Wade–Giles

Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.

Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century. Wade-Giles is based on Beijing dialect, whereas Nanking dialect-based romanization systems were in common use until the late 19th century. Both were used in postal romanizations (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been mostly replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system, with exceptions for some proper nouns. Taiwan has kept the Wade–Giles romanization of some geographical names (for example Kaohsiung) and many personal names (for example Chiang Ching-kuo).

Wade–Giles
Wade–GilesWei1 Chai2 Shih4
Pʻin1-yin1
Hanyu PinyinWēi-Zhái Shì Pīnyīn
Alternative Chinese name
Wade–GilesWei1 Tʻo3-ma3 Pʻin1-yin1
Hanyu PinyinWēi Tuǒmǎ Pīnyīn
Second alternative Chinese name
Wade–GilesWei2 Shih4 Pʻin1-yin1
Hanyu PinyinWéi Shì Pīnyīn

History

Wade–Giles was developed by Thomas Francis Wade, a scholar of Chinese and a British ambassador in China who was the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge University. Wade published in 1867 the first textbook on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin in English, Yü-yen Tzŭ-erh Chi (simplified Chinese: 语言自迩集; traditional Chinese: 語言自邇集),[1] which became the basis for the romanization system later known as Wade–Giles. The system, designed to transcribe Chinese terms for Chinese specialists, was further refined in 1892 by Herbert Allen Giles (in A Chinese-English Dictionary), a British diplomat in China and his son, Lionel Giles, a curator at the British Museum.[2]

Taiwan used Wade–Giles for decades as the de facto standard, co-existing with several official romanizations in succession, namely, Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1928), Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (1986), and Tongyòng Pinyin (2000). With the election of the Kuomintang party in Taiwan in 2008, Taiwan officially switched to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn. However, many people in Taiwan, both native and overseas, use or transcribe their legal names in the Wade–Giles system, as well as the other aforementioned systems.

Singapore has also made limited use of Wade–Giles romanization, such as in the romanization of the middle syllable of Lee Hsien Loong's name.

Initials and finals

The tables below show the Wade–Giles representation of each Chinese sound (in bold type),[3] together with the corresponding IPA phonetic symbol (in square brackets), and equivalent representations in Zhùyīn Fúhào (Bōpōmōfō) and Hànyǔ Pīnyīn.

Initials

Bilabial Labiodental Dental/Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Velar
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
ㄇ m
n [n]
ㄋ n
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
ㄅ b
t [t]
ㄉ d
k [k]
ㄍ g
Aspirated [pʰ]
ㄆ p
[tʰ]
ㄊ t
[kʰ]
ㄎ k
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
ㄗ z
ch [ʈʂ]
ㄓ zh
ch [tɕ]
ㄐ j
Aspirated tsʻ [tsʰ]
ㄘ c
chʻ [ʈʂʰ]
ㄔ ch
chʻ [tɕʰ]
ㄑ q
Fricative f [f]
ㄈ f
s [s]
ㄙ s
sh [ʂ]
ㄕ sh
hs [ɕ]
ㄒ x
h [x]
ㄏ h
Liquid l [l]
ㄌ l
j [ɻ~ʐ]
ㄖ r

Instead of ts, tsʻ and s, Wade–Giles writes tz, tzʻ and ss before ŭ (see below).

Finals

Coda
/i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɻ/
Medial ih/ŭ
[ɨ]
U+312D.svg -i
ê/o
[ɤ]
ㄜ e
a
[a]
ㄚ a
ei
[ei]
ㄟ ei
ai
[ai]
ㄞ ai
ou
[ou]
ㄡ ou
ao
[au]
ㄠ ao
ên
[ən]
ㄣ en
an
[an]
ㄢ an
ung
[ʊŋ]
ㄨㄥ ong
êng
[əŋ]
ㄥ eng
ang
[aŋ]
ㄤ ang
êrh
[aɚ̯]
ㄦ er
/j/ i
[i]
ㄧ i
ieh
[je]
ㄧㄝ ie
ia
[ja]
ㄧㄚ ia
iu
[jou]
ㄧㄡ iu
iao
[jau]
ㄧㄠ iao
in
[in]
ㄧㄣ in
ien
[jɛn]
ㄧㄢ ian
iung
[jʊŋ]
ㄩㄥ iong
ing
[iŋ]
ㄧㄥ ing
iang
[jaŋ]
ㄧㄤ iang
/w/ u
[u]
ㄨ u
o/uo
[wo]
ㄛ/ㄨㄛ o/uo
ua
[wa]
ㄨㄚ ua
ui/uei
[wei]
ㄨㄟ ui
uai
[wai]
ㄨㄞ uai
un
[wən]
ㄨㄣ un
uan
[wan]
ㄨㄢ uan
uang
[waŋ]
ㄨㄤ uang
/ɥ/ ü
[y]
ㄩ ü
üeh
[ɥe]
ㄩㄝ üe
ün
[yn]
ㄩㄣ ün
üan
[ɥɛn]
ㄩㄢ üan

Wade–Giles writes -uei after and k, otherwise -ui: kʻuei, kuei, hui, shui, chʻui.

It writes [-ɤ] as -o after , k and h, otherwise as : kʻo, ko, ho, shê, chʻê. When [ɤ] forms a syllable on its own, it is written ê or o depending on the character.

Wade–Giles writes [-wo] as -uo after , k, h and sh, otherwise as -o: kʻuo, kuo, huo, shuo, chʻo.

For -ih and , see below.

Giles's A Chinese-English Dictionary also includes the syllables chio, chʻio, hsio, yo, which are now pronounced like chüeh, chʻüeh, hsüeh, yüeh.

Syllables that begin with a medial

Coda
/i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
Medial /j/ i/yi
[i]
ㄧ yi
yeh
[je]
ㄧㄝ ye
ya
[ja]
ㄧㄚ ya
yai
[jai]
ㄧㄞ yai
yu
[jou]
ㄧㄡ you
yao
[jau]
ㄧㄠ yao
yin
[in]
ㄧㄣ yin
yen
[jɛn]
ㄧㄢ yan
yung
[jʊŋ]
ㄩㄥ yong
ying
[iŋ]
ㄧㄥ ying
yang
[jaŋ]
ㄧㄤ yang
/w/ wu
[u]
ㄨ wu
wo
[wo]
ㄨㄛ wo
wa
[wa]
ㄨㄚ wa
wei
[wei]
ㄨㄟ wei
wai
[wai]
ㄨㄞ wai
wên
[wən]
ㄨㄣ wen
wan
[wan]
ㄨㄢ wan
wêng
[wəŋ]
ㄨㄥ weng
wang
[waŋ]
ㄨㄤ wang
/ɥ/
[y]
ㄩ yu
yüeh
[ɥe]
ㄩㄝ yue
yün
[yn]
ㄩㄣ yun
yüan
[ɥɛn]
ㄩㄢ yuan

Wade–Giles writes the syllable [i] as i or yi depending on the character.

System features

Consonants and initial symbols

A feature of the Wade–Giles system is the representation of the unaspirated-aspirated stop consonant pairs using left apostrophes: p, pʻ, t, tʻ, k, kʻ, ch, chʻ. The use of apostrophes preserves b, d, g, and j for the romanization of Chinese varieties containing voiced consonants, such as Shanghainese (which has a full set of voiced consonants) and Min Nan (Hō-ló-oē) whose century-old Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ, often called Missionary Romanization) is similar to Wade–Giles. POJ, Legge romanization, Simplified Wade, and EFEO Chinese transcription use the letter ⟨h⟩ instead of an apostrophe to indicate aspiration (this is similar to the obsolete IPA convention before the revisions of the 1970s). The convention of an apostrophe or ⟨h⟩ to denote aspiration is also found in romanizations of other Asian languages, such as McCune–Reischauer for Korean and ISO 11940 for Thai.

People unfamiliar with Wade–Giles often ignore the apostrophes, sometimes omitting them when copying texts, unaware that they represent vital information. Hànyǔ Pīnyīn addresses this issue by employing the Latin letters customarily used for voiced stops, unneeded in Mandarin, to represent the unaspirated stops: b, p, d, t, g, k, j, q, zh, ch.

Partly because of the popular omission of the apostrophe, the four sounds represented in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn by j, q, zh, and ch often all become ch, including in many proper names. However, if the apostrophes are kept, the system reveals a symmetry that leaves no overlap:

  • The non-retroflex ch (Pīnyīn j) and chʻ (Pīnyīn q) are always before either ü or i, but never ih.
  • The retroflex ch (Pīnyīn zh) and chʻ (Pīnyīn ch) are always before ih, a, ê, e, o, or u.

Vowels and final symbols

Syllabic consonants

Like Yale and Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, Wade–Giles renders the two types of syllabic consonant (simplified Chinese: 空韵; traditional Chinese: 空韻; Wade–Giles: kʻung1-yün4; Hànyǔ Pīnyīn: kōngyùn) differently:

  • is used after the sibilants written in this position (and this position only) as tz, tzʻ and ss (Pīnyīn z, c and s).
  • -ih is used after the retroflex ch, chʻ, sh, and j (Pīnyīn zh, ch, sh, and r).

These finals are both written as -ih in Tongyòng Pinyin, as -i in Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (hence distinguishable only by the initial from [i] as in li), and as -y in Gwoyeu Romatzyh and Simplified Wade. They are typically omitted in Zhùyīn (Bōpōmōfō).

IPA ʈ͡ʂɻ̩ ʈ͡ʂʰɻ̩ ʂɻ̩ ɻɻ̩ t͡sɹ̩ t͡sʰɹ̩ sɹ̩
Yale jr chr shr r dz tsz sz
MPS II jr chr shr r tz tsz sz
Wade–Giles chih chʻih shih jih tzŭ tzʻŭ ssŭ
Tongyòng Pinyin jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih
Hànyǔ Pīnyīn zhi chi shi ri zi ci si
Gwoyeu Romatzyh jy chy shy ry tzy tsy sy
Simplified Wade chy chhy shy ry tsy tshy sy
Zhùyīn

Vowel o

Final o in Wade–Giles has two pronunciations in modern Mandarin: [wo] and [ɤ].

What is pronounced today as a close-mid back unrounded vowel [ɤ] is written usually as ê, but sometimes as o, depending on historical pronunciation (at the time Wade–Giles was developed). Specifically, after velar initials k, and h (and a historical ng, which had been dropped by the time Wade–Giles was developed), o is used; for example, "哥" is ko1 (Pīnyīn ) and "刻" is kʻo4[4] (Pīnyīn ). By modern Mandarin, o after velars (and what used to be ng) have shifted to [ɤ], thus they are written as ge, ke, he and e in Pīnyīn. When [ɤ] forms a syllable on its own, Wade–Giles writes ê or o depending on the character. In all other circumstances, it writes ê.

What is pronounced today as [wo] is usually written as o in Wade–Giles, except for wo, shuo (e.g. "說" shuo1) and the three syllables of kuo, kʻuo, and huo (as in 過, 霍, etc.), which contrast with ko, kʻo, and ho that correspond to Pīnyīn ge, ke, and he. This is because characters like 羅, 多, etc. (Wade–Giles: lo2, to1; Pīnyīn: luó, duō) did not originally carry the medial [w]. By modern Mandarin, the phonemic distinction between o and -uo/wo has been lost (except in interjections when used alone), and the medial [w] is added in front of -o, creating the modern [wo].

IPA pwo pʰwo mwo fwo two tʰwo nwo lwo kʰɤ ʈ͡ʂwo ʈ͡ʂʰwo ʐwo t͡swo t͡sʰwo swo ɤ wo
Wade–Giles po pʻo mo fo to tʻo no lo ko kʻo ho cho chʻo jo tso tsʻo so o/ê wo
Zhùyīn ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄛ
Pīnyīn bo po mo fo duo tuo nuo luo ge ke he zhuo chuo ruo zuo cuo suo e wo

Note that Zhùyīn and Pīnyīn write [wo] as ㄛ -o after ㄅ b, ㄆ p, ㄇ m and ㄈ f, and as ㄨㄛ -uo after all other initials.

Tones

Tones are indicated in Wade–Giles using superscript numbers (1–4) placed after the syllable. This contrasts with the use of diacritics to represent the tones in Pīnyīn. For example, the Pīnyīn qiàn (fourth tone) has the Wade–Giles equivalent chʻien4.

Tone Sample text

(s; t; lit)

Hanyu pinyin Wade–Giles
1. high ; ; 'mom' ma1
2. rising ; 'hemp'[a] ma2
3. low (dipping) ; 'digit, code'[b] ma3
4. falling ; ; 'scold' ma4
5. neutral[c] ; ; (interrogative) ma ma
  1. ^ Simplified and traditional characters are the same
  2. ^ Simplified and traditional characters are the same
  3. ^ See neutral tone for more.

Punctuation

Wade–Giles uses hyphens to separate all syllables within a word (whereas Pīnyīn separates syllables only in specially defined cases, using hyphens or right apostrophes as appropriate).

If a syllable is not the first in a word, its first letter is not capitalized, even if it is part of a proper noun. The use of apostrophes, hyphens, and capitalization is frequently not observed in place names and personal names. For example, the majority of overseas Taiwanese people write their given names like "Tai Lun" or "Tai-Lun", whereas the Wade–Giles is actually "Tai-lun". (See also Chinese names.)

Comparison with other systems

Pīnyīn

  • Wade–Giles chose the French-like ⟨j⟩ (implying a sound like IPA's [ʒ], as in s in English measure) to represent a Northern Mandarin pronunciation of what is represented as ⟨r⟩ in pinyin (Northern Mandarin [ʐ]/ Southern Mandarin [ɻ]; generally considered allophones).
  • Ü (representing /y/) always has an umlaut above, while pinyin only employs it in the cases of , nüe, , lüe and lüan, while leaving it out after j, q, x and y as a simplification because ⟨u⟩/[u] cannot otherwise appear after those letters. (The vowel ⟨u⟩/[u] can occur in those cases in pinyin where the diaeresis are indicated ⟨ü⟩/[y] or [ɥ]; in which cases it serves to distinguish the front vowel [y] from the back vowel [u]. By contrast it is always present to mark the front vowel in Wade–Giles.) Because (as in "jade") must have an umlaut in Wade–Giles, the umlaut-less yu in Wade–Giles is freed up for what corresponds to you ( "have"/"there is") in Pinyin.
  • The Pīnyīn cluster ⟨-ong⟩ is ⟨-ung⟩ in Wade–Giles, reflecting the pronunciation of [ʊ] as in English book /bʊk/. (Compare kung1-fu to gōngfu as an example.)
  • After a consonant, both Wade–Giles and Pīnyīn use ⟨-iu⟩ and ⟨-un⟩ instead of the complete syllables: ⟨-iou⟩ and ⟨-uên⟩/⟨-uen⟩.

Chart

Vowels a, e, o
IPA a ɔ ɛ ɤ ai ei au ou an ən əŋ ʊŋ
Pinyin a o ê e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
Tongyong Pinyin e e
Wade–Giles eh ê/o ên êng ung êrh
Bopomofo ㄨㄥ
example
Vowels i, u, y
IPA i je jou jɛn in jʊŋ u wo wei wən wəŋ y ɥe ɥɛn yn
Pinyin yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun
Tongyong Pinyin wun wong
Wade–Giles i/yi yeh yu yen yung wên wêng yüeh yüan yün
Bopomofo ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ
example
Non-sibilant consonants
IPA p m fəŋ tjou twei twən tʰɤ ny ly kɤɚ kʰɤ
Pinyin b p m feng diu dui dun te ger ke he
Tongyong Pinyin fong diou duei nyu lyu
Wade–Giles p fêng tiu tui tun tʻê kor kʻo ho
Bopomofo ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ
example 歌兒
Sibilant consonants
IPA tɕjɛn tɕjʊŋ tɕʰin ɕɥɛn ʈʂɤ ʈʂɨ ʈʂʰɤ ʈʂʰɨ ʂɤ ʂɨ ɻɤ ɻɨ tsɤ tswo tsɨ tsʰɤ tsʰɨ
Pinyin jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
Tongyong Pinyin jyong cin syuan jhe jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih
Wade–Giles chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ ssŭ
Bopomofo ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄔㄜ ㄕㄜ ㄖㄜ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄘㄜ ㄙㄜ
example
Tones
IPA ma˥˥ ma˧˥ ma˨˩˦ ma˥˩ ma
Pinyin ma
Tongyong Pinyin ma
Wade–Giles ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma
Bopomofo ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)

Note: In Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, the so-called neutral tone is written leaving the syllable with no diacritic mark at all. In Tongyòng Pinyin, a ring is written over the vowel.

Adaptations

There are several adaptations of Wade–Giles.

Mathews

The Romanization system used in the 1943 edition of Mathews' Chinese–English Dictionary differs from Wade–Giles in the following ways:[5]

  • It uses the right apostrophe: , , , chʼ, tsʼ, tzʼŭ; while Wade–Giles uses the left apostrophe, similar to the aspiration diacritic used in the International Phonetic Alphabet before the revisions of the 1970s: , , , chʻ, tsʻ, tzʻŭ.
  • It consistently uses i for the syllable [i], while Wade–Giles uses i or yi depending on the character.
  • It uses o for the syllable [ɤ], while Wade–Giles uses ê or o depending on the character.
  • It offers the choice between ssŭ and szŭ, while Wade–Giles requires ssŭ.
  • It does not use the spellings chio, chʻio, hsio, yo, replacing them with chüeh, chʻüeh, hsüeh, yüeh in accordance with their modern pronunciations.
  • It uses an underscored 3 to denote a second tone which comes from an original third tone, but only if the following syllable has the neutral tone and the tone sandhi is therefore not predictable: hsiao3•chieh.
  • It denotes the neutral tone by placing a dot (if the neutral tone is compulsory) or a circle (if the neutral tone is optional) before the syllable. The dot or circle replaces the hyphen.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kaske, Elisabeth (2008). The Politics of Language in Chinese Education: 1895 - 1919. BRILL. p. 68. ISBN 90-04-16367-0.
  2. ^ "Chinese Language Transliteration Systems – Wade–Giles". UCLA film and television archive. Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2007. (Web archive)
  3. ^ A Chinese-English Dictionary.
  4. ^ A Chinese-English Dictionary, p. 761.
  5. ^ Mathews' Chinese-English Dictionary.

External links

Cheng (surname)

Cheng can be a transcription of one of several Chinese surnames. Since the syllable Cheng represents different sounds in Hanyu pinyin and the Wade–Giles systems of Chinese romanization, some ambiguity will exist as to which sound is represented by the letters "Cheng" if the romanisation and tone is not known. Also within each system of romanisation, each syllable can represent one of several different characters, as with any Chinese syllable.

In the pinyin system of romanization (usually used in China), the most common surnames romanized as Cheng are 程 and 成.

In names romanized in Wade–Giles (usually used in Taiwan), Cheng is most commonly a transcription of 鄭/郑 (pinyin Zhèng).

Further confusion arises because Wade–Giles often appears without the required apostrophes (which indicates aspiration), and thus some Wade–Giles names which are properly romanized Ch'eng (such as 程 pinyin Chéng) will appear as Cheng.

Chinese dragon

Chinese dragons, also known as East Asian dragons, are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large. Chinese dragons have many animal-like forms such as turtles and fish, but are most commonly depicted as snake-like with four legs. They traditionally symbolize potent and auspicious powers, particularly control over water, rainfall, typhoons, and floods. The dragon is also a symbol of power, strength, and good luck for people who are worthy of it in East Asian culture. During the days of Imperial China, the Emperor of China usually used the dragon as a symbol of his imperial strength and power.

In Chinese culture, excellent and outstanding people are compared to a dragon, while incapable people with no achievements are compared to other, disesteemed creatures, such as a worm. A number of Chinese proverbs and idioms feature references to a dragon, such as "Hoping one's son will become a dragon" (simplified Chinese: 望子成龙; traditional Chinese: 朢子成龍; pinyin: wàng zǐ chéng lóng).

Cyrillization of Chinese

The Cyrillization of Chinese is the transcription of Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet.

The Palladius System is the Russian official standard for transcribing Chinese into Russian, with variants existing for Ukrainian, Belarusian, and other languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet. It was created by Palladius Kafarov, a Russian sinologist and monk who spent thirty years in China in the nineteenth century.

Dahui Zonggao

Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163) (Chinese: 大慧宗杲; Wade–Giles: Ta-hui Tsung-kao; Japanese: Daie Sōkō; Vietnamese: Đại Huệ Tông Cảo) was a 12th-century Chinese Chan (Zen) master. Dahui was a student of Yuanwu Keqin (Wade–Giles: Yuan-wu K'o-ch'in; Japanese: Engo Kokugon) (1063–1135) and was the 12th generation of the Linji school of Chan Buddhism. He was the dominant figure of the Linji school during the Song dynasty.Dahui introduced the practice of kan huatou, or "inspecting the critical phrase", of a kōan story. This method was called the "Chan of gongan (kōan) introspection" (Kanhua Chan). Although he believed that kōans were the best way to achieve enlightenment, he also recognized the teaching of Confucius and Laozi as valuable.

Dahui was a vigorous critic of what he called the "heretical Chan of silent illumination" (mozhao xie Chan) of the Caodong school (Wade–Giles: Ts'ao-tung; Japanese: Sōtō).

Deng (surname)

Deng is an East Asian surname of Chinese origin. It is a transcription of 邓 (simplified Chinese character) or 鄧 (traditional). It is transliterated as Dèng in pinyin and Teng, or Then, in Wade-Giles. In Cantonese, it is Dahng in Yale and Dang6 in Jyutping. In Minnan or Taiwanese, it is Tēng in Pe̍h-ōe-jī. The surname originating from the same Chinese character in Vietnamese is Đặng and it is one of the top ten surnames in Vietnam. The name is transliterated as Deung in Korean but is very rare in Korea. Deng is one of the surnames of the Nanyang, Henan ancestral hall (南陽堂).

In addition to spelling "Deng" used in mainland China, other common Chinese spelling variations include:

Tang - Romanization based on Cantonese spelling common in Hong Kong and Macao

Teng - Romanization based on Wade-Giles transliteration of Mandarin Chinese common spelling in Taiwan

Dibao

Dibao (ti-pao), sometimes called headmen or constables, were local officials in Qing and early Republican China, typically selected from among the prominent landowners. Working in communities of around 100 households, they were charged with overseeing boundaries and land disputes. He notarized all real estate deeds on a commission basis and collected the land tax, as well as overseeing minor punishment such as the cangue.As foreign missionaries and businessmen gained the right to hold property in China from the unequal treaties, the local headmen could be caught between them and their superiors in the Chinese hierarchy, for instance during the construction of the Woosung Road.The dibao administered villages under the ordinary Chinese administrative system. A similar office called the shoubao (shou-pao) was established under the Qing in 1725 to manage the Banner system.The dibao were the successors of the Qin and Han tingzhang, the Sui and Tang lizheng, and Song baozheng. They were occasionally also known as baozheng or as dijiaAfter 1900, they began to be replaced by less autonomous cunzheng, although this transition was not completed until the Republican era.

Diyu

Diyu (Chinese: 地獄) is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology. It is loosely based on a combination of the Tamil concept of Naraka, traditional Chinese beliefs about the afterlife and a variety of popular expansions and reinterpretations of these two traditions.

Diyu is typically depicted as a subterranean maze with various levels and chambers, to which souls are taken after death to atone for the sins they committed when they were alive. The exact number of levels in Diyu and their associated deities differ between Buddhist and Taoist interpretations. Some speak of three to four "courts"; others mention "Ten Courts of Hell", each of which is ruled by a judge (collectively known as the Ten Yama Kings); other Chinese legends speak of the "Eighteen Levels of Hell". Each court deals with a different aspect of atonement and different punishments; most legends claim that sinners are subjected to gruesome tortures until their "deaths", after which they are restored to their original state for the torture to be repeated.

Four Wangs

The Four Wangs (Chinese: 四王; pinyin: Sì Wáng; Wade–Giles: Ssŭ Wang) were four Chinese landscape painters in the 17th century, all called Wang (surname Wang). They are best known for their accomplishments in shan shui painting.

Hongjun Laozu

Hongjun Laozu (simplified Chinese: 鸿钧老祖; traditional Chinese: 鴻鈞老祖; pinyin: Hóngjūn Lǎozǔ; Wade–Giles: Hung-chün Lao-tsu) lit. "Ancestor of the Great Balance" is a deity in Chinese folk religion and Taoism, teacher of the Three Pure Ones in Taoist mythology. Hongjun 鴻鈞 is a graphic variant of hungjun (simplified Chinese: 洪钧; traditional Chinese: 洪鈞; pinyin: hóngjūn; Wade–Giles: hung-chün) "primordial nature", as used in the Chinese idiom Xian you hongjun hou you tian 先有鸿钧后有天 "First there was Nature and then there was Heaven".

Daoists mythologize Hongjun Laozu as the ancestor of xian "trancendents; immortals" (Werner 1922:133-134) and use the honorific name Hongyuan Laozu (simplified Chinese: 鸿元老祖; traditional Chinese: 鴻元老祖; pinyin: Hóngyuán Lǎozǔ; Wade–Giles: Hung-yuan Lao-tsu) "Great Primal Ancestor". In Chinese creation myths, hongyuan 鸿元 or 洪元 is a cosmological term for "the universe before the separation of heaven and earth".

Some myths about the creator Pangu (Werner 1922:128-130) refer to Hongjun Laozu as Xuanxuan Shangren (Chinese: 玄玄上人; pinyin: Xuánxuán Shàngrén; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-hsüan Shang-jen) "Mystery of Mysteries Saint" (a reference to the Daodejing 1, tr. Mair 1990:59, "Mystery or mysteries, the gate of all wonders!").

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (Chinese: 國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was created to replace the complex tonal-spelling Gwoyeu Romatzyh, and to co-exist with the popular Wade–Giles (romanization) and Zhuyin (non-romanization). It is sometimes referred to as Gwoyeu Romatzyh 2 or GR2.

Pixiu

Pixiu (Chinese: 貔貅; pinyin: píxiū; Wade–Giles: P'i-hsiu), is a Chinese mythical hybrid creature, commonly (but incorrectly) referred to in the West by the Greek word "chimera", and considered a powerful protector of practitioners of Feng Shui. It resembles a strong, winged lion. Pixiu is an earth and sea variation, particularly an influential and auspicious creature for wealth. It is said to have a voracious appetite towards only gold, silver and jewels. Therefore, traditionally to the Chinese, Pixiu have always been regarded as auspicious creatures that possessed mystical powers capable of drawing Cai Qi (財氣wealth) from all directions. Because of this, according to Chinese zodiac, it is especially helpful for those who are going through a bad year.

There are two different types of Pixiu, a male and a female. The physical difference is seen by their antlers. The one with two antlers is the female of the species and is called a "Bìxié" and the one with one antler is the male of the species and is called a "Tiān lù".

Bìxié (Chinese: 辟邪; pinyin: bìxié; Wade–Giles: pi-hsieh; lit. "to ward off evil spirits") - The female of the species; wards off evil. It is also believed that Bìxié has the ability of assisting anyone who is suffering from bad Feng Shui that is due to having offended the Grand Duke Jupiter (also called as Tai Sui (太岁)).

Tiān lù (Chinese: 天祿; pinyin: tiānlù; Wade–Giles: t'ien-lu) - The male of the species; in charge of wealth. Tiān lù is said to go out into the world in search of gold and other forms of wealth and, bringing it home to its Master, the Bìxié is then said to hold onto it, guarding it within the home of the Master. Displaying Tiān lù at home or in the office is said to prevent wealth from flowing away.Pixiu crave the smell of gold and silver and like to bring their masters money in their mouth. Statues of this creature are often used to attract wealth in feng shui.Today, Pixiu are also a popular design on jade pendants. It was also featured as a design on the sword of Fa Mulan's character in the 1998 Disney animated feature Mulan.

Romanization of Chinese

The romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization (Mandarin and Cantonese).

There are many uses for Chinese Romanization. Most broadly, it is used to provide a useful way for foreigners who are not skilled at recognizing Chinese script to read and recognize Chinese. It can also be helpful for clarifying pronunciation among Chinese speakers who speak mutually unintelligible Chinese dialects. Romanization facilitates entering characters on standard keyboards such as QWERTY. Chinese dictionaries have complex and competing sorting rules for characters, and romanization systems simplify the problem by listing characters in their Latin form alphabetically.

Rouran Khaganate

The Rouran Khaganate (Chinese: 柔然; pinyin: Róurán), Ruanruan (Chinese: 蠕蠕; pinyin: Ruǎnruǎn/Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Juan-juan/Ju-ju), Ruru (Chinese: 茹茹; pinyin: Rúrú; Wade–Giles: Ju-ju), or Tantan (Chinese: 檀檀; pinyin: Tántán) was the name of a state of uncertain origin (Proto-Mongols, Turkic, or non-Altaic), from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century.

Rouran is a Classical Chinese transcription of the endonym of the confederacy. Ruanruan and Ruru remained in usage despite being derogatory. They derived from orders given by the Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, who waged war against the Rouran and intended to intimidate the confederacy. According to René Grousset, Ju-juan – an alternate Chinese name for the Rouran – was a "disparaging pun" derived from Juan-Juan: "unpleasantly wriggling insects".The power of the Rouran was broken in 555 by an alliance of Göktürks, the states of Northern Qi and Northern Zhou, and tribes in Central Asia.

It is occasionally hypothesized that the Rouran are identical with the Pannonian Avars – also known by names such as Varchonites and "Pseudo Avars" – who invaded the territory of modern Hungary around the 6th century.

Shuilin

Shuilin Township (Chinese: 水林鄉; pinyin: Shuǐlín Xiāng, Wade–Giles: Shueilin) is a rural township in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

Simplified Wade

Simplified Wade, abbreviated SW, is a modification of the Wade–Giles romanization system for writing Standard Mandarin Chinese. It was devised by the Swedish linguist Olov Bertil Anderson (1920–1993), who first published the system in 1969. Simplified Wade uses tonal spelling: in other words it modifies the letters in a syllable in order to indicate tone differences. It is one of only two Mandarin romanization systems that indicate tones in such a way (the other being Gwoyeu Romatzyh). All other systems use diacritics or numbers to indicate tone.

Sz (digraph)

Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.

Taixi, Yunlin

Taixi Township or Taisi Township (Chinese: 臺西鄕; Hanyu Pinyin: Táixī Xiāng; Tongyong Pinyin: Táisi Siang; Wade–Giles: T'ai-hsi Hsiang), is a rural township in Yunlin County, Taiwan, lying to the west of Dongshi, south of Mailiao and north of Sihu, and including a section of coastline on the Taiwan Strait

Tongyong Pinyin

Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: 通用拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: Tōngyòng Pīnyīn; Tongyong Pinyin: Tongyòng Pinyin; literally: 'general-use spelling of sounds') was the official romanization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008. The system was unofficially used between 2000 and 2002, when a new romanization system for Taiwan was being evaluated for adoption. Taiwan's Ministry of Education approved the system in 2002, but its use was optional. Since January 1, 2009, Tongyong Pinyin has no longer been official because of the Ministry of Education's approval of Hanyu Pinyin on September 16, 2008.

Xu (surname)

Xu is either of two surnames of Chinese origin that are homographs when transliterated. Both of these Chinese surnames are transliterated as Xu in pinyin and Hsü in the Wade–Giles system (sometimes spelled without the diaeresis as Hsu).

Chinese: 徐; pinyin: Xú; Wade–Giles: Hsü2

simplified Chinese: 许; traditional Chinese: 許; pinyin: Xǔ; Wade–Giles: Hsü3Interestingly, in Taiwan, 許 is a more common surname ranking 11th with 2.33%, wile 徐 ranked as the 22nd with less than 1% in total population. On the other hand, 徐 was listed as the 11th most common surname within the People's Republic of China, and 許/许 was the 26th most common according to the List of common Chinese surnames.

It is believe that, 徐 is one of the branches of the royal house name Yíng, as well as nobel Manchurian family Šumuru, or Xiongnu of Central Asia.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinWēi-Zhái Shì Pīnyīn
Bopomofoㄨㄟ   ㄓㄞˊ   ㄕˋ
ㄆㄧㄣ   ㄧㄣ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhUei Jair Shyh Pin'in
Wade–GilesWei1 Chai2 Shih4
Pʻin1-yin1
Tongyong PinyinWei Jhái Shìh Pinyin
Yale RomanizationWēi Jái Shr̀ Pīnyīn
MPS2Wēi Jái Shr̀ Pīnyīn
IPA[wéi ʈʂǎi ʂɻ̩̂ pʰín.ín]
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinWēi Tuǒmǎ Pīnyīn
Bopomofoㄨㄟ   ㄊㄨㄛˇ   ㄇㄚˇ
ㄆㄧㄣ   ㄧㄣ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhUei Tuoomaa Pin'in
Wade–GilesWei1 Tʻo3-ma3 Pʻin1-yin1
Tongyong PinyinWei Tuǒmǎ Pinyin
Yale RomanizationWēi Twǒmǎ Pīnyīn
MPS2Wēi Tuǒ-mǎ Pīnyīn
IPA[wéi tʰwǒ.mà pʰín.ín]
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinWéi Shì Pīnyīn
Bopomofoㄨㄟˊ   ㄕˋ
ㄆㄧㄣ   ㄧㄣ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhWei Shyh Pin'in
Wade–GilesWei2 Shih4 Pʻin1-yin1
Tongyong PinyinWéi Shìh Pinyin
Yale RomanizationWéi Shr̀ Pīnyīn
MPS2Wéi Shr̀ Pīnyīn
IPA[wěi ʂɻ̩̂ pʰín.ín]

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