Wakde is an island group of Indonesia, part of the province of West Papua, between the districts of Pantai Timur and Tor Atas. It comprises two islands, Insumuar (the larger) and Insumanai (much smaller).

Occupied by Japanese forces in April 1942, Wakde served as an airbase. United States forces landed in May 1944 (the Battle of Wakde or Operation Straight Line) and used the airfield.

In September 2005, the remains of Japanese soldiers and Papuans were found in a cave on the uninhabited island. [1]

The island is located at 1°56′S 139°1′E / 1.933°S 139.017°ECoordinates: 1°56′S 139°1′E / 1.933°S 139.017°E, two miles off the northern coast of Papua, near the Tor River.


  1. ^ Article about remains Archived 2006-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
307th Operations Group

The 307th Operations Group (349 OG) is an Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the 307th Bomb Wing, Air Force Reserve Command, stationed at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana.

In the postwar era, the 307th Bombardment Group was one of the USAAF bombardment groups assigned to Strategic Air Command on 4 August 1946, the group being activated as a redesignation of the 498th Bombardment Group due to the Air Force's policy of retaining only low-numbered groups on active duty after the war. The group deployed to Okinawa during the Korean War and was awarded the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for its air strikes against enemy forces in Korea. It was also awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation and several campaign streamers.

41st Infantry Division (United States)

The 41st Infantry Division was composed of National Guard units from Idaho, Montana, Oregon, North Dakota and Washington that saw active service in World War I and World War II. It was one of the first to engage in offensive ground combat operations during the last months of 1942. In 1965 it was reorganized as the 41st Infantry Brigade. The brigade has seen combat in the Iraq War in 2003.

Bahau language

Bahau (Kajan) is a Kayan language of Borneo.

Battle of Lone Tree Hill

The Battle of Lone Tree Hill, also known as the Battle of Wakde-Sarmi, is the name given to a major battle in 1944 in Dutch New Guinea, between United States and Japanese forces.

Following the loss of Hollandia, to the east, in April 1944, the Toem-Wakde-Sarmi area was an isolated coastal salient for the Japanese. Nevertheless, elements of the Japanese 223rd and 224th Infantry Regiments, commanded by Lieutenant General Hachiro Tagami, were concentrated at Lone Tree Hill, overlooking Maffin Bay, and were blocking any further advance by the 158th Regimental Combat Team of the U.S. Army. The Japanese were in well-prepared positions, which included fortified caves. Meanwhile, the main body of the Japanese 223rd Infantry Regiment had outflanked the U.S. units, and a battalion of the Japanese 224th Infantry Regiment, was retreating from Hollandia, towards the Toem-Wakde-Sarmi area.

Lone Tree Hill rose from a flat, coastal plain about 6,000 feet (1,800 m) west of the main jetty in Maffin Bay. The hill was named for a single tree depicted on its crest by U.S. maps; it was a coral formation, covered with dense tropical rain forest and undergrowth. It was about 175 feet (53 m) high, 3,600 feet (1,100 m) long north to south, and 3,300 feet (1,000 m) wide east to west. The north side was characterized by a steep slope. The eastern slope was fronted by a short, twisting stream which the Americans named Snaky River.

On 14 June, the US commander, General Walter Krueger, sent the U.S. 6th Infantry Division, to relieve the 158th RCT. After ten days of hard fighting, the US forces took Lone Tree Hill. The Japanese suffered more than 1,000 dead, including some trapped in collapsed caves. The U.S. Army suffered about 700 battle and 500 non-battle casualties. With Lone Tree Hill in American possession, Maffin Bay became a major staging base for six subsequent battles: Biak, Noemfoor, Sansapor, Leyte and Luzon.

Battle of Wakde

The Battle of Wakde (Operation Straight Line) was part of the New Guinea campaign of World War II. It was fought between the United States and Japan from 18 May 1944 to 21 May 1944.

Wakde is located about 225 miles east of Biak Island and 200 miles west of Hollandia.

Burusu language

Burusu is an Austronesian language of Indonesian Borneo.

Kaidipang language

Kaidipang is a Philippine language spoken in North Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia.

Maffin Bay

Maffin Bay, known as Teluk Maffin in Indonesian, is a small bay in the Pacific Ocean on the Northern coast of New Guinea. It is in Papua, Indonesia, below the Foja Mountains near Wakde, about 125 miles west of Jayapura. Maffin Bay was a landing site in the New Guinea campaign of World War II, and was the location of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill. After this battle, Maffin Bay was held by Task Force Tornado and defended it against Japanese attacks through the use of aggressive patrolling.

Ngalum language

Ngalum is the most populous of the Ok languages of West Papua and Papua New Guinea.

No. 80 Squadron RAAF

No. 80 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fighter squadron that operated during World War II. The squadron was formed in September 1943 and was disbanded in July 1946 after seeing action in the South West Pacific Theatre of the war.

Sarmi–Jayapura languages

The Sarmi-Jayapura Bay languages consist of half a dozen languages spoken on the northern coast of Papua province of Indonesia:

Sobei, Bonggo, Tarpia (Sarmi), Kayupulau, Ormu, Tobati (Jayapura Bay)Ross (1988) had considered Sarmi and Jayapura Bay (Kayapulau, Orma and Tobati) to be separate but related groups. Ross (1988) listed several additional Sarmi languages:

Anus (Korur) and Podena, Liki and Wakde (close to Sobei), Masimasi, Kaptiau, and Yamna.The inclusion of a supposed Yarsun language appears to be due to confusion of language names with island names. No such language is attested; the island is located between that of the Anus and Podena languages, and all three islands are reported to speak dialects of a single language according to the first source to mention it.With the exception of certain Micronesian languages, the Sarmi-Jayapura languages have the westernmost distribution out of all Oceanic languages.

USS El Paso (PF-41)

USS El Paso (PF-41) was a Tacoma-class frigate manned by the United States Coast Guard for the United States Navy. She was named after El Paso, a city situated in Western Texas and along the border with New Mexico and the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

El Paso was launched on 16 July 1943 at Consolidated Steel Corporation, Ltd., in Wilmington, California, under a Maritime Commission contract, sponsored by Mrs. J. L. Kaster; and commissioned on 1 December 1943, with Commander R. J. Borromey, USCG, in command.

USS James E. Craig

USS James E. Craig (DE-201), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Lieutenant Commander James Edwin Craig (1901–1941), who was killed in action aboard USS Pennsylvania during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

James E. Craig was launched on 22 July 1943, by Charleston Navy Yard; sponsored by Mrs. J. E. Craig, widow of Lieutenant Commander Craig; and commissioned on 1 November 1943, Lieutenant Commander Hampton M. Ericson in command.


USS LST-22 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used exclusively in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II and staffed by a United States Coast Guard crew. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation.

USS Neuendorf (DE-200)

USS Neuendorf (DE-200), a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Seaman First Class William Frederick Neuendorf (1916–1941), who was killed in action aboard the battleship USS Nevada, as gun captain of No. 6 A.A. gun, gave an example of leadership, skill, and bravery that is remarked upon by all who observed it during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. He was commended posthumously "for distinguished devotion to duty and extraordinary courage and disregard for his own safety[,]" and was the most junior sailor mentioned specifically for distinguished conduct in the after action report of USS Nevada regarding the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Neuendorf was laid down at the Charleston Navy Yard on 15 February 1943. The ship was launched on 1 June 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Edna Rose Morton, the sister of W. F. Neuendorf, Jr., SN1. The destroyer escort was commissioned on 18 October 1943, Lieutenant Commander Jasper N. McDonald in command.

USS Thomason (DE-203)

USS Thomason (DE-203) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy in World War II. She was named in honor of Marine Raider Sergeant Clyde A. Thomason (1914–1942), the first Marine to be awarded the Medal of Honor in World War II — posthumously, for heroism during the Makin Island raid.

Thomason was laid down on 5 June 1943 at the Charleston Navy Yard; launched on 23 August 1943; sponsored by Miss Sara Jeanette Thomason; and commissioned on 10 December 1943, Lieutenant Commander Charles B. Henriques, USNR, in command.

The destroyer escort held shakedown training in the Bermuda area and performed convoy escort duty along the east coast from Newport, R.I., to Panama. She transited the Panama Canal on 21 March 1944 and headed for the New Hebrides. The ship called at Galapagos, the Society Islands, and Samoa before arriving at Espiritu Santo on 18 April. She joined the U.S. 3d Fleet and, in addition to performing antisubmarine duty in Indispensable Strait which separates Guadalcanal and Malaita Islands, escorted ships to Guadalcanal.

On 26 May, the DE arrived at Cape Cretin to join the U.S. 7th Fleet for operations along the coast of New Guinea. On 3 June, the ship got underway for Wakde and arrived there the following week. On the 13th, her gunners helped Army antiaircraft units repel an enemy air attack. Six days later, she took Army artillery observers along the coast to Sarmi where she shelled enemy emplacements and an air strip. The ship operated from Wakde until 7 August when she shifted her base of operations to Noemfoor, Schouten Islands. In early September, she returned to Espiritu Santo for an overhaul.

On 4 October, DE-203 stood out to sea to rendezvous with two ammunition ships to escort them to the Palaus. She remained at Kossol Passage for a month, serving as harbor entrance control ship before returning to Hollandia. On 6 November, the destroyer got underway for Maffin Bay. Two days later, Thomason and Neuendorf (DE-200) bombarded Sarmi and targets along the bay. With the aid of Army spotting planes, the two ships set fire to enemy storehouses and several other buildings.

Thomason headed for the Philippines on 9 November in the screen of a large convoy of landing craft and supply ships. She arrived in Leyte Gulf on the 15th and sailed the same day with a convoy bound for Hollandia. The destroyer escort then conducted intensive antiaircraft and antisubmarine training at Mios Woendi and landing exercises at Aitape with attack transports that were scheduled to participate in the invasion of Lingayen Gulf.

On 28 December 1944, the destroyer escort sortied for Luzon with Task Group 78.1 (TG 78.1), the San Fabian Attack Force. En route to the Philippines, she was detached to accompany two fuel oil tankers who were scheduled to refuel the escort ships of Task Force 79 (TF 79), which was also en route to Lingayen Gulf.

Thomason began antisubmarine patrols in Mangarin Bay, off Mindoro on 7 January 1945. One month later, she and Neuendorf began antisubmarine patrol duty off the west coast of Luzon. At 22:22 on 7 February, Thomason's SL surface radar made a contact at a range of 14 miles (26 km), which was thought to be a small boat. She closed the range and challenged the craft with a flashing light. There was no answer, and surface radar lost contact. However, sonar soon made an underwater contact.

The escort made a hedgehog run but did not fire because she was going too fast. She made another run and fired a pattern of hedgehogs. On both runs, a large submerged mass, outlined by phosphorescence, was seen moving through the water at a depth of between 25 and 50 feet. Four to six of the hedgehogs detonated almost simultaneously, and contact with the target was lost. A heavy oil slick, 250 yards in diameter, rose to the surface. The two ships patrolled until late in the morning, in an expanding search pattern, but never regained contact with the Japanese submarine. RO-55 had been sunk in over 800 fathoms (1,500 m) of water.

Thomason returned to Mangarin Bay where she resumed antisubmarine patrols. On the 24th, she rescued four airmen who had bailed out of their burning B-24 Liberator bomber. From March through August, the ship was engaged in antisubmarine patrols and escort duty between various Philippine ports, Palau, and Hollandia. On 15 August 1945, the Japanese surrendered to the Allies. In September, she escorted two convoys from Luzon to Okinawa. On 4 October, Thomason stood out of Subic Bay and headed for the United States. She called at San Francisco, California on the 27th and moved to San Diego for inactivation. Thomason was decommissioned on 22 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 30 June 1968. On 30 June 1969, she was sold to the National Metal & Steel Corp., Terminal Island, Long Beach, Calif., for scrap.

Thomason received three battle stars for World War II service.

Wakde Airfield

Wakde Airfield is a World War II airfield located on Wakde Island, off the northern coast of New Guinea in West Papua Province, Indonesia. The airfield was abandoned after the war and today is almost totally returned to its natural state.

Wakde language

Wakde, also known as Mo, is an Austronesian language spoken on the coast and on Wakde Island of Papua province, Indonesia.

See Sarmi languages for a comparison with related languages.

XIII Bomber Command

The XIII Bomber Command is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to Thirteenth Air Force, based at Clark Field, Luzon, Philippines. It was inactivated on 15 March 1946.

XIII Bomber Command was a World War II command and control organization for Thirteenth Air Force. Its mission was to provide command and control authority of Army Air Force bombardment organizations within the Thirteenth Air Force Area of Responsibility.


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