106. ISBN 978-0810994478. The artwork was exquisite, in no small part because Dave Wood had the idea to hire Wally Wood (no relation) to handle the inking.
    12. ^ Guthridge, Sue. Tom Edison, Boy Inventor. Illustrated by Wood. New York : Aladdin Books ; London : Collier Macmillan, 1986, c1959
    13. ^ Ivie, Larry, "Ivie League Heroes", Comic Book Artist No. 14 (July 2001), pp. 64–68
    14. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on June 22, 2014. The series was created by Wallace Wood, whose art had been seen throughout the comics industry since 1947 ... Wood was mainly responsible for the overall look of the series.
    15. ^ Starger, Steve and J. David Spurlock, Wally's World (Vanguard Productions, 2007), p. 177. ISBN 1-887591-80-X
    16. ^ Truitt, Brian (July 23, 2012). "Mars Attacks again, 50 years later". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 22, 2014.
    17. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). "The Marvel Age (1961–1970)". Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Abrams Books. p. 120. ISBN 9780810938212. The complicated red-and-yellow costume that [Bill] Everett created for the original Daredevil cover was changed by artist Wally Wood to simpler red tights. The more devilish new costume is the one that ultimately lasted.
    18. ^ DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 108. ISBN 978-0756641238. The Stilt-Man sprang into action in Daredevil #8. Created by Stan Lee and Wally Wood, his limited powers made him a joke among other criminals.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
    19. ^ Per Stan Lee in letters page, Fantastic Four N#42 (Sept. 1965)
    20. ^ Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 146: "Marvel's second split book of 1970 gave two longtime Marvel stars their own series. Stan Lee and Jack Kirby collaborated on the first installment of the new series starring Ka-Zar ... Marvel's greatest villain, Dr. Doom, also received his own series, scripted by Roy Thomas and drawn ... [by] Wally Wood."
    21. ^ Wood inked The Avengers #20–22 and the "Iron Man" feature in Tales of Suspense #71, both over penciler Don Heck, as well as the "Human Torch" feature in Strange Tales #134, over Powell, in 1965; Captain America #127, over Gene Colan, in 1970; Kull the Conqueror #1, over Ross Andru, and "Red Wolf" in Marvel Spotlight #1, over Syd Shores, in 1971; and The Cat #1, over Marie Severin, in 1972. He inked Kirby on the covers of Avengers #20–21 and The X-Men #14. The Grand Comics Database also cites "additional inks ... uncredited" on the Kirby layouts and George Tuska pencil and ink work of the "Captain America" feature in Tales of Suspense #71.
    22. ^ Krassner, Paul, and Wally Wood "The Disneyland Memorial Orgy", The Realist Archive Project: The Realist #74, May 1967, pp. 12–13. WebCitation archive. Credits listed at archive's May 1967 Contents Page. WebCitation archive.
    23. ^ Comic Book Artist No. 14, p. 20
    24. ^ McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1960s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. Writer Jim Shooter and artist Wally Wood helmed November [1968]'s Captain Action #1, based on Ideal's popular action figure.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
    25. ^ Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Silver Age 1956–1970". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 325. ISBN 9783836519816. In 1969, Superboy ... swerved radically from the complacent Super-house style once writer Frank Robbins came aboard ... Overnight the comic was reinvented with realistic teen angst, natural dialogue, and a sex appeal that was only aided by the inks of good-girl artist Wally Wood. Under his brush, Lana Lang never looked hotter.
    26. ^ Ro, Ronin (2004). Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and the American Comic Book Revolution. Bloomsbury. p. 151. ISBN 1582343454.
    27. ^ "Hal Foster". Lambiek Comiclopedia. November 25, 2011. Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Hal Foster grew older, too – after all, he was already 44 when he started Prince Valiant! He decided to start working with assistants. Three artists worked with him: Gray Morrow, Wally Wood and John Cullen Murphy.
    28. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 156: "From the lavish covers of Basil Wolverton and Wally Wood to one-page gags and stories too peculiar for even the likes of a Mad magazine, Plop! lived ... by its own macabre rules."
    29. ^ Ross, Jonathan (2011). "Introduction". The Steve Ditko Omnibus Volume One Starring Shade, the Changing Man. DC Comics. p. 11. ISBN 978-1401231118. I'll make do with re-reading these wonderful four issues in which Ditko's beautiful pencils are ennobled by the incomparable Wally Wood's inks.
    30. ^ Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2005). Modern Masters, Volume 5: José Luis García-López. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-1893905443.
    31. ^ Nolen-Weathington, Eric; Ash, Roger (2006). Modern Masters, Volume 8: Walter Simonson. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-1893905641.
    32. ^ Markstein, Don (2010). "Power Girl". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on June 22, 2014.
    33. ^ Evanier, Mark (July 4, 2012). "Foto File". News From ME. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Fans noticed that her chest seemed to grow from issue to issue. I was around once when Woody was asked about this. He said that it was his intention to add about a half-inch to her bustline every issue and see how long it would be before someone told him to stop. Wood only did eight or nine issues and I think someone told him to stop around his sixth
    34. ^ Adkins in Cooke, Jon B. (February 2000). "Dan Adkins' Strange Tales". Comic Book Artist. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (7). Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Reprinted in Cooke, Jon, ed. (2009). Comic Book Artist Collection, Volume 3. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-1893905429.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
    35. ^ Greenberger, Robert (2012). The Art of Howard Chaykin. Mount Laurel, New Jersey: Dynamite Entertainment. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-1606901694.
    36. ^ Wahl, Andrew (July 23, 2009). "CCI: Nicola Cuti Earns Inkpot Honor". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Before long, Cuti would fall in with the legendary Wally Wood, with whom he would share a studio in Long Island.
    37. ^ Salicrup, Jim; Zimmerman, Dwight Jon (September 1986). "Larry Hama (part 2)". Comics Interview. Fictioneer Books (38): 36–45.
    38. ^ "Wayne Howard". Lambiek Comiclopedia. October 2, 2015. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. He joined Wally Wood's studios in Long Island, New York, around 1969.
    39. ^ "Ralph Reese". Lambiek Comiclopedia. 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. From the age of 16, Ralph Reese assisted Wallace Wood on a number of projects, including the DC series Superboy and a series of Topps trading cards.
    40. ^ Markstein, Don (2007). "Sally Forth". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on June 22, 2014.
    41. ^ Wally Wood's "Misfits" at An International Catalogue of Superheroes.WebCitation archive.
    42. ^ JoeGuide.com: "Larry Hama: Writer & Artist", no date. Original link dead as of at least February 4, 2010. Archived January 1, 1996[Timestamp length], at the Wayback Machine.
    43. ^ a b Evanier, Mark (July 2, 2010). "Today's Video Link". News From ME. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014.
    44. ^ a b c Hama, quoted in Johnson, Joel. "Wally Wood's 22 Panels That Always Work: Unlimited Edition," Joel Johnson's blog, August 18, 2006. WebCitation archive.
    45. ^ a b c Johnson.
    46. ^ a b Wallace Wood Sketchbook (Crouch, 1980). [1].
    47. ^ a b McDonald, Heidi. "Wally Wood's 22 Panels That Always Work: Unlimited Edition", The Beat, August 21, 2006. WebCitation archive.
    48. ^ "Panels That Always Work". United States Copyright Office. n.d. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018.
    49. ^ Beschizza, Rob. "22 movie making techniques that always work...", BoingBoing, July 1, 2010. WebCitation archive.
    50. ^ Thompson, Steven. "Wood's 22 Panels Revisited", Hooray for Wally Wood, November 3, 2010. WebCitation archive.
    51. ^ "Cheese's 22 Panels That Never Work!" HouseOfTwelve.com. Accessed August 2, 2011.
    52. ^ Arrant, Chris. "Mike Oeming’s homage to Wally Wood’s 22 Panels That Always Work," Comic Book Resources: "Robot 6" (June 1, 2012).
    53. ^ "CerebusTV #36 (Wally Wood episode)". Cerebus.tv. July 2012. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014.
    54. ^ Stewart, Bhob, ed. (2003). Against the Grain: MAD Artist Wallace Wood. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 321. ISBN 978-1-893905-23-8.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
    55. ^ EC Lives! The 1972 EC Fan-Addict Convention Book (privately published)
    56. ^ "Report to Readers: The Life and Legend of Wallace Wood Volume 2". The Comics Journal. 2018-03-19. Retrieved 2018-10-26.
    57. ^ "Division Awards Comic Books". National Cartoonists Society. 2013. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
    58. ^ a b c d Bails, Jerry, and Hames Ware. Wood, Wally (entry), Who's Who of American Comic Books, 1928–1999. Accessed April 5, 2011. WebCitation archive.
    59. ^ "2011 Inkwell Awards Winners". Inkwell Awards. Archived from the original on October 8, 2014.
    60. ^ YouTube – J. David Spurlock – Heroes Convention 2011 – Posthumous acceptance on behalf of Wally Wood


    External links

    Aces High (comics)

    Aces High was a short lived comic book series published by EC Comics in 1955 as the fourth title in its New Direction line. The bi-monthly comic was published by Bill Gaines. It lasted a total of five issues before being cancelled, along with EC's other New Direction comics.

    Aces High was dedicated to tales of air combat and front line service of Allied airmen during World War I and World War II. Many of the stories were in an anti-war vein.

    Contributors to Aces High include George Evans, Wally Wood, Jack Davis and Bernie Krigstein.

    Aces High was reprinted as part of publisher Russ Cochran's Complete EC Library in 1988. Between April and August 1999, Cochran (in association with Gemstone Publishing) reprinted all five individual issues. This complete run was later rebound, with covers included, in a single softcover EC Annual.


    The Ani-Men is the name of several fictional teams appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Four of them are villain groups, while one of them was introduced as a team of agents serving the High Evolutionary.

    Cat-Man (Marvel Comics)

    Cat-Man is the name of a number of fictional characters appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

    Frontline Combat

    Frontline Combat is a defunct anthology war comic book written and edited by Harvey Kurtzman and published bi-monthly by EC Comics. The first issue was cover dated July/August, 1951. It ran for 15 issues over three years, and ended with the January, 1954 issue. Publication was discontinued following a decline in sales attributed to the end of the Korean War. The title was a companion to Kurtzman's comic book Two-Fisted Tales. Both titles depicted the horrors of war realistically and in great detail, exposing what Kurtzman saw as the truth about war without glamorizing or idealizing it.

    Incredible Science Fiction

    Incredible Science Fiction was an American science fiction anthology comic published by EC Comics in 1955 and 1956, lasting a total of four issues.

    Matador (Marvel Comics)

    Matador is the name of two fictional characters appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

    Panic (comics)

    Panic was part of the EC Comics line during the mid-1950s. The bi-monthly humor comic was published by Bill Gaines as a companion to Harvey Kurtzman's Mad, which was being heavily imitated by other comic publishers.

    Panic was edited by Al Feldstein (who became the editor of Mad a few years later). Beginning with its first issue (February–March 1954), Panic had a 12-issue run over two years. Feldstein was the primary cover artist, with stories illustrated by Jack Davis, Will Elder, Jack Kamen, Joe Orlando, Basil Wolverton and Wally Wood. Some story ideas were by Nick Meglin, later the co-editor of Mad. Scripts were by Feldstein, Elder and Jack Mendelsohn, later a co-screenwriter of Yellow Submarine (1968) and an Emmy-nominated TV comedy writer.

    EC dubbed Panic the "only authorized imitation" of Mad, but Mad's creator didn't enjoy the joke. Almost thirty years later, Harvey Kurtzman told an interviewer, "Panic was another sore point. Gaines, by some convoluted reasoning, decided to double the profit of Mad by doing a Feldstein version of Mad and he just plundered all of my techniques and artists. For this there was a real conflict of interests."

    Piracy (comics)

    Piracy is an EC Comics title published in the early 1950s. The bi-monthly comic book, published by Bill Gaines and edited by Al Feldstein, began with an issue cover-dated October–November, 1954. It ran for seven issues, ending with the October–November, 1955 issue.

    Front covers were by Wally Wood, Reed Crandall, Bernard Krigstein and George Evans. The stories of adventure on the high seas were illustrated by Wood, Crandall, Krigstein, Jack Davis, Al Williamson, Graham Ingels and Angelo Torres.

    Piracy was reprinted (in black and white) as part of publisher Russ Cochran's The Complete EC Library. Between March and September 1998, Cochran (in association with Gemstone Publishing) reprinted all seven individual issues. This complete run was later rebound, with covers included, in a pair of softcover EC Annuals.

    Ralph Reese

    Ralph Reese (born May 19, 1949) is an American artist who has illustrated for books, magazines, trading cards, comic books and comic strips, including a year drawing the Flash Gordon strip for King Features. Prolific from the 1960s to the 1990s, he is best known for his collaboration with Byron Preiss on the continuing feature "One Year Affair", serialized in the satiric magazine National Lampoon from 1973 to 1975 and then collected into a 1976 book.

    Reese early in his career worked in the studio of Wally Wood, assisting on both mainstream and alternative-press comics and on trading cards. He went on to do mainly fantasy and horror illustrations for science-fiction magazines and black-and-white horror-comics magazines. He drew a large number of fantasy, horror and science-fiction stories for Marvel Comics, DC Comics and Valiant Comics.

    Sally Forth (Wally Wood comic strip)

    Sally Forth was an American comic strip created by Wally Wood for a military male readership.

    Shock SuspenStories

    Shock SuspenStories was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. The bi-monthly comic, published by Bill Gaines and edited by Al Feldstein, began with issue 1 in February/March 1952. Over a four-year span, it ran for 18 issues, ending with the December/January 1955 issue.

    Sky Masters

    Sky Masters of the Space Force was an American syndicated newspaper comic strip created on September 8, 1958 by writer Dave Wood and penciler Jack Kirby, featuring the adventures of an American astronaut.

    T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents

    T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents is a fictional team of superheroes that appeared in comic books originally published by Tower Comics in the 1960s. They were an arm of the United Nations and were notable for their depiction of the heroes as everyday people whose heroic careers were merely their day jobs. The series was also notable for featuring some of the better artists of the day, such as Wally Wood. The team first appeared in T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #1 (cover-dated Nov. 1965). The name is an acronym for "The Higher United Nations Defense Enforcement Reserves".

    Two-Fisted Tales

    Two-Fisted Tales is an anthology war comic published bi-monthly by EC Comics in the early 1950s. The title originated in 1950 when Harvey Kurtzman suggested to William Gaines that they publish an adventure comic. Kurtzman became the editor of Two-Fisted Tales, and with the advent of the Korean War, he soon narrowed the focus to war stories. The title was a companion comic to Frontline Combat, and stories Kurtzman wrote for both books often displayed an anti-war attitude. It returned to adventure-themed stories in issues #36 through #39, co-edited by John Severin and Colin Dawkins, with a cover-title change to The New Two-Fisted Tales.

    The bimonthly title ran 24 issues, numbered 18–41, from 1950 to 1955. In 1952, EC published Two-Fisted Annual which had no new stories but instead bound together past issues of Two-Fisted Tales with a new cover by Kurtzman. The same procedure was repeated in 1953 for an annual with a new Jack Davis cover.

    Years after its demise, Two-Fisted Tales was reprinted in its entirety and was adapted to television.

    Valor (EC Comics)

    This article is about the EC Comics title. For the DC Comics character, see Lar Gand.Valor was a short-lived comic book published by EC Comics in 1955 as the second title in its New Direction line. The bi-monthly comic was published by Bill Gaines and edited by Al Feldstein. It lasted a total of five issues before being cancelled, along with EC's other New Direction comics.

    Valor was dedicated to tales of action and adventure in various period settings, including Ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, the Crusades, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic era. It was similar in vein to the historical stories that previously appeared in EC's Two-Fisted Tales and Frontline Combat from 1950 through 1954.

    Artists included Reed Crandall, George Evans, Gardner Fox, Graham Ingels, Bernard Krigstein, Joe Orlando, Angelo Torres, Al Williamson and Wally Wood.

    Valor was reprinted as part of publisher Russ Cochran's Complete EC Library in 1988. Between October 1998 and February 1999, Cochran (in association with Gemstone Publishing) reprinted all five individual issues. This complete run was later rebound, with covers included, in a single softcover EC Annual.

    Weird Fantasy

    Weird Fantasy is a dark fantasy and science fiction anthology comic that was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. The companion comic for Weird Fantasy was Weird Science. Over a four-year span, Weird Fantasy ran for 22 issues, ending with the November–December 1953 issue.

    Weird Science-Fantasy

    Weird Science-Fantasy was an American science fiction-fantasy anthology comic, that was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. Over a 14-month span, the comic ran for seven issues, starting in March 1954 with issue #23 and ending with issue #29 in May/June 1955.

    Weird Science (comics)

    Weird Science was an American science fiction comic book magazine that was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. Over a four-year span, the comic ran for 22 issues, ending with the November–December, 1953 issue. Weird Fantasy was a sister title published during the same time frame.


    witzend, published on an irregular schedule spanning decades, is an underground comic showcasing contributions by comic book professionals, leading illustrators and new artists. witzend was launched in 1966 by the writer-artist Wallace Wood, who handed the reins to Bill Pearson (Wonderful Publishing Company) from 1968–1985. The title was printed in lower-case.

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