Wali Mohammed Wali

Wali Muhammad Wali (1667–1707) (Urdu: ولی محمد ولی ‎, also known as Wali Deccani, Urdu: ولی دکنی, Wali Gujarati and Wali Aurangabadi, was a classical Urdu poet from India.

He is known as the father of Urdu poetry,[1] being the first established poet to have composed Ghazals in Urdu language[2] and compiled a divan (a collection of ghazals where the entire alphabet is used at least once as the last letter to define the rhyme pattern).

Before Wali, South Asian Ghazals were composed in Persian, almost being replicated in thought and style from the original Persian masters like Saa'di, Jami and Khaqani. Wali began, using not only an Indian language, but Indian themes, idioms and imagery in his ghazals. It is said that his visit to Delhi in 1700, along with his divan of Urdu ghazals created a ripple in the literary circles of the north, inspiring them to produce stalwarts like Zauq, Sauda and Mir.

Wali Muhammad Wali
Wali Mohammed Wali New
Born1667
Aurangabad Maharashtra
Died1707 (aged 40)
Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Pen nameWali Deccani, Wali Aurangabadi, Wali Gujarati
OccupationPoet
PeriodMughal period
GenreGhazal, masnavi, qasida, mukhammas

Early life

Born in 1667 at Aurangabad, an important city in the present Maharashtra State. He loved travelling, which he regarded as a means of education. He visited Delhi, Surat, Burhanpur and also undertook pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.

Career

Wali Mohammed Wali's visit to Delhi in 1700 is considered to be of great significance for Urdu Ghazals. His simple, sensuous and melodious poems in Urdu, awakened the Persian loving poets of Delhi to the beauty and capability of "Rekhta" (the old name for Urdu) as a medium of poetic expression. Wali Mohammed Wali's visit thus stimulated the growth and development of Urdu Ghazal in Delhi.

He died in Ahmedabad in 1707 in what is now Gujarat state, and was buried in the same city.[2]

Genre

Although Wali tried his hand at a variety of verse forms including the masnavi, qasida, mukhammas, and the rubai., the ghazal is his speciality. He wrote 473 ghazals containing 3,225 couplets[3] (Ashaar). His poems were simple, sensuous & melodious.He was a trend setter in classical poetry who helped establish Urdu ghazal in Delhi by inspiring different poets to write in Urdu It is believed that Wali started to have established the tradition of writing ghazals in Urdu and also influencing the other writers when he visited Delhi. Before that, preferred language for ghazals was Persian.[2]

Some of his famous couplets are

Jisay Ishq Ka Teer Kaari Lagay

Use Zindagi Jag Mein Bhaari Lagay

Naa Chode Mohabbat Daame Marg Tak

Jisay Yaar Jaanisoon Yaari Lagay

Naa Howe Use Jag Mein Hargiz Qaraar

Jise Ishq Ki Beqaraari Lagay

Har Ek Waqt Mujhe Aashiq Zaar Koon

Pyaare Teri Baat pyaari Lagay

“Wali” Koon Kahe Tu Agar Yak Bachan

Raqeebon Dil Mein Kataari Lagay[4]

Themes

His favorite theme was love – both mystical and earthy – and his characteristic tone was one of cheerful affirmation and acceptance, rather than of melancholy grumbling. He was the first Urdu poet to have started the practice of expressing love from the man's point of view, as against the prevailing convention of impersonating as a woman.

If, on the one hand, Wali unraveled the beauty and richness of the native language as a poetic medium, on the other, he was alive to the vigor and verve of Persian diction and imagery which he successfully incorporated into the body of his verse. He may thus be called the architect of the modern poetic language, which is a skillful blend of Aam Boli and Persian vocabulary. His diction was unique here is one of his famous ghazal.

Yaad karna har ghari us yaar ka

Hai wazifa mujh dil-e-bimaar ka.

Aarzoo-e-chasma-e-kausar nahin

Tishna-lab hun sharbat-e-didaar ka.

Aakbat kya howega maalum nahin

Dil hua hai mubtla dildaar ka.

Kya kahe tarif dil, hai be nazir,

Harf harf us makhzan-e-Israar ka.

Gar hua hai taalib-e-Aazadgi,

Band mat ho subba-o-zunnaar ka.

Masnad-e-gul manzil-e-shabanam hui,

Dekh rutba dida-e-bedaar ka.

Aye Wali hona srijan par nisaar,

Mudda hai chashm-e-gohar baar ka.

Memorials

His memorial tomb in Shahibaug, Ahmedabad was attacked by the Hindu mob during riots in 2002 and replaced with makeshift Hanuman temple. It was completely razed and the road was constructed overnight.[2][5][6][7] After protests from citizens and literary class of city, the Public Interest Litigation was filed in the Gujarat High Court.[2]

In 2010, a widely acclaimed short film on Wali's life was made by a film-maker Gopal K. Annam.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://twocircles.net/2014feb28/wali_gujarati_father_urdu_poetry.html#.VpF6dlSLTy0
  2. ^ a b c d e "Wali Gujarati's tomb may be rebuilt following HC directions". The Times Of India. Ahmedabad. February 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  3. ^ Kanda, K.C. (1992). Masterpieces of Urdu Ghazal from the 17th to the 20th Century. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 18. ISBN 9788120711952.
  4. ^ "Wali Dakni | Shaa'iri". syaahi.com. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Wali Gujarati rediscovered". Times of India. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  6. ^ Mehta, Harit (2 March 2004). "Vali Gujarati's tomb is still levelled road". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  7. ^ Siddharth Varadarajan (2002). Gujarat, the Making of a Tragedy. Penguin Books India. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-14-302901-4.

External links

1667 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

1707 in India

Events in the year 1707 in India.

1707 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

Ghazal

The ghazal (Bengali: গজল, Sylheti: ꠊꠏꠟ, Punjabi: ਗ਼ਜ਼ਲ, Urdu: غزَل , Hindi: ग़ज़ल, Persian: غزل‎, Pashto: غزل‎, Gujarati: ગઝલ,) is a form of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain.The ghazal form is ancient, tracing its origins to 7th-century Arabic poetry. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent and Turkey.A ghazal commonly consists of between five and fifteen couplets, which are independent, but are linked – abstractly, in their theme; and more strictly in their poetic form. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content, due to its highly allusive nature, the ghazal has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation.

History of Hindustani

Hindustani (Hindi: हिंदुस्तानी Urdu: ہندوستانی) is one of the predominant languages of South Asia, with federal status in India and Pakistan in its standardized forms of Hindi and Urdu. It is widely spoken and understood as a second language in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Persian Gulf and as such is considered a lingua franca in the Indian subcontinent. It is also one of the most widely spoken languages in the world by total number of speakers.

It developed in North India, principally during the Mughal Empire, when the Persian language exerted a strong influence on the Western Hindi languages of central India. This led to the creation of Rekhta, or "mixed" speech, which came to be known as Hindustani, Hindi, Hindavi, and Urdu (derived from Zabaan-i-Ordu meaning "language of the Horde".) This form was elevated to the status of a literary language, and after the partition of British India and independence this collection of dialects became the basis for modern standard Hindi and Urdu. Although these official languages are distinct registers with regards to their formal aspects, such as modern technical vocabulary, they continue to be all but indistinguishable in their vernacular forms.

Muhafiz Khan Mosque

The Muhafiz Khan Mosque is a fifteenth-century mosque located in the city of Ahmedabad in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is considered to be one of the more exceptional structures in the city. The mosque was constructed in 1465 by Jamail-ud-Din Muhafiz Khan during the reign of Mahmud Shah I (1458-1511), and is considered to be an excellent example of Mughal architecture. It is named for the governor of the region at that time. The mosque is a protected building under the auspices of the Archaeological Survey of India.

The façade of the mosque has three arched entrances and a richly carved minaret at either end. The design has similarities with the Isanpur mosque and introduced a new architectural style to Ahmedabad. It measures 51 feet (16 m) by 36 feet (11 m). The minarets stand 50 feet (15 m) high. Alexander Forbes had replicas of the mosque made from wood and returned to England c 1880-1885, they now reside at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.During the communal violence in 2002, the mosque was extensively damaged. Afzal Khan said that rioters damaged intricate carvings on the southern elevations of the building and that the damage to be irreparable. This damage has caused upset among India's Muslim population. The restoration of shrines and mosques was debated extensively in parliament The Indian History Congress(IHC) has requested that the Archaeological Survey of India restore and rebuild all religious structures. Ramakrishna Chatterjee, stated to the IHC that the mosques of Muhafiz Khan, the tomb of Wali Mohammed Wali and the mosque of Malik Asin had been damaged or destroyed. By 2006 restoration work had been completed and the mosque reopened to the public.

Mukhammas

Mukhammas (Arabic مخمس 'fivefold') refers to a type of Persian or Urdu cinquain or pentastich with Sufi connections based on a pentameter. And have five lines in each paragraph.

It is one of the more popular verse forms in Tajik Badakhshan, occurring both in madoh and in other performance-genres.

Wali (disambiguation)

Wali is an Arabic word meaning guardian, custodian, protector, or helper. In English, it most often means a Muslim saint or holy person. It has sometimes been extended to mean the tomb or shrine of such a man.

Wali or WALI may also refer to:

Wali (Islamic legal guardian)

Al-Walī (Arabic:الولي) and Al-Wālī (Arabic:الوالي), are two related names of God in Islam

Wāli, an administrative title used by the Arabic and Ottoman Caliphates

Wali, weli or welli, a synonym for a Muslim Maqam (shrine), used in Palestine and in older Western scholarly literature

Wali language (Sudan), a Nubian language

Wali language (Ghana), a Gur language

Wali (band), an Indonesian band

Wali, Mauritania, an alternate spelling of Waly Diantang, a village in the Gorgol RegionWALI, a radio station in Walterboro, South Carolina, United States

Wali Mohammed

Wali Mohammed is the name of:

Wali Mohammed Wali (1667–1707), classical Urdu and Persian poet of the South Asia

Habib Wali Mohammad (1924–2014), Pakistani ghazal singer

Haji Wali Mohammed (born 1966), Afghan businessman who was detained in Guantanamo Bay

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.