Wah-wah pedal

A wah-wah pedal (or simply wah pedal) is a type of electric guitar effects pedal that alters the tone and frequencies of the guitar signal to create a distinctive sound, mimicking the human voice saying the onomatopoeic name "wah-wah". The pedal sweeps the peak response of a frequency filter up and down in frequency to create the sound, a spectral glide, also known as "the wah effect". The wah-wah effect originated in the 1920s, with trumpet or trombone players finding they could produce an expressive crying tone by moving a mute in and out of the instrument's bell. This was later simulated with electronic circuitry for the electric guitar when the wah-wah pedal was invented. It is controlled by movement of the player's foot on a rocking pedal connected to a potentiometer. Wah-wah effects are used when a guitarist is soloing, or creating a "wacka-wacka" funk-styled rhythm for rhythm guitar playing.[1]

An envelope filter or envelope follower is often referred to as an auto-wah.

Thomas Organ Crybaby
Thomas Organ Cry Baby (1970) manufactured by JEN
Wah-wah pedal (Dunlop Crybaby 535q) on electric guitar with distortion.

History

1968 King Vox Wah pedal
A 1968 King Vox Wah pedal similar to one that was owned by Jimi Hendrix[2]

The first wah pedal was created by Bradley J. Plunkett at Warwick Electronics Inc./Thomas Organ Company in November 1966. This pedal is the original prototype made from a transistorized MRB (mid-range boost) potentiometer bread-boarded circuit and the housing of a Vox Continental Organ volume pedal. The concept, however, was not new. Country guitar virtuoso Chet Atkins had used a similar, self-designed device on his late 1950s recordings of "Hot Toddy" and "Slinkey". Jazz guitarist Peter Van Wood had a modified Hammond organ expression pedal; he recorded in 1955 a version of George Gershwin's "Summertime" with a "crying" tone, and other recordings including humorous "novelty" effects. A DeArmond Tone and Volume pedal was used in the early 1960s by Big Jim Sullivan, notably in some Krew Cats instrumental tracks, and in Dave Berry's song "The Crying Game".

The creation of the modern wah pedal was an accident which stemmed from the redesign of the Vox Super Beatle guitar amplifier in 1966. Warwick Electronics Inc. also owned Thomas Organ Company and had earlier entered into an agreement with Jennings Musical Instruments (JMI) of England for Thomas to distribute the Vox name and products in the United States. In addition to distributing the British-made Vox amplifiers, the Thomas Organ Company also designed and manufactured much of the Vox equipment sold in the US The more highly regarded British Vox amplifiers were designed by Dick Denney and made by JMI, the parent company of Vox. Warwick assigned Thomas Organ Company to create a new product line of solid state Vox amplifiers called Vox Amplifonic Orchestra, which included the Super Beatle amplifier, named to capitalize on the Vox brand name's popularity in association with the Beatles, who used the JMI English Vox amplifiers such as the famous Vox AC30 (although the Beatles did use several American-made Super Beatle units on their 1966 US tour). The US-made Vox product line development was headed by musician and bandleader Bill Page. While creating the Vox Amplifonic Orchestra, the Thomas Organ Company decided to create an American-made equivalent of the British Vox amplifier but with transistorized (solid state) circuits, rather than vacuum tubes, which would be less expensive to manufacture. During the re-design of the USA Vox amplifier, Stan Cuttler, head engineer of Thomas Organ Company, assigned Brad Plunkett, a junior electronics engineer, to replace the expensive Jennings 3-position MRB circuit switch with a transistorized solid state MRB circuit.

Plunkett had lifted and bread-boarded a transistorized tone-circuit from the Thomas Organ (an electric solid state transistorized organ) to duplicate the Jennings 3-position circuit. After adjusting and testing the amplifier with an electronic oscillator and oscilloscope, Plunkett connected the output to the speaker and tested the circuit audibly. At that point, several engineers and technical consultants, including Bill Page and Del Casher, noticed the sound effect caused by the circuit. Page insisted on testing this bread-boarded circuit while he played his saxophone through an amplifier. John Glennon, an assistant junior electronics engineer with the Thomas Organ Company, was summoned to bring a volume control pedal which was used in the Vox Continental Organ so that the transistorized MRB potentiometer bread-boarded circuit could be installed in the pedal's housing. After the installation, Page began playing his saxophone through the pedal and had asked Joe Banaron, CEO of Warwick Electronics Inc./Thomas Organ Company, to listen to the effect. At this point the first electric guitar was plugged into the prototype wah pedal by guitarist Del Casher who suggested to Joe Banaron that this was a guitar effects pedal rather than a wind instrument effects pedal. Banaron, being a fan of the big band style of music, was interested in marketing the wah pedal for wind instruments as suggested by Page rather than for the electric guitar as suggested by Casher. After a remark by Casher to Banaron regarding the Harmon mute style of trumpet playing in the famous recording of "Sugar Blues" from the 1930s, Banaron decided to market the wah-wah pedal using Clyde McCoy's name for endorsement.

After the invention of the wah pedal, the prototype was modified by Casher and Plunkett to better accommodate the harmonic qualities of the electric guitar. However, since Vox had no intention of marketing the wah pedal for electric guitar players, the prototype wah-wah pedal was given to Del Casher for performances at Vox press conferences and film scores for Universal Pictures. The un-modified version of the Vox wah pedal was released to the public in February 1967 with an image of Clyde McCoy on the bottom of the pedal.

Warwick Electronics Inc. assigned Lester L. Kushner, an engineer with the Thomas Organ Company, and Brad Plunkett to write and submit the documentation for the wah-wah pedal patent. The patent application was submitted on February 24, 1967, which included technical diagrams of the pedal being connected to a four-stringed "guitar" (as noted from the "Description of the Preferred Embodiment"). Warwick Electronics Inc. was granted U.S. Patent 3,530,224 ("foot-controlled continuously variable preference circuit for musical instruments") on September 22, 1970.

Early versions of the Clyde McCoy featured an image of McCoy on the bottom panel, which soon gave way to only his signature. Thomas Organ then wanted the effect branded as their own for the American market, changing it to Cry Baby which was sold in parallel to the Italian Vox V846. Thomas Organ's failure to trademark the Cry Baby name soon led to the market being flooded with Cry Baby imitations from various parts of the world, including Italy, where all of the original Vox and Cry Babys were made.[3] Jen, who had been responsible for the manufacture of Thomas Organ and Vox wah pedals, also made rebranded pedals for companies such as Fender and Gretsch and under their own Jen brand. When Thomas Organ moved production completely to Sepulveda, California and Chicago, Illinois these Italian models continued to be made and are among the more collectible wah pedals today.

Pink Floyd Their Mortal Remains - 2017-10-13 - Andy Mabbett - 28 (cropped 2)
David Gilmour's VOX Wah Wah guitar effects pedal, as used on Obscured by Clouds (1971), displayed at the Pink Floyd: Their Mortal Remains exhibition

Some of the most famous electric guitarists of the day were keen to adopt the wah-wah pedal soon after its release. Among the first recordings featuring wah-wah pedal were "Tales of Brave Ulysses" by Cream with Eric Clapton on guitar and "Burning of the Midnight Lamp" by the Jimi Hendrix Experience, both released in 1967. Hendrix also used wah wah on his famous song Voodoo Chile, in intro and in soloing. Clapton, in particular, used the device on many of the Cream songs included on their second and third albums, Disraeli Gears (1967) and Wheels of Fire (1968) respectively. Clapton would subsequently employ it again on "Wah-Wah", from his good friend George Harrison's solo album All Things Must Pass, upon the dissolution of The Beatles in 1970. Another prominent use occurred in the recording of "Crimson and Clover" by Tommy James and the Shondells in late 1968, with the single version eventually reaching number one in early 1969. Terry Kath, lead guitarist for the band Chicago, used it on many of their early recordings as well. Martin Barre, lead guitarist for the fledgling Jethro Tull, also employed it to great effect on their second album Stand Up, particularly on "We Used to Know" and "Look into the Sun". Jimmy Page, featured the wah-wah pedal on several songs from the final Yardbirds album Little Games, as well as the solo on the Led Zeppelin song "Custard Pie", and throughout "Trampled Under Foot", both from Physical Graffiti. Tony Iommi used it on the songs "Black Sabbath", "The Wizard" and Geezer Butler (Bass) "N.I.B." from their self-titled debut album, "Electric Funeral" from Paranoid and "Supernaut" from their fourth album. He also employed it on later recordings, such as "Shock Wave" on Never Say Die! (1978), "Lady Evil" from the first Ronnie James Dio-era album Heaven and Hell (1980), and "Turn Up the Night" on the subsequent Mob Rules (1981). Kirk Hammett of Metallica is also known for using the wah effect in his playing.

The wah wah pedal was revived in the British music industry in the late-1980s by John Squire of The Stone Roses whose squelching licks graced most of the Roses songs from 1988 to 1990, particularly "Elephant Stone", "Waterfall" and in particular "Fools Gold". By the late 80s Squire had tired of the overly angular guitar riffs which dominated British music and had bought a wah wah pedal to soften the Roses sound. The wah would also be used by the Roses contemporaries such as the Happy Mondays and The Charlatans [UK], and became one of the defining sounds of British guitar music in the late 80s/early 90s, only for Grunge from Seattle and later Britpop to diminish its status.

Other functions

In addition to rocking the pedal up and down to crest a spectral glide, another function of the pedal is to use it in a fixed position. A guitarist using the wah in this way selects a position on the wah pedal and leaves the pedal there. Depending on the position of the pedal, this will boost or cut a specific frequency. This can be used for emphasizing the "sweet spot" in the tonal spectrum of a particular instrument. One electric guitar player to use the pedal in this way was Jimi Hendrix, who revolutionized its application by combining a Fender Stratocaster with stacked Marshall Amplifiers (in both static and modulated mode) for lead and rhythm guitar applications unheard of before then. According to Del Casher, Hendrix learned about the pedal from Frank Zappa, another well-known early user.[4][5] Milestones of this signature guitar and amplifier combination include songs such as "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" as well as the "Star Spangled Banner" which was played by Hendrix at Woodstock in 1969. Mick Ronson used a Cry Baby for the same purpose while recording The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars.[6]

Wah-wah pedal
A Roland V-Wah pedal.

Another famous style of wah-wah playing is utilizing it for a percussive "wacka-wacka" effect during rhythm guitar parts. This is done by muting strings, holding down a chord and moving the pedal at the same time. This was first heard on the song "Little Miss Lover" (1967) by the Jimi Hendrix Experience. One of the most famous uses of this effect is heard on Isaac Hayes's "Theme from Shaft" (1971), Charles Pitts playing the guitar. Michael Schenker also utilized the pedal in his work.[7][8] The "wah-wah" and "wacka-wacka" effects are often associated with the bands on 1970s TV variety shows, like those of Sonny and Cher, Flip Wilson, or Donny and Marie Osmond; or with the soundtracks of pornographic films, the sound referenced in TV commercials for Axe body spray as "bow chicka wow wow."

David Gilmour (Pink Floyd) used the pedal to create the "whale" effect during Echoes. He discovered this effect as a result of a roadie accidentally plugging his guitar into the output of the pedal and the input being plugged into his amp. The effect was first used during live performances of The Embryo during 1970 but was then switched into Echoes as it was being developed before being released on the Meddle album on 31 October 1971.[9]

Other instruments

Many bassists have also used the wah-wah effect, for example Michael Henderson on Miles Davis's album On the Corner (1972). Bassist Cliff Burton of Metallica used a Morley Wah pedal (along with a Big Muff Distortion) extensively, including on "(Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth", which is primarily a bass solo recorded for Kill 'Em All (1983), and "The Call of Ktulu" and "For Whom the Bell Tolls", both recorded for Ride the Lightning. Geezer Butler, bassist of Black Sabbath, used it when playing his solo "Bassically", along with the bass line in "N.I.B.". Chris Squire of Yes used a wah-wah pedal on his solo piece "The Fish" on the album Fragile. While wah pedals are less popular as a bass effect, various companies now offer pedals designed specifically for bass guitars.

Many steel guitar players use a wah-wah, such as Robert Randolph from the Robert Randolph and the Family Band.

Melvin Ragin, better known by the nickname Wah Wah Watson, was a member of the Motown Records studio band, The Funk Brothers, where he recorded with artists such as The Temptations "Papa was a Rolling Stone", Marvin Gaye "Let's Get It On", The Jackson 5, The Four Tops, Gladys Knight & The Pips, and The Supremes, Undisputed Truth "Smilin' Faces" [10]. He played on numerous sessions in the 1970s and 1980s for many top soul, funk and disco acts, including Herbie Hancock. Funk band Kool and the Gang, B.T.Express, and Jimmy Castor Bunch used Wah-wah pedal also.

Keyboardists have also made use of the wah-wah effect both in the studio and during live performances. Garth Hudson famously used a wah-wah pedal on a clavinet in The Band's song "Up on Cripple Creek" to emulate a jaw harp. Rick Wright of Pink Floyd played a Wurlitzer electric piano through a wah-wah pedal in their song "Money" to give the impression of many consecutive chords being played. Jordan Rudess of Dream Theater made an extensive use of the wah-wah pedal on Dream Theater's album Train of Thought. John Medeski of Medeski, Martin, and Wood uses a wah pedal with his clavinet.

Many jazz fusion records feature wind and brass instruments with the effect - Miles Davis's trumpet being a well-known example. Davis first used this technique in 1970 (at concerts documented on Live-Evil and The Cellar Door Sessions) at a time when he also made his keyboard players (Keith Jarrett and Chick Corea) play electric pianos with a wah-wah pedal. Napoleon Murphy Brock played a saxophone amplified through a wah-wah pedal in the Frank Zappa movie The Dub Room Special, as well as on some of Zappa's albums. David Sanborn can be heard playing an alto saxophone modified by a wah-wah pedal on the David Bowie album Young Americans. Noted saxophonist King Curtis was also known to use a wah-wah pedal. Dick Sims, the keyboard player with Eric Clapton in the late 1970s, used a Hammond organ in conjunction with a wah-wah pedal, placed on top of the organ and operated by his palm.

The effect is also extensively used with the electric violin. Notable examples are Jerry Goodman with the Mahavishnu Orchestra, and Jean-Luc Ponty, Don "Sugarcane" Harris and Shankar with Frank Zappa, all usually engaged in long wah-wah violin/guitar duels. Boyd Tinsley of the Dave Matthews Band is known to use a wah-wah pedal live.

See also

References

  1. ^ Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (1st ed.). Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing. p. 375. ISBN 1-904041-96-5.
  2. ^ Heatley, Michael (2009). Jimi Hendrix Gear: The Guitars, Amps & Effects that Revolutionized Rock 'n' Roll. Voyageur Press. pp. 105–105. ISBN 978-0-7603-3639-7.
  3. ^ Guitar Player: The Complete Electric Guitar Package
  4. ^ Kostelanetz, Richard; Rocco, John M. (1997). The Frank Zappa companion: four decades of commentary. Schirmer Books. p. 94. ISBN 0-02-864628-2.
  5. ^ Wallace, Amy (August 6, 2011). "With a Flip of a Knob, He Heard the Future". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
  6. ^ Molenda, Michael (August 2012). "The Genius of Ken Scott". Guitar Player. p. 149. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ Blackett, Matt (October 2004). "The 50 Greatest Tones of All Time". Guitar Player. pp. 44–66.
  8. ^ The Boss Book: The Ultimate Guide to the World's Most Popular Compact Effects for Guitar. Hal Leonard. 2002. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-634-04480-9.
  9. ^ Riis, Bjørn (2009-10-26). "Echoes "seagull" effect tutorial". Gilmourish. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  10. ^ http://www.wahwah.com/history

Further information

  • Cry Baby: The Pedal that Rocks the World (documentary, 2011)
Budda Amplification

Budda Amplification is an American company that designs and manufactures electric guitar amplifiers and effects pedals. Founded by chief designer Jeff Bober and Scot Sier in 1995, the company debuted its first amplifier, the 18-watt Class A/B Twinmaster Ten, at the NAMM show the following year, receiving orders for 65 units despite not having the facilities to make them. The Twinmaster's success led to broader interest in low-wattage "boutique" amplifiers and the success of the company. Budda has since released the Superdrive line in a variety of higher wattage models, the discontinued Dual Stage, Stringmaster, and an updated 10th anniversary reissue of the Twinmaster Ten. Their pedals include the BudWah wah wah pedal and the Zenman and Phatman distortion pedals.The Budda brand is now owned and manufactured by Peavey Electronics.

Bulls on Parade

"Bulls on Parade" is a song by American rap metal band Rage Against the Machine from their 1996 album Evil Empire.

The song is widely known for its popular guitar solo containing a vinyl scratch effect used by Tom Morello, done by toggling between two pickups--one on and one off--while rubbing his hands on the strings over the pickups to create the effect that someone is scratching a vinyl disc. "Bulls on Parade" is also known for one of Tim Commerford's more famous bass solos, during the second wah-wah riff, and right before Morello's guitar solo. Morello has also stated that the sound he was going for was a "sort of 'Geto Boys' sound, menacing" with E♭ tuning in both guitar and bass and a wah-wah pedal fully in the treble position to create a Houston 5th Ward gangland-style riff.

Crimson

Crimson is a strong, red color, inclining to purple. It originally meant the color of the kermes dye produced from a scale insect, Kermes vermilio, but the name is now sometimes also used as a generic term for slightly bluish-red colors that are between red and rose.

Del Casher

Del Casher (born Delton Kacher, 1938, Hammond, Indiana) is an American guitarist and inventor. He invented Wah-wah pedal, the Ecco-Fonic, and the Fender Electronic Echo Chamber. He was the first to introduce the Roland Guitar Synthesizer for the Roland Corporation.

Dunlop Cry Baby

The Dunlop Cry Baby is a popular wah-wah pedal, manufactured by Dunlop Manufacturing, Inc. The name Cry Baby was from the original pedal from which it was copied, the Thomas Organ/Vox Cry Baby wah-wah, first manufactured in 1966. Thomas Organ/Vox failed to register the name as a trademark, leaving it open for Dunlop. More recently, Dunlop manufactured the Vox pedals under licence, although this is no longer the case.

The said wah-wah effect was originally intended to imitate the supposed crying tone that a muted trumpet produced, but became an expressive tool in its own way. It is used when a guitarist is soloing, or to create a "wacka-wacka" funk styled rhythm. The original pedals were popularized by guitarists such as Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, and David Gilmour, though many artists have developed signature sounds with them since.

Fuzz-wah

A fuzz-wah pedal is a stomp box containing both a fuzzbox and a wah-wah pedal in series allowing the user to distort "wah" and the "fuzz" sounds as an aesthetic affect on an electric guitar or bass. They were developed in order to combine the iconic sounds of the more psychedelic bands of the late 1960s and 1970s.

Hot Stuff (The Rolling Stones song)

"Hot Stuff" is a song by English rock and roll band The Rolling Stones off their 1976 album Black and Blue.

"Hot Stuff", written by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, was recorded in March, October and December 1975 during the Black and Blue sessions, and is heavily influenced by the disco/funk sounds of the day, with Charlie Watts laying down a heavy drum pattern accompanied by Ollie E. Brown on percussion, Bill Wyman adding a funky bassline, and extensive use of the Wah-wah pedal by guest guitarist Harvey Mandel, formerly of Canned Heat. Mandel plays the lead guitar parts on the song and was one of the guitarists in consideration for replacing the departed Mick Taylor's slot as the Stones' lead guitarist, a position eventually filled by Ron Wood. Billy Preston plays piano on the recording and contributes backing vocals along with Richards and Wood. The video, however, features Wood on guitar playing Mandel's part.

The second and final single from Black and Blue (following the worldwide top 10 hit "Fool to Cry") "Hot Stuff" was not as successful as its predecessor, reaching #49 in the United States. Despite the relative failure of the single, however, the band would continue to explore the disco/funk sounds heard on the recording with later albums and singles - their next single, the disco-infused "Miss You", would reach the top position in the US two years later.

Jailbreak (Thin Lizzy song)

"Jailbreak" is a song by Thin Lizzy that originally appeared as the title track on their 1976 album Jailbreak. Along with "The Boys Are Back in Town", it is one of their most popular songs, is played frequently on classic rock radio.

It is typical of the band's music, with the dual lead guitar harmony and Brian Robertson's use of the wah-wah pedal. Phil Lynott's lyrics about a prison break are the typical personification of the "tough guys", also seen in "The Boys Are Back in Town" and the regular concert closer and fan favourite "The Rocker". An alternate version of the song appeared on the bonus disc of the 2011 remastered deluxe edition of the Jailbreak album, featuring a short spoken introduction and additional guitar parts throughout.

Lowdown (Chicago song)

"Lowdown" is a song written by Peter Cetera and Danny Seraphine for the rock band Chicago and recorded for their third album Chicago III (1971). It was the second single released from this album, and peaked at  No.  35 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100.Cetera provided lead vocals while guitarist Terry Kath used a fuzzbox and wah-wah pedal for his guitar solo and Robert Lamm made prominent use of the Hammond organ.

This was Cetera's second song-writing effort for the group, after "Where Do We Go From Here" on Chicago II. According to group biographer, William James Ruhlmann, Cetera wrote the song with Seraphine despite having been "told" that "Where Do We Go From Here" would probably be his last contribution because " 'the group was very happy with the writers they had, thank you, and we didn't need any more contributions.' " According to Cetera's account, Terry Kath said, " 'Don't you ever tell anybody I ever played guitar on this record’ " and Kath played the song with a less than enthusiastic attitude which took the heart out of the song for Cetera.According to a 2016 web review, in "Lowdown" Cetera "ties political issues to emotions", " 'Lowdown' features one of the tightest rhythms ever laid down by Seraphine, Kath and Cetera," and "It’s easily one of the best tracks on Chicago III."A Japanese-language version of the song was recorded in 1972 for the Japan market and released as a single. It would be released digitally on the Japan-only compilation CD The Heart of Chicago 1967-1971 Volume II Special Edition (green cover), which also contains "Questions 67 and 68" sung in Japanese.

The group performed the song live with the Japanese lyrics during tours of Japan in 1972, documented on the Live in Japan album.

N.I.B.

"N.I.B." is a song released by British heavy metal band Black Sabbath. It first appeared as the fourth track on the band's 1970 debut album, Black Sabbath. The lyrics are in the first person from the point of view of Lucifer. Lyricist Geezer Butler has said that "the song was about the devil falling in love and totally changing, becoming a good person.""N.I.B." begins with a bass solo by Geezer Butler, titled "Bassically" on some US releases. It involves the use of the wah-wah pedal and was recorded in one take, as the amp's volume control is audibly turned up before the intro of "N.I.B." begins.

The song's main riff (as well as Osbourne's vocal delivery) have been noted for their Cream-influenced sound — the song has even been referred to as "the raucous defiling of Cream".

Outa-Space

"Outa-Space" is an instrumental recorded by Billy Preston that originally appeared on his 1971 A&M Records-debut album, I Wrote a Simple Song. Preston created the sound of "Outa-Space" by running the sound from a clavinet through a wah wah pedal and then improvising a groove while calling out chord changes to the backing band. He later added organ and hand claps to the track. Preston came up with the title "Outa-Space" due to the instrumental's spacy sound.While he thought it would be a hit, A&M was skeptical and issued it as the B-side of "I Wrote a Simple Song" in December 1971. However, radio DJs began flipping the single and, while "I Wrote a Simple Song" only reached number 77 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, "Outa-Space" peaked at number 2, showing that Preston's feelings about it were correct.

Pebbles, Volume 2

Pebbles, Volume 2 is a compilation album featuring American underground psychedelic and garage rock musical artists from the 1960s. It is the second installment of the Pebbles series and was released on BFD Records in 1979 (see 1979 in music).Musical highlights includes the opening number, "Makin' Deals", by the Satans, which features the lyric, "Can you guess my name?", two years prior to the Rolling Stones on their song, "Sympathy for the Devil", and in a similar fashion to Mick Jagger's snarling vocals. Among the tracks on the album, the Choir's "It's Cold Outside", the Zakary Thaks' "Bad Girl", and the Lyrics' "So What!" are arguably the most known for their additional inclusions on Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968, in 1972. The Electric Prunes' wah-wah pedal advertisement and the Sons of Adam's rendition of Arthur Lee's song, "Feathered Fish" received their first commercially accessible release with the album.In 1992, AIP Records re-released Pebbles, Volume 2 on compact disc. The reissue includes tracks by the Avengers, Satan and the D-Men, Undesyded, the Mark VI, the Quid, which was the only non-American group on the album, and an additional song by the Choir.

Pretending (Eric Clapton song)

"Pretending" is a rock song written and composed by Jerry Lynn Williams. It was released in 1989 on Eric Clapton's Journeyman as the first track of the album. The song was released as the lead single from the album, backed with "Hard Times," and reached #55 on the Billboard Hot 100, making it the album's highest-charting single on that chart. It was also #1 on the Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. In the Netherlands, it reached #3 on the Dutch Tip 40 and #24 on the Dutch Top 40. It became a live favorite.The song begins with a piano introduction. Clapton uses a wah wah pedal on the song. Author Marc Roberty describes the wah-wah solos as being "superlative." Roberty criticizes Steve Ferrone's drumming on the song for being too heavy handed. Allmusic critic Matthew Greenwald praises the song's "great guitar hook" and Clapton's "great vocal and guitar performances" on the song. However, Greenwald believes that the song's arrangement is overdone, particularly the "brassy synthesizers," and feels that the song dated quickly due to its pop music elements.From the CD liner notes on Pretending: "Jimmy Bralower - Drum Programming" Steve Ferrone is not listed as drummer on the song.

Psychedelic soul

Psychedelic soul, sometimes called black rock, is a music genre that emerged in the late 1960s which saw soul musicians embrace elements of psychedelic rock, including its production techniques, instrumentation, effects units (wah-wah pedal, phaser, etc.) and drug influences. It came to prominence in the late 1960s and continued into the 1970s, playing a major role in the development of funk and disco. Pioneering acts included Sly and the Family Stone, Jimi Hendrix, and the Temptations. Mainstream acts that developed a psychedelic sound included the Supremes and Stevie Wonder. Acts that achieved notability with the sound included the Chambers Brothers, the 5th Dimension, Edwin Starr, and George Clinton's Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles.

Surfing with the Alien (instrumental)

"Surfing with the Alien" is the title track from Surfing with the Alien, the second studio album by guitarist Joe Satriani, released in 1987 through Relativity Records.

The song refers to the comic book character, Silver Surfer. The song was considered the 30th greatest guitar solo ever by readers of Guitar World magazine, and is one of Satriani's most prominent shred-style tracks. It is included as downloadable content in the "Guitar Virtuoso Track Pack" for the 2007 music video game, Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock, and a downloadable single for the Rock Band game series.

Satriani made the melody one morning he went to record. He plugged a wah-wah pedal and a Tubedriver into his 100-watt Marshall and he decided to use an Eventide 949s. Then they recorded the song and the solo in about half hour. But the Eventide broke down and they couldn't recreate the original effect. They decided to leave the original version and make another one.

Tales of Brave Ulysses

"Tales of Brave Ulysses" is a song recorded in 1967 by British group Cream. In the UK and US, it was released as the B-side to the "Strange Brew" single in June 1967. In November, the song was included on Cream's second album, Disraeli Gears. The song features one of the earliest uses of a wah-wah pedal, which guitarist Eric Clapton plays throughout the song.

The River (The Tea Party song)

"The River" is a song by Canadian rock band The Tea Party. It was released as a single in Australia and the UK, where it reached #79 in the UK Singles Chart, #99 in Australia, and was a promotional single in Canada and the USA. The music video was shot in Toronto, directed by Floria Sigismondi and features a cameo by Roy Harper."The River" was the band's first single and is a standard three-piece rock composition with a lot of Wah-wah pedal. An acoustic version with tar (lute), santur and drums was recorded in August 1995 at Studio Morin Heights (Morin Heights) for Alhambra but appears as a B-side on the "Temptation" single and the European Triptych Special Tour Edition 2000 album.

Up on Cripple Creek

"Up on Cripple Creek" is the fifth song on The Band's eponymous second album, The Band. It was released as an (edited) single on Capitol 2635 in November 1969 and reached #25 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Up on Cripple Creek" was written by Band guitarist Robbie Robertson, with drummer Levon Helm singing lead vocal.

A 1976 live performance of "Up on Cripple Creek" appears in the Band's concert film The Last Waltz, as well as on the accompanying soundtrack album. In addition, live performances of the song appear on Before the Flood, which records the Band's 1974 tour with Bob Dylan, as well as on the 2001 expanded edition of Rock of Ages, originally released in 1972.

"Up on Cripple Creek" is notable as it is one of the first instances of a Hohner clavinet being played with a wah-wah pedal. The riff can be heard after each chorus of the song. The clavinet, especially in tandem with a wah-wah pedal, was a sound that became famous in the early to mid-1970s, especially in funk music.

The Band performed the song on the Ed Sullivan Show in November 1969.

Wah-wah (music)

Wah-wah (or wa-wa) is an imitative word (or onomatopoeia) for the sound of altering the resonance of musical notes to extend expressiveness, sounding much like a human voice saying the syllable wah. The wah-wah effect is a spectral glide, a "modification of the vowel quality of a tone" (Erickson 1975, p. 72).

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