Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (/ˈwɒlɪs ... fuːˈtuːnə/; French: Wallis-et-Futuna [walis.e.fytyna] or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian, Wallis and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia.
Its land area is 142.42 km2 (54.99 sq mi) with a population of 11,558 at the 2018 census (down from 14,944 at the 2003 census). Mata-Utu is the capital and biggest city. The territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, and is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km (160 mi) apart, namely the Wallis Islands (Uvea) in the northeast, and the Hoorn Islands (also known as the Futuna Islands) in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the mostly uninhabited Alofi Island.
Since 2003, Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM). Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory (territoire d'outre-mer, or TOM), though its official name did not change when the status changed.
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
Motto: "Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité"
Anthem: La Marseillaise
and largest city
|Patalione Kanimoa (since 2016)|
|Filipo Katoa (since 2016)|
|Eufenio Takala (since 2016)|
|142.42 km2 (54.99 sq mi) (unranked)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 census
|83.55/km2 (216.4/sq mi) (125th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2005 estimate|
|US$188 million (not ranked)|
• Per capita
|US$12,640 (not ranked)|
|HDI (2008)|| 0.793|
high · 132
|Currency||CFP franc (XPF)|
|ISO 3166 code||WF|
Polynesians settled the islands that would later be called Wallis and Futuna around the year 1000 AD/CE, when the Tongan Empire expanded into the area. The original inhabitants built forts and other identifiable ruins on the islands, some of which are still partially intact.
Futuna was first put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their circumnavigation of the globe in 1616. They named the islands "Hoornse Eylanden" after the Dutch town of Hoorn where they hailed from. This was later translated into French as "Isles de Horne." The French were the first Europeans to settle in the territory, with the arrival of French missionaries in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel, canonized as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region. The Wallis Islands are named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis, who sailed past them in 1767 after discovering Tahiti.
On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea (on the island of Wallis) signed a treaty officially establishing a French protectorate. The kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi also signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888. The islands were put under the authority of the French colony of New Caledonia.
In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, which was still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia.
During World War II, the islands' administration was pro-Vichy until a Free French corvette from New Caledonia deposed the regime on 26 May 1942. Units of the US Marine Corps landed on Wallis on 29 May 1942.
In 2005, the 50th King of Uvea, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson who was convicted of manslaughter. The King claimed his grandson should be judged by tribal law rather than by the French penal system. There were riots in the streets involving the King's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the King. Two years later, Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007. The state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden. On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala was installed as King despite protests from some of the royal clans.
The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms (royaumes coutumiers): Uvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, and Alo, on the eastern part of the island of Futuna and on the uninhabited island of Alofi (only Uvea is further subdivided, into three districts):
|Mu'a ("first")||Mala'efo'ou (2)||26.3||3,699||2,976||-19.5%||10|
|Hoorn Islands (Futuna and Alofi)|
The capital of the collectivity is Matāʻutu on the island of Uvéa, the most populous of the Wallis Islands. As an overseas collectivity of France, it is governed under the French constitution of 28 September 1958, and has universal suffrage for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the high administrator is appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly.
The head of state is President Emmanuel Macron of France as represented by the Administrator-Superior Thierry Queffelec. The President of the Territorial Assembly is Petelo Hanisi since 11 December 2013. The Council of the Territory consists of three kings (monarchs of the three pre-colonial kingdoms) and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.
The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats; the members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Wallis and Futuna elect one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly.
Justice is generally administered under French law by a tribunal of the first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law (only for non-criminal cases). The Court of Appeal is in Nouméa, New Caledonia.
Wallis and Futuna is located about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand, at Coordinates: , (225 mi west of Samoa and 300 mi (480 km) north-east of Fiji).
The territory includes the island of Uvéa (the most populous), the island of Futuna, the essentially uninhabited island of Alofi, and 20 uninhabited islets, totaling 274 square kilometres (106 sq mi) with 129 kilometres (80 mi) of coastline. The highest point in the territory is Mont Puke (on the island of Futuna) at 524 metres (1,719 ft).
The islands have a hot, rainy season from November to April with associated storms caused by the passage of tropical cyclones over the islands. There is a cool, dry season from May to October caused by the predominance of the south-east trade winds during this time. Average annual rainfall is 2,500 to 3,000 millimetres (98–118 in) with rainfall likely on at least 260 days each year. The average humidity is 80% and the average temperature is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), rarely falling below 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) and ranging between 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) and 32.0 °C (89.6 °F) during the rainy season.
Only five percent of the islands' land area is arable land; permanent crops cover another 20%. Deforestation (only small portions of the original forests remain), largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source, is a serious problem; as a consequence of cutting down the forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion. There are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural freshwater resources.
|Island||Capital||Other Cities||Area (km²)||Population|
|Wallis and Futuna||Mata-Utu||Leava, Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua||142.42||15500|
|Hoorn Islands (Futuna and Alofi islands)||Leava||Fiua, Nuku, Taoa, Mala'e, Ono, Vele||64.1||4591|
|Futuna||Leava||Toloke, Fiua, Vaisei, Nuku, Taoa, Mala'e, Kolopelu, Ono, Kolia, Vele, Kolotai, Laloua, Poi, Tamana, Tuatafa, Tavai||46.3||4589|
|Ilot St. Christophe||Chappel St. Christophe||0.03||0|
|Wallis (island)||Mata-Utu||Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua, Mala'efo'ou, Mala'e||75.8||10895|
|Wallis and Futuna||Mata-Utu||Leava, Vaitupu, Alele, Liku, Falaleu, Utufua||142.42||15500|
The GDP of Wallis and Futuna in 2005 was 188 million US dollars at market exchange rates. The territory's economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and France. Industries include copra, handicrafts, fishing, and lumber. Agricultural products include coconuts, bread fruit, yams, taro, bananas, pigs, and fish. In 1991, BNP Nouvelle-Calédonie, a subsidiary of BNP Paribas, established a subsidiary, Banque de Wallis-et-Futuna, which currently is the only bank in the territory. Two years earlier Banque Indosuez had closed the branch at Mata-Utu that it had opened in 1977, leaving the territory without any bank. Many exports include copra, chemicals, and fish.
The total population of the territory at the July 2018 census was 11,558 (72.1% on the island of Wallis, 27.9% on the island of Futuna), down from 14,944 at the July 2003 census. The vast majority of the population are of Polynesian ethnicity, with a small minority of Metropolitan French descent and/or native-born whites of French descent.
Lack of economic opportunities have since the 1950s pushed many young Wallisians and Futunians to migrate to the more prosperous French territory of New Caledonia, where, as French citizens, they can legally settle and work. More recently (since the middle of the 2000s), political tensions on the main island of Wallis (Uvea), due to a feud between rival aristocratic clans who are supporting competing kings, has led to a new surge of emigration towards New Caledonia and even the very distant Metropolitan France. At the 2014 New Caledonian census, 21,926 residents of New Caledonia (both born in New Caledonia and in Wallis and Futuna) self-reported their ethnicity as Wallisian and Futunian, which is almost double the total population of Wallis and Futuna.
|Official figures from past censuses.|
At the 2018 census, among the population whose age was 14 and older, 59.1% of people reported that the language they spoke the most at home was Wallisian (down from 60.2% at the 2008 census), 27.9% reported Futunan (down from 29.9% in 2008), and 12.7% reported French (up from 9.7% in 2008). On Wallis Island, the languages most spoken at home were Wallisian (82.2%, down from 86.1% in 2008), French (15.6%, up from 12.1% in 2008), and Futunan (1.9%, up from 1.5% in 2008). On Futuna, the languages most spoken at home were Futunan (94.5%, down from 94.9% in 2008), French (5.3%, up from 4.2% in 2008), and Wallisian (0.2%, down from 0.8% in 2008).
At the same 2008 census, 88.5% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write either Wallisian or Futunan, whereas 7.2% reported that they had no knowledge of either Wallisian or Futunan. 78.2% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 17.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Wallis Island, 81.1% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 14.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Futuna, 71.6% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 24.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French.
The overwhelming majority (99%) of the people in Wallis and Futuna are Roman Catholics, served by their own Roman Catholic Diocese of Wallis and Futuna, with see at Mata-Utu, a suffragan of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Nouméa (New Caledonia).
The culture of Wallis and Futuna is Polynesian, and is very similar to the cultures of its neighbouring nations Samoa and Tonga. The Wallisian and Futunan cultures share very similar components in language, dance, cuisine and modes of celebration.
Fishing and agriculture are the traditional practices and most people live in traditional fate houses in an oval shape made of thatch. Kava, as with many Polynesian islands, is a popular beverage brewed in the two islands, and is a traditional offering in rituals. Highly detailed tapa cloth art is a specialty of Wallis and Futuna.
In 1994, the territory had 1,125 telephones in use, had one AM radio station, and two television broadcast stations. Communication costs are high, costing up to ten times as much as western countries. The island of Wallis has about 100 kilometres (62 mi) of roadways, of which 16 are paved, while the island of Futuna has only 20 kilometres (12 mi), none are paved. The territory has two main ports and harbours, Mata-Utu and Leava (on the island of Futuna), that support its merchant marine fleet consisting of three ships (two passenger ships and a petroleum tanker), totaling 92,060 GRT or 45,881 tonnes. There are two airports, Hihifo Airport on Wallis with a paved runway of 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi), and Pointe Vele Airport on Futuna with a 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) smaller runway. New Caledonia-based Aircalin operates the only commercial flights that go to Wallis, where it has an office in Mata-Utu. There are currently no commercial boat operators.
There are 18 primary schools in the territory with a combined total of over 5,200 students; 12 primary schools are on Wallis and six are on Futuna.
The territory has six junior high schools and one senior high school/sixth-form college.
There is also an agricultural high school.
.wf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Wallis and Futuna Islands. This top-level domain is run by the AFNIC and registrations are open to all.Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, Mata-Utu
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption de Matâ'Utu), also known as Matâ'Utu Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a national monument of France, located in the town of Matâ'Utu on Uvea, in Wallis and Futuna. It is a dominant edifice in downtown Mata-Utu town, capital of Wallis Island. It bears the royal insignia of Wallis, a Maltese cross between its towers. The cathedral is also known as the "Our Lady of Good Hope Cathedral". It is the seat of Bishop Ghislain Marie Raoul Suzanne de Rasilly.Demographics of Wallis and Futuna
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Wallis and Futuna, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.Economy of Wallis and Futuna
This page is an overview of the economy of Wallis and Futuna.Flag of Wallis and Futuna
The official flag of Wallis and Futuna is the French national flag, as it is a French territory. Wallis and Futuna has a locally used unofficial flag which bears the French flag in the canton.Futuna (Wallis and Futuna)
Futuna (; French: [fy.ty.na]) is an 80 km2 island with 5,000 people and max. elevation of 500 m in the Pacific Ocean, belonging to the French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM) of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other. They are both a remnant of an old extinct volcano, now bordered with a fringing reef.
On the island is the place (where the cathedral of Poi now stands) where Pierre Chanel was martyred in 1841, becoming Polynesia's only Catholic saint. Futuna takes its name from an endonym derived from the local futu, fish-poison tree.List of airlines of Wallis and Futuna
This is a list of airlines currently operating in Wallis and Futuna.
There are no active airlines.List of senators of Wallis and Futuna
Following is a List of senators of Wallis and Futuna, people who have represented the collectivity of Wallis and Futuna in the Senate of France.
The department was created on 29 July 1961, and the first elections were held the next year.List of villages in Wallis and Futuna
There are 36 villages with municipal status in Wallis and Futuna, including the capital Mata'utu. The total population at the census of population of 2006 was 15,301.Outline of Wallis and Futuna
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wallis and Futuna:
Wallis and Futuna – French island territory in Polynesia (but not part of, or even contiguous with, French Polynesia) in the South Pacific Ocean between Fiji and Samoa. It comprises three main volcanic tropical islands and a number of tiny islets. The territory is split into two island groups lying about 260 km apart:
Wallis Islands (Uvea), in the north
Wallis Island (Uvea)
Hoorn Islands (Futuna Islands), in the south
AlofiSince 2003 Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM).Politics of Wallis and Futuna
Politics of Wallis and Futuna takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas collectivity, whereby the President of the Territorial Assembly is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.Robert Laufoaulu
Robert Laufoaulu (born July 7, 1947) is a member of the Senate of France, representing the islands of Wallis and Futuna. He is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement.Territorial Assembly of Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna elects on territorial level a legislature. The Territorial Assembly (Assemblée Territoriale) has 20 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies.Wallis (island)
Wallis (Wallisian: ʻUvea) is a Polynesian island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM) of Wallis and Futuna. It lies north of Tonga, northeast of Fiji, east-northeast of the Hoorn Islands, east of Fiji's Rotuma, southeast of Tuvalu, southwest of Tokelau and west of Samoa. Its area is almost 100 km2 (39 sq mi) with almost 11,000 people. Its capital is Matāʻutu. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion. Its highest point is Mount Lulu Fakahega (131 metres, 430 ft). Wallis is of volcanic origin with fertile soil and some remaining lakes. Rainfall is plentiful.
It was part of the Tongan maritime empire from around the 13th to 16th century. By that time the influence of the Tuʻi Tonga had declined so much that ʻUvea became important in itself. The big fortress of Talietumu close to Lotoalahi in Mua was the last holdout of the Tongans until they were defeated. The island was renamed "Wallis" after a Cornish navigator, Captain Samuel Wallis, who saw it while sailing aboard HMS Dolphin on 16 August 1767. On 5 April 1842, the authorities of Wallis Island requested protection by France with a protectorate treaty signed in April 1887. After a referendum in 1959, Wallis became a French Overseas Territory in 1961.Wallis and Futuna's 1st constituency
The 1st constituency of Wallis and Futuna is a French legislative constituency covering the whole of the overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is represented in the XVth legislature by
Sylvain Brial an independent left-wing politician who defeated Napole Polutele in a
2018 by-election.Wallis and Futuna national football team
The Wallis and Futuna national soccer team is the national soccer team of Wallis and Futuna. Wallis and Futuna is not a member of FIFA and, therefore, is not eligible to enter either the FIFA World Cup or the OFC Nations Cup.
Wallis and Futuna has played twenty-four international matches, all at the South Pacific Games between 1966 and 1995, and holds an overall record of five wins and nineteen defeats.Wallis and Futuna national rugby sevens team
The Wallis and Futuna national rugby sevens team is a minor national team that competes in the Pacific Games and in regional tournaments.Wallis and Futuna national rugby union team
The Wallis and Futuna national rugby union team represents Wallis and Futuna in rugby union. The team's first international match was against Papua New Guinea, who beat them 54–5 in 1966. Wallis and Futuna recorded their first, and as yet only, victory against Tahiti, winning 3–0 away from home in 1971. The team has not played since 1971 and is currently inactive.
Rugby sevens is now the preferred rugby format in Wallis and Futuna.
Wallis and Futuna articles
Geographic and linguistic locale